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    Österreichische Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik Multi-centennial climate variability in the Alps based on Instrumental data, Model simulations and Proxy data - ALP-IMP. A research project supported by the European Commission under the Fifth Framework Programme. 2006   electronic URL 
    BibTeX:
    @electronic{ALPIMP,
      author = {Österreichische Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik},
      title = {Multi-centennial climate variability in the Alps based on Instrumental data, Model simulations and Proxy data - ALP-IMP. A research project supported by the European Commission under the Fifth Framework Programme.},
      year = {2006},
      url = {http://www.zamg.ac.at/ALP-IMP/}
    }
    
    Aarts, G., Fieberg, J. & Matthiopoulos, J. Comparative interpretation of count, presence-absence and point methods for species distribution models 2012 Methods in Ecology and Evolution
    Vol. 3(1), pp. 177-187 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Aarts2012,
      author = {Aarts, Geert and Fieberg, John and Matthiopoulos, Jason},
      title = {Comparative interpretation of count, presence-absence and point methods for species distribution models},
      journal = {Methods in Ecology and Evolution},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {3},
      number = {1},
      pages = {177--187},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.2041-210X.2011.00141.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2041-210X.2011.00141.x}
    }
    
    Aavik, T., Edwards, P.J., Holderegger, R., Graf, R. & Billeter, R. Genetic consequences of using seed mixtures in restoration: A case study of a wetland plant Lychnis flos-cuculi 2011 Biological Conservation  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Sowing with seed mixtures is a common practice in restoring species-rich communities in areas with impoverished species pools. The potential genetic consequences of using these mixtures, however, are poorly understood and often not considered in practical restoration. We investigated genetic diversity, inbreeding and genetic structure of samples collected from 26 populations of the common wetland plant species Lychnis flos-cuculi in an agricultural region in Switzerland. Some of these populations were natural, while others had been sown several years ago. This enabled us to compare the genetic composition of populations of indigenous origin with those originating from commercially produced seed mixtures. Gene diversity and allelic richness were similar in natural and sown populations. In contrast, inbreeding coefficients were three times higher in sown than in natural populations. The sown populations were genetically distinct from the native populations. We distinguished two homogeneous gene pools that presumably originated from different source populations used to produce seed mixtures. The use of commercially produced seeds may alter the genetic diversity and structure of plant populations. The observed higher inbreeding coefficients of sown populations could lead to reduced population viability. To restore genetically diverse populations, the seeds for further propagation should be collected from numerous individuals in large and non-isolated populations nearby restored sites. Ex situ stocks for the production of commercial seed mixtures should only be propagated for a few generations to avoid negative effects such as inbreeding or loss of local adaptation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Aavik2011,
      author = {Aavik, Tsipe and Edwards, Peter J. and Holderegger, Rolf and Graf, René and Billeter, Regula},
      title = {Genetic consequences of using seed mixtures in restoration: A case study of a wetland plant Lychnis flos-cuculi},
      journal = {Biological Conservation},
      year = {2011},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2011.11.004},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2011.11.004}
    }
    
    Adams, W.M. & Redford, K.H. Ecosystem Services and Conservation: a Reply to Skroch and López-Hoffman 2010 Conservation Biology
    Vol. 24(1), pp. 328-329 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Adams2010,
      author = {Adams, William M. and Redford, Kent H.},
      title = {Ecosystem Services and Conservation: a Reply to Skroch and López-Hoffman},
      journal = {Conservation Biology},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {24},
      number = {1},
      pages = {328--329},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01417.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01417.x}
    }
    
    Adler, P.B., Seabloom, E.W., Borer, E.T., Hillebrand, H., Hautier, Y., Hector, A., Harpole, W.S., O'Halloran, L.R., Grace, J.B., Anderson, T.M., Bakker, J.D., Biederman, L.A., Brown, C.S., Buckley, Y.M., Calabrese, L.B., Chu, C.-J., Cleland, E.E., Collins, S.L., Cottingham, K.L., Crawley, M.J., Damschen, E.I., Davies, K.F., DeCrappeo, N.M., Fay, P.A., Firn, J., Frater, P., Gasarch, E.I., Gruner, D.S., Hagenah, N., Hille Ris Lambers, J., Humphries, H., Jin, V.L., Kay, A.D., Kirkman, K.P., Klein, J.A., Knops, J.M.H., La Pierre, K.J., Lambrinos, J.G., Li, W., MacDougall, A.S., McCulley, R.L., Melbourne, B.A., Mitchell, C.E., Moore, J.L., Morgan, J.W., Mortensen, B., Orrock, J.L., Prober, S.M., Pyke, D.A., Risch, A.C., Schuetz, M., Smith, M.D., Stevens, C.J., Sullivan, L.L., Wang, G., Wragg, P.D., Wright, J.P. & Yang, L.H. Productivity Is a Poor Predictor of Plant Species Richness 2011 Science
    Vol. 333(6050), pp. 1750-1753 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: For more than 30 years, the relationship between net primary productivity and species richness has generated intense debate in ecology about the processes regulating local diversity. The original view, which is still widely accepted, holds that the relationship is hump-shaped, with richness first rising and then declining with increasing productivity. Although recent meta-analyses questioned the generality of hump-shaped patterns, these syntheses have been criticized for failing to account for methodological differences among studies. We addressed such concerns by conducting standardized sampling in 48 herbaceous-dominated plant communities on five continents. We found no clear relationship between productivity and fine-scale (meters−2) richness within sites, within regions, or across the globe. Ecologists should focus on fresh, mechanistic approaches to understanding the multivariate links between productivity and richness.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Adler2011,
      author = {Adler, Peter B. and Seabloom, E. W. and Borer, E. T. and Hillebrand, H. and Hautier, Y. and Hector, A. and Harpole, W. S. and O'Halloran, L. R. and Grace, J. B. and Anderson, T. M. and Bakker, J. D. and Biederman, L. A. and Brown, C. S. and Buckley, Y. M. and Calabrese, L. B. and Chu, C.-J. and Cleland, E. E. and Collins, S. L. and Cottingham, K. L. and Crawley, M. J. and Damschen, E. I. and Davies, K. F. and DeCrappeo, N. M. and Fay, P. A. and Firn, J. and Frater, P. and Gasarch, E. I. and Gruner, D. S. and Hagenah, N. and Hille Ris Lambers, J. and Humphries, H. and Jin, V. L. and Kay, A. D. and Kirkman, K. P. and Klein, J. A. and Knops, J. M. H. and La Pierre, K. J. and Lambrinos, J. G. and Li, W. and MacDougall, A. S. and McCulley, R. L. and Melbourne, B. A. and Mitchell, C. E. and Moore, J. L. and Morgan, J. W. and Mortensen, B. and Orrock, J. L. and Prober, S. M. and Pyke, D. A. and Risch, A. C. and Schuetz, M. and Smith, M. D. and Stevens, C. J. and Sullivan, L. L. and Wang, G. and Wragg, P. D. and Wright, J. P. and Yang, L. H.},
      title = {Productivity Is a Poor Predictor of Plant Species Richness},
      journal = {Science},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {333},
      number = {6050},
      pages = {1750--1753},
      url = {http://www.sciencemag.org/content/333/6050/1750.abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1204498}
    }
    
    Aerts, R., Nyssen, J. & Haile, M. On the difference between exclosures and enclosures in ecology and the environment 2008 Nature Preceedings, pp. 1-6  article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Aerts2008,
      author = {Aerts, R and Nyssen, J and Haile, M},
      title = {On the difference between exclosures and enclosures in ecology and the environment},
      journal = {Nature Preceedings},
      publisher = {Nature Publishing Group},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {1--6},
      url = {http://precedings.nature.com/documents/2308/version/1}
    }
    
    Alard, D. & Poudevigne, I. Factors controlling plant diversity in a rural landscape: a functional approach 1999 Landscape and Urban Planning
    Vol. 46(1-3), pp. 29-39 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Grassland plant diversity was studied in a rural landscape of the Seine valley, composed of several agro-ecological units resulting from the strong correlation between spatial patterns of habitat and land-use. These units are located along a topographical gradient in the valley. The mosaic of species assemblage in this landscape is considered to result from environmental and agricultural factors acting as an environmental filter on the initial species pool. Changes in pattern, such as those observed in our study site, will inevitably alter this mosaic. Measurements of biodiversity can be used as a tool to link landscape changes to community structure, and thus to assess the impact of agricultural changes. This paper discusses the scale at which biodiversity should be measured for management purposes. Author Keywords: Biodiversity; Landscape patterns; Grasslands; Rural management; Seine valley
    BibTeX:
    @article{Alard1999,
      author = {Alard, D. and Poudevigne, I.},
      title = {Factors controlling plant diversity in a rural landscape: a functional approach},
      journal = {Landscape and Urban Planning},
      publisher = {Elsevier},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {46},
      number = {1-3},
      pages = {29--39},
      url = {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0169204699000444},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-2046(99)00044-4}
    }
    
    Alberti, M., Marzluff, J.M., Shulenberger, E., Bradley, G., Ryan, C. & Zumbrunnen, C. Integrating Humans into Ecology: Opportunities and Challenges for Studying Urban Ecosystems 2003 BioScience
    Vol. 53(12), pp. 1169-1179 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Alberti2003,
      author = {Alberti, Marina and Marzluff, John M. and Shulenberger, Eric and Bradley, Gordon and Ryan, Clare and Zumbrunnen, Craig},
      title = {Integrating Humans into Ecology: Opportunities and Challenges for Studying Urban Ecosystems},
      journal = {BioScience},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {53},
      number = {12},
      pages = {1169--1179},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/1314688},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2003)053[1169:IHIEOA]2.0.CO;2}
    }
    
    Allen, V., Batello, C., Berretta, E., Hodgson, J., Kothmann, M., Li, X., McIvor, J., Milne, J., Morris, C., Peeters, A. & Sanderson, M. An international terminology for grazing lands and grazing animals 2011 Grass and Forage Science
    Vol. 66(1), pp. 2-28 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Allen2011,
      author = {Allen, V.G. and Batello, C. and Berretta, E.J. and Hodgson, J. and Kothmann, M. and Li, X. and McIvor, J. and Milne, J. and Morris, C. and Peeters, A. and Sanderson, M.},
      title = {An international terminology for grazing lands and grazing animals},
      journal = {Grass and Forage Science},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {66},
      number = {1},
      pages = {2--28},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1365-2494.2010.00780.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2494.2010.00780.x}
    }
    
    Allison, C.D. Factors Affecting Forage Intake by Range Ruminants: A Review 1985 Journal of Range Management
    Vol. 38(4), pp. 305-311 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Variation in voluntary forage intake is undoubtedly the major dietary factor determining level and efficiency of ruminant production. This variation is largest and least predictable for grazing ruminants. Range ruminant productivity and efficiency is relatively low due, in part, to intake limitations; therefore, productivity could probably be increased most by increasing intake. Most available literature points to digestibility and rate of ingesta passage and reticulo-rumen fill as primary mechanisms of intake regulation in range ruminants. Body size and physiological status of ruminants appear to have the largest effect of animal-related factors in governing level of voluntary intake. Kind and amount of supplementation, forage availability, and grazing intensity are major management-controlled variables affecting intake by domestic range ruminants.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Allison1985,
      author = {Allison, C D},
      title = {Factors Affecting Forage Intake by Range Ruminants: A Review},
      journal = {Journal of Range Management},
      year = {1985},
      volume = {38},
      number = {4},
      pages = {305--311},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/pss/3899409}
    }
    
    Allison, S.K. You Can’t Not Choose: Embracing the Role of Choice in Ecological Restoration 2007 Restoration Ecology
    Vol. 15(4), pp. 601-605 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Allison2007,
      author = {Allison, Stuart K.},
      title = {You Can’t Not Choose: Embracing the Role of Choice in Ecological Restoration},
      journal = {Restoration Ecology},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {15},
      number = {4},
      pages = {601--605},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1526-100X.2007.00271.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-100X.2007.00271.x}
    }
    
    Allouche, O., Kalyuzhny, M., Moreno-Rueda, G., Pizarro, M. & Kadmon, R. Area-heterogeneity tradeoff and the diversity of ecological communities. 2012 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
    Vol. 109(43), pp. 17495-500 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: For more than 50 y ecologists have believed that spatial heterogeneity in habitat conditions promotes species richness by increasing opportunities for niche partitioning. However, a recent stochastic model combining the main elements of niche theory and island biogeography theory suggests that environmental heterogeneity has a general unimodal rather than a positive effect on species richness. This result was explained by an inherent tradeoff between environmental heterogeneity and the amount of suitable area available for individual species: for a given area, as heterogeneity increases, the amount of effective area available for individual species decreases, thereby reducing population sizes and increasing the likelihood of stochastic extinctions. Here we provide a comprehensive evaluation of this hypothesis. First we analyze an extensive database of breeding bird distribution in Catalonia and show that patterns of species richness, species abundance, and extinction rates are consistent with the predictions of the area-heterogeneity tradeoff and its proposed mechanisms. We then perform a metaanalysis of heterogeneity-diversity relationships in 54 published datasets and show that empirical data better fit the unimodal pattern predicted by the area-heterogeneity tradeoff than the positive pattern predicted by classic niche theory. Simulations in which species may have variable niche widths along a continuous environmental gradient are consistent with all empirical findings. The area-heterogeneity tradeoff brings a unique perspective to current theories of species diversity and has important implications for biodiversity conservation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Allouche2012,
      author = {Allouche, Omri and Kalyuzhny, Michael and Moreno-Rueda, Gregorio and Pizarro, Manuel and Kadmon, Ronen},
      title = {Area-heterogeneity tradeoff and the diversity of ecological communities.},
      journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {109},
      number = {43},
      pages = {17495--500},
      url = {http://www.pnas.org/content/109/43/17495},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1208652109}
    }
    
    Almiron, M.G., Lopes, B., Oliveira, A.L.C., Medeiros, A.C. & Frery, A.C. On the Numerical Accuracy of Spreadsheets 2010 Journal Of Statistical Software
    Vol. 34(4), pp. 1-29 
    article URL 
    Abstract: This paper discusses the numerical precision of five spreadsheets (Calc, Excel, Gnu- meric, NeoOffice and Oleo) running on two hardware platforms (i386 and amd64) and on three operating systems (Windows Vista, Ubuntu Intrepid and Mac OS Leopard). The methodology consists of checking the number of correct significant digits returned by each spreadsheet when computing the sample mean, standard deviation, first-order autocorrelation, F statistic in ANOVA tests, linear and nonlinear regression and distribu- tion functions. A discussion about the algorithms for pseudorandom number generation provided by these platforms is also conducted. We conclude that there is no safe choice among the spreadsheets here assessed: they all fail in nonlinear regression and they are not suited for Monte Carlo experiments.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Almiron2010,
      author = {Almiron, Marcelo G and Lopes, Bruno and Oliveira, Alyson L C and Medeiros, Antonio C and Frery, Alejandro C},
      title = {On the Numerical Accuracy of Spreadsheets},
      journal = {Journal Of Statistical Software},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {34},
      number = {4},
      pages = {1--29},
      url = {http://www.jstatsoft.org/v34/i04}
    }
    
    Amt der Steiermärkischen Landesregierung Klimaregion Schladminger Tauern Landes-Umwelt-Informationssystem der Steiermark  misc URL 
    BibTeX:
    @misc{LUIS,
      author = {Amt der Steiermärkischen Landesregierung},
      title = {Klimaregion Schladminger Tauern},
      booktitle = {Landes-Umwelt-Informationssystem der Steiermark},
      url = {http://www.umwelt.steiermark.at/cms/beitrag/10023680/25206}
    }
    
    Anderson, M.J. Distance-Based Tests for Homogeneity of Multivariate Dispersions 2006 Biometrics
    Vol. 62, pp. 245-253 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The traditional likelihood-based test for differences in multivariate dispersions is known to be sensitive to nonnormality. It is also impossible to use when the number of variables exceeds the number of observations. Many biological and ecological data sets have many variables, are highly skewed, and are zero-inflated. The traditional test and even some more robust alternatives are also unreasonable in many contexts where measures of dispersion based on a non-Euclidean dissimilarity would be more appropriate. Distance-based tests of homogeneity of multivariate dispersions, which can be based on any dissimilarity measure of choice, are proposed here. They rely on the rotational invariance of either the multivariate centroid or the spatial median to obtain measures of spread using principal coordinate axes. The tests are straightforward multivariate extensions of Levene’s test, with P-values obtained either using the traditional F-distribution or using permutation of either least-squares or LAD residuals. Examples illustrate the utility of the approach, including the analysis of stabilizing selection in sparrows, biodiversity of New Zealand fish assemblages, and the response of Indonesian reef corals to an El Nino. Monte Carlo simulations from then real data sets show that the distance-based tests are robust and powerful for relevant alternative hypotheses of real differences in spread.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Anderson2006b,
      author = {Anderson, Marti J.},
      title = {Distance-Based Tests for Homogeneity of Multivariate Dispersions},
      journal = {Biometrics},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {62},
      pages = {245--253},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0420.2005.00440.x}
    }
    
    Anderson, M.J. A new method for non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance 2001 Austral Ecology
    Vol. 26(1), pp. 32-46 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Hypothesis-testing methods for multivariate data are needed to make rigorous probability statements about the effects of factors and their interactions in experiments. Analysis of variance is particularly powerful for the analysis of univariate data. The traditional multivariate analogues, however, are too stringent in their assumptions for most ecological multivariate data sets. Non-parametric methods, based on permutation tests, are preferable. This paper describes a new non-parametric method for multivariate analysis of variance, after McArdle and Anderson (in press). It is given here, with several applications in ecology, to provide an alternative and perhaps more intuitive formulation for ANOVA (based on sums of squared distances) to complement the description provided by McArdle and Anderson (in press) for the analysis of any linear model. It is an improvement on previous non-parametric methods because it allows a direct additive partitioning of variation for complex models. It does this while maintaining the ¬‚exibility and lack of formal assumptions of other non-parametric methods. The test-statistic is a multivariate analogue to Fisher’s F-ratio and is calculated directly from any symmetric distance or dissimilarity matrix. P-values are then obtained using permutations. Some examples of the method are given for tests involving several factors, including factorial and hierarchical (nested) designs and tests of interactions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Anderson2001,
      author = {Anderson, Marti J.},
      title = {A new method for non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance},
      journal = {Austral Ecology},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {26},
      number = {1},
      pages = {32--46},
      url = {http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/links/doi/10.1046/j.1442-9993.2001.01070.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1442-9993.2001.01070.x}
    }
    
    Anderson, M.J., Crist, T.O., Chase, J.M., Vellend, M., Inouye, B.D., Freestone, A.L., Sanders, N.J., Cornell, H.V., Comita, L.S., Davies, K.F., Harrison, S.P., Kraft, N.J.B., Stegen, J.C. & Swenson, N.G. Navigating the multiple meanings of $ diversity: a roadmap for the practicing ecologist 2010 Ecology Letters
    Vol. 14, pp. 19-28 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: A recent increase in studies of b diversity has yielded a confusing array of concepts, measures and methods. Here, we provide a roadmap of the most widely used and ecologically relevant approaches for analysis through a series of mission statements. We distinguish two types of beta diversity: directional turnover along a gradient vs. non- directional variation. Different measures emphasize different properties of ecological data. Such properties include the degree of emphasis on presence ⁄ absence vs. relative abundance information and the inclusion vs. exclusion of joint absences. Judicious use of multiple measures in concert can uncover the underlying nature of patterns in b diversity for a given dataset. A case study of Indonesian coral assemblages shows the utility of a multi-faceted approach. We advocate careful consideration of relevant questions, matched by appropriate analyses. The rigorous application of null models will also help to reveal potential processes driving observed patterns in beta diversity.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Anderson2010,
      author = {Anderson, Marti J. and Crist, Thomas O. and Chase, Jonathan M. and Vellend, Mark and Inouye, Brian D. and Freestone, Amy L. and Sanders, Nathan J. and Cornell, Howard V. and Comita, Liza S. and Davies, Kendi F. and Harrison, Susan P. and Kraft, Nathan J. B. and Stegen, James C. and Swenson, Nathan G.},
      title = {Navigating the multiple meanings of $ diversity: a roadmap for the practicing ecologist},
      journal = {Ecology Letters},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {14},
      pages = {19--28},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2010.01552.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2010.01552.x}
    }
    
    Anderson, M.J., Ellingsen, K.E. & McArdle, B.H. Multivariate dispersion as a measure of beta diversity 2006 Ecology Letters
    Vol. 9, pp. 683-693 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Beta diversity can be defined as the variability in species composition among sampling units for a given area. We propose that it can be measured as the average dissimilarity from individual observation units to their group centroid in multivariate space, using an appropriate dissimilarity measure. Differences in beta diversity among different areas or groups of samples can be tested using this approach. The choice of transformation and dissimilarity measure has important consequences for interpreting results. For kelp holdfast assemblages from New Zealand, variation in species composition was greater in smaller holdfasts, while variation in relative abundances was greater in larger holdasts. Variation in community structure of Norwegian continental shelf macrobenthic fauna increased with increases in environmental heterogeneity, regardless of the measure used. We propose a new dissimilarity measure which allows the relative weight placed on changes in composition vs. abundance to be specified explicitly.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Anderson2006a,
      author = {Anderson, Marti J. and Ellingsen, Kari E and McArdle, Brian H},
      title = {Multivariate dispersion as a measure of beta diversity},
      journal = {Ecology Letters},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {9},
      pages = {683--693},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2006.00926.x}
    }
    
    Anderson, M.J. & Millar, R.B. Spatial variation and effects of habitat on temperate reef fish assemblages in northeastern New Zealand 2004 Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology
    Vol. 305, pp. 191-221 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Reef-associated fishes can respond to changes in habitat structure and the nature of their response can change with different spatial scales of observation. A structured hierarchical mensurative sampling design was used to sample temperate reef fish assemblages in northeastern New Zealand at several spatial scales over 2 years. The three spatial scales examined were tens of meters (transects), hundreds to thousands of meters (sites) and hundreds of kilometers (locations). We tested the hypothesis that fish assemblages differed between kelp forest habitat (relatively dense stands of the kelp, Ecklonia radiata (C. Agardh) J. Agardh, median depth=13.5 m) and barrens habitat (rocky reef dominated by turfing and encrusting red algae and the grazing urchin, Evechinus chloroticus (Valenciennes), median depth=6.7 m). Recently developed multivariate techniques were used to test for and quantify multivariate variation at different spatial scales. There were significant effects of habitat on the spatial distribution of fish assemblages, characterised by greater abundances or frequencies of Parika scaber, Chromis dispilus, Trachurus novaezelandiae, Nemadactylus douglasii, Bodianus unimaculatus, Odax pullus and Pseudolabrus miles in kelp forest habitat, and greater abundances or frequencies of Notolabrus celidotus, Notolabrus fucicola, Girella tricuspidata, Coris sandageri, Chironemus marmoratus, Parma alboscapularis, Scorpis violaceus and Kyphosus sydneyanus in barrens habitat. Some of the more common species, including Upeneichthys lineatus, Scorpis lineolatus and Cheilodactylus spectabilis showed no strong consistent effects of these two differing habitats on their distributions. There was, however, a significant Habitat-Locations interaction: effects of habitat did not occur at all locations. Variability was highest at the scale of individual transects and variability from site to site and from location to location was comparable. Spatial variation was large compared to inter-annual variation, which was minimal, and spatial patterns wereconsistent in the 2 years examined. Further experiments, including manipulations, are required to understand what mechanisms and processes might be driving these patterns. This study, coupled with results from previous studies, suggests that there may be a dynamic inter-play between effects of habitat on fish and effects of fish on biogenic habitat, such as kelp forests.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Anderson2004,
      author = {Anderson, Marti J. and Millar, Russell B},
      title = {Spatial variation and effects of habitat on temperate reef fish assemblages in northeastern New Zealand},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {305},
      pages = {191--221},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.embe.2003.12.011}
    }
    
    Andrew, M.E., Nelson, T.A., Wulder, M.A., Hobart, G.W., Coops, N.C. & Farmer, C.J.Q. Ecosystem classifications based on summer and winter conditions. 2012 Environmental monitoring and assessment  article URL 
    Abstract: Ecosystem classifications map an area into relatively homogenous units for environmental research, monitoring, and management. However, their effectiveness is rarely tested. Here, three classifications are (1) defined and characterized for Canada along summertime productivity (moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation) and wintertime snow conditions (special sensor microwave/imager snow water equivalent), independently and in combination, and (2) comparatively evaluated to determine the ability of each classification to represent the spatial and environmental patterns of alternative schemes, including the Canadian ecozone framework. All classifications depicted similar patterns across Canada, but detailed class distributions differed. Class spatial characteristics varied with environmental conditions within classifications, but were comparable between classifications. There was moderate correspondence between classifications. The strongest association was between productivity classes and ecozones. The classification along both productivity and snow balanced these two sets of variables, yielding intermediate levels of association in all pairwise comparisons. Despite relatively low spatial agreement between classifications, they successfully captured patterns of the environmental conditions underlying alternate schemes (e.g., snow classes explained variation in productivity and vice versa). The performance of ecosystem classifications and the relevance of their input variables depend on the environmental patterns and processes used for applications and evaluation. Productivity or snow regimes, as constructed here, may be desirable when summarizing patterns controlled by summer- or wintertime conditions, respectively, or of climate change responses. General purpose ecosystem classifications should include both sets of drivers. Classifications should be carefully, quantitatively, and comparatively evaluated relative to a particular application prior to their implementation as monitoring and assessment frameworks.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Andrew2012,
      author = {Andrew, Margaret E and Nelson, Trisalyn A and Wulder, Michael A and Hobart, George W and Coops, Nicholas C and Farmer, Carson J Q},
      title = {Ecosystem classifications based on summer and winter conditions.},
      journal = {Environmental monitoring and assessment},
      year = {2012},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/q9gnq10vp35m34r2/}
    }
    
    Animut, G. & Goetsch, A. Co-grazing of sheep and goats: Benefits and constraints 2008 Small Ruminant Research
    Vol. 77(2-3), pp. 127-145 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Animut2008,
      author = {Animut, G and Goetsch, A},
      title = {Co-grazing of sheep and goats: Benefits and constraints},
      journal = {Small Ruminant Research},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {77},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {127--145},
      url = {http://www.smallruminantresearch.com/article/S0921-4488(08)00070-9/abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2008.03.012}
    }
    
    Animut, G., Goetsch, A., Aiken, G., Puchala, R., Detweiler, G., Krehbiel, C., Merkel, R., Sahlu, T., Dawson, L. & Johnson, Z. Grazing behavior and energy expenditure by sheep and goats co-grazing grass/forb pastures at three stocking rates 2005 Small Ruminant Research
    Vol. 59(2-3), pp. 191-201 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: A study was conducted to assess effects of stocking rate (SR) on grazing behavior and energy expenditure (EE) by growing sheep and goat wethers co-grazing grass/forb pastures. Grazing was for 16-week periods in 2002 and 2003. Pastures consisted of various grasses, primarily bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) and johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), and forbs (e.g., ragweed; Ambrosia spp.). Sheep (Khatadin) and goats (>=75% Boer) averaged 210.7 and 210.5kg initial BW, respectively, and were 4-5 months of age when grazing began. Stocking rates were four (SR4), six (SR6), and eight (SR8) animals per 0.4-ha pasture, with equal numbers of sheep and goats. The nine pastures (three/treatment) were divided into four paddocks that were rotationally grazed in 2-week periods. In weeks 3, 8, and 13 of both years, EE was determined on one goat and one sheep in each pasture via heart rate. In the same weeks, behavioral observations (position and activity) were made every 30min of 13.5h of daylight on two goats and two sheep in each pasture. Grazing behavior using IGER Grazing Behavior Monitoring System units was also measured over 24-h periods on animals used for EE measurement. Based on visual observations, grazing (52.7, 57.1, and 61.4 and standing time (61.1, 66.3, and 69.8 increased and idle time in daylight (24.2, 21.1, and 15.9% for SR4, SR6, and SR8, respectively) decreased linearly (P<0.05) as SR increased. Species interacted (P<0.05) with year in daylight time spent standing and ruminating. Grazing time during daylight was similar between species (56.1 and 58.0% for sheep and goats, respectively), although idle time was greater (P<0.05) for goats (23.6% versus 17.2 S.E.=1.41). Time spent ruminating in daylight was similar among SR but was greater for sheep in year 2 but not year 1 (year 1, 22.3% versus 19.0 year 2, 27.8% versus 15.1% for sheep and goats, respectively; S.E.=1.44). Based on the IGER units, the number of steps increased linearly (P<0.05) with increasing SR (2279, 2707, and 2788 for SR4, SR6, and SR8, respectively (S.E.=96.4)), but was similar for the two species. As SR increased, time spent eating increased (7.4, 8.4, and 9.6h) and time spent lying (11.0, 10.2, and 8.9h), ruminating (7.9, 7.7, and 6.8h), and idle (8.6, 8.0, and 7.6h for SR4, SR6, and SR8, respectively) decreased (P<0.05). Goats spent less time eating (1.1h) and more time idle (0.7h) than did sheep (P<0.05). SR, species, and year interacted (P<0.05) in EE of wethers (year 1, sheep: 510, 569, and 572kJ/kg BW0.75; year 2, sheep: 572, 597, and 648kJ/kg BW0.75; year 1, goat: 524, 524, and 640kJ/kg BW0.75; year 2, goat: 499, 496, and 551kJ/kg BW0.75 for SR4, SR6, and SR8, respectively; S.E.=17.0). In summary, influences of SR on grazing time and EE can vary with grazing season. With forage conditions of this study, SR had similar effects on grazing behavior of sheep and goats when co-grazing. Effects of SR on EE may contribute to impact on ADG by small ruminants
    BibTeX:
    @article{Animut2005,
      author = {Animut, G and Goetsch, A and Aiken, G and Puchala, R and Detweiler, G and Krehbiel, C and Merkel, R and Sahlu, T and Dawson, L and Johnson, Z},
      title = {Grazing behavior and energy expenditure by sheep and goats co-grazing grass/forb pastures at three stocking rates},
      journal = {Small Ruminant Research},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {59},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {191--201},
      url = {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0921448805001574},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2005.05.014}
    }
    
    Antrop, M. Why landscapes of the past are important for the future 2005 Landscape and Urban Planning
    Vol. 70(1-2), pp. 21-34 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Landscapes change because they are the expression of the dynamic interaction between natural and cultural forces in the environment. Cultural landscapes are the result of consecutive reorganization of the land in order to adapt its use and spatial structure better to the changing societal demands. Particularly in Europe, history has recorded many successive and even devastating landscape changes, which have left barely any relics today. Today, the changes are seen as a menace, as a negative evolution because they cause a loss of diversity, coherence and identity, which were characteristic for the traditional cultural landscapes that are rapidly vanishing. This growing concern is also expressed in the European Landscape Convention, which will be used as a start for the analysis in this article. Three periods of landscape dynamics are considered: the traditional landscapes before the important changes that started in the 18th century, the landscapes of the revolutions age of the 19th to 20th century, and the post-modern new landscapes. The combined effect of the driving forces such as accessibility, urbanization, globalization and the impact of calamities have been different in each of the periods and affected the nature and pace of the changes as well as the perception people have had about the landscape. Values change accordingly and so does the way of using and shaping the landscape. It is argued that this changing perception also influences what kind and aspects of landscapes are studied, protected and managed. Diversity and identity of cultural landscapes are central in the discussion. It is shown that coherence between small composing elements in a broader spatial context is important for the legibility of the landscape and that the ability to tell the (his)story of a place strongly enhances the identity and the overall value. This offers criteria for inventorying and assessing landscapes, which is needed to define future management and development. Although the general trends of future development of the European landscapes are rather well known, planning and managing future landscape remains difficult and extremely uncertain. The processes and management in past traditional landscapes and the manifold relations people have towards the perceivable environment and the symbolic meaning it generates, offer valuable knowledge for more sustainable planning and management for future landscapes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Antrop2005,
      author = {Antrop, Marc},
      title = {Why landscapes of the past are important for the future},
      journal = {Landscape and Urban Planning},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {70},
      number = {1-2},
      pages = {21--34},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2003.10.002},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2003.10.002}
    }
    
    Antrop, M. Changing patterns in the urbanized countryside of Western Europe 2000 Landscape Ecology
    Vol. 15(3), pp. 257-270 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Urbanization refers to the complex interaction of different processes which transform landscapes formed by rural life styles into urban like ones. Urbanization causes profound changes in the ecological functioning of the landscape and gradually results in a changing spatial structure, i.e. forms new landscape patterns. The existing cities and urban network form the framework for this change, which is affecting increasingly larger areas in the countryside. Urbanization is mainly studied from social and economical viewpoints. Urban planners think about optimization of the land use and about aesthetics when reshaping the environment. Landscape ecology is lacking in urban planning because of different goals and concepts, but mostly because of missing significant information about these highly dynamical landscapes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Antrop2000,
      author = {Antrop, Marc},
      title = {Changing patterns in the urbanized countryside of Western Europe},
      journal = {Landscape Ecology},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {15},
      number = {3},
      pages = {257--270},
      url = {http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/klu/land/2000/00000015/00000003/00248644}
    }
    
    Antrop, M., Mander, Marja, R., Roosaare, J. & Uuemaa, E. Landscape Metrics and Indices: An Overview of Their Use in Landscape Research 2009 Living Reviews in Landscape Research
    Vol. 3(1), pp. 28pp. 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The aim of this overview paper is to analyze the use of various landscape metrics and landscape indices for the characterization of landscape structure and various processes at both landscape and ecosystem level. We analyzed the appearance of the terms landscape metrics/indexes/indices in combination with seven main categories in the field of landscape ecology [1) use/selection and misuse of metrics, 2) biodiversity and habitat analysis; 3) water quality; 4) evaluation of the landscape pattern and its change; 5) urban landscape pattern, road network; 6) aesthetics of landscape; 7) management, planning and monitoring] in the titles, abstracts and/or key words of research papers published in international peer-reviewed scientific journals indexed by the Institute of Science Information (ISI) Web of Science (WoS) from 1994 to October 2008. Most of the landscape metrics and indices are used concerning biodiversity and habitat analysis, and also the evaluation of landscape pattern and its change (up to 25 articles per year). There are only a few articles on the relationships of landscape metrics/indices/indexes to social aspects and landscape perception.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Antrop2009,
      author = {Antrop, Marc and Mander, Ülo and Marja, Riho and Roosaare, Jüri and Uuemaa, Evelin},
      title = {Landscape Metrics and Indices: An Overview of Their Use in Landscape Research},
      journal = {Living Reviews in Landscape Research},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {3},
      number = {1},
      pages = {28pp.},
      url = {http://www.livingreviews.org/lrlr-2009-1}
    }
    
    de Aranzabal, I., Schmitz, M. A. & Pineda, F. Integrating Landscape Analysis and Planning: A Multi-Scale Approach for Oriented Management of Tourist Recreation 2009 Environmental Management
    Vol. 44(5), pp. 938-951 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Abstract Tourism and landscape are interdependent concepts. Nature- and culture-based tourism are now quite well developed activities and can constitute an excellent way of exploiting the natural resources of certain areas, and should therefore be considered as key objectives in landscape planning and management in a growing number of countries. All of this calls for careful evaluation of the effects of tourism on the territory. This article focuses on an integrated spatial method for landscape analysis aimed at quantifying the relationship between preferences of visitors and landscape features. The spatial expression of the model relating types of leisure and recreational preferences to the potential capacity of the landscape to meet them involves a set of maps showing degrees of potential visitor satisfaction. The method constitutes a useful tool for the design of tourism planning and management strategies, with landscape conservation as a reference.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Aranzabal2009,
      author = {de Aranzabal, Itziar and Schmitz, María and Pineda, Francisco},
      title = {Integrating Landscape Analysis and Planning: A Multi-Scale Approach for Oriented Management of Tourist Recreation},
      journal = {Environmental Management},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {44},
      number = {5},
      pages = {938--951},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-009-9371-z},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-009-9371-z}
    }
    
    Arnold, G.W. The effect of the quantity and quality of pasture available to sheep on their grazing behaviour 1960 Australian Journal of Agricultural Research
    Vol. 11(6), pp. 1034-1043 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: During the spring of 1969 four originally similar plots of a Phalaris tuberosa subterranean clover pasture were grazed at different stocking levels to produce a range in levels of pasture availability. The plots were subsequently grazed at 12, 16, 20, and 24 sheep per acre in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. On these pastures, as the amount of pasture available decreased, there was a significant increase both in the nitrogen content of available material and in the diet selected by oesophageal-fistulated sheep grazing them. These differences in the quantity and quality of available pasture produced significant changes in the grazing behaviour of sheep. Grazing time showed a linear increase with decreasing pasture availability, but the rate of increase in grazing time was insufficient to maintain liveweight. Ruminating time was significantly reduced as pasture availability declined. There were considerable differences between sheep in their ability to increase their grazing times as pasture availability decreased. These differences could be of considerable practical implication.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Arnold,
      author = {Arnold, G. W.},
      title = {The effect of the quantity and quality of pasture available to sheep on their grazing behaviour},
      journal = {Australian Journal of Agricultural Research},
      year = {1960},
      volume = {11},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1034--1043},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/AR9601034}
    }
    
    Arnold, J.S., Koro-Ljungberg, M. & Bartels, W.-L. Power and Conflict in Adaptive Management: Analyzing the Discourse of Riparian Management on Public Lands 2012 Ecology and Society
    Vol. 17(1), pp. art19 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Arnold2012,
      author = {Arnold, Jennifer S. and Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka and Bartels, Wendy-Lin},
      title = {Power and Conflict in Adaptive Management: Analyzing the Discourse of Riparian Management on Public Lands},
      journal = {Ecology and Society},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {17},
      number = {1},
      pages = {art19},
      url = {http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol17/iss1/art19/},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.5751/ES-04636-170119}
    }
    
    Arnold, T. & Emerson, J. Nonparametric Goodness-of-Fit Tests for Discrete Null Distributions 2011 The R Journal
    Vol. 3(2), pp. 34-39 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Arnold2011,
      author = {Arnold, T.B. and Emerson, J.W.},
      title = {Nonparametric Goodness-of-Fit Tests for Discrete Null Distributions},
      journal = {The R Journal},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {3},
      number = {2},
      pages = {34--39},
      url = {http://www.warwick.ac.uk/statsdept/useR-2011/abstracts/310311-arnoldtaylor.pdf}
    }
    
    Atauri, J.A. & de Lucio, J.V. The role of landscape structure in species richness distribution of birds, amphibians, reptiles and lepidopterans in Mediterranean landscapes 2001 Landscape Ecology
    Vol. 16(2), pp. 147-159 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The parameters referring to landscape structure are essential in any evaluation for conservation because of the relationship that exists between the landscape structure and the ecological processes. This paper presents a study of the relationships between landscape structure and species diversity distribution (estimated in terms of richness of birds, amphibians, reptiles and butterflies) in the region of Madrid, Spain. The results show that the response of species richness to landscape heterogeneity varies depending on the group of species considered. For birds and lepidopterans, the most important factor affecting the distribution of richness of species is landscape heterogeneity, while other factors, such as the specific composition of land use, play a secondary role at this scale. On the other hand, richness of amphibians and reptiles is more closely related to the abundance of certain land-use types. The study highlights the importance of heterogeneity in Mediterranean landscapes as a criterion for landscape planning and for definition of management directives in order to maintain biodiversity.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Atauri2001,
      author = {Atauri, José A and de Lucio, José V},
      title = {The role of landscape structure in species richness distribution of birds, amphibians, reptiles and lepidopterans in Mediterranean landscapes},
      journal = {Landscape Ecology},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {16},
      number = {2},
      pages = {147--159},
      url = {http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/klu/land/2001/00000016/00000002/00281488}
    }
    
    Atzmanstorfer, P. Geotopkartierung des Inneren Salzkammergutes: Modell einer GIV-unterstützten Umsetzung der topologischen Arbeitsweise der Leipzig-Dresdner Schule der Landschaftsökologie 1997 School: Paris Lodron Universität Salzburg  mastersthesis  
    BibTeX:
    @mastersthesis{Atzmanstorfer1997,
      author = {Atzmanstorfer, Peter},
      title = {Geotopkartierung des Inneren Salzkammergutes: Modell einer GIV-unterstützten Umsetzung der topologischen Arbeitsweise der Leipzig-Dresdner Schule der Landschaftsökologie},
      school = {Paris Lodron Universität Salzburg},
      year = {1997}
    }
    
    Augustine, D.J., Booth, D.T., Cox, S.E. & Derner, J.D. Grazing Intensity and Spatial Heterogeneity in Bare Soil in a Grazing-Resistant Grassland 2012 Rangeland Ecology & Management
    Vol. 65(1), pp. 39-46 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: We used very large scale aerial (VLSA) photography to quantify spatial patterns in bare soil in the northeastern Colorado shortgrass steppe. Using three pairs of pastures stocked at moderate (0.6 animal unit months [AUM] · ha−1) versus very heavy (1.2 AUM · ha−1) rates, we detected greater bare soil under very heavy (mean = 22.5 versus moderate stocking (mean = 13.5 P = 0.053) and a lower coefficient of variation across pastures under very heavy (0.48) versus moderate stocking (0.75; P = 0.032). Bare soil exhibited significant positive spatial autocorrelation across distances of 60–120 m under moderate stocking (Moran's I = 0.14), while patchiness at this scale was eliminated under very heavy grazing (I = −0.05). Across distances of 120–480 m, we observed no spatial autocorrelation with either stocking rate. Spatial autocorrelation was greatest at a separation distance of 2 m (I = 0.48–0.58) but was unaffected by stocking rate at this scale. Thus, very heavy grazing did not increase spatial autocorrelation in bare soil across scales of 2–480 m. Means and variability in the distribution of bare soil were not influenced by ecological site. Bare soil increased primarily at the scale of individual plant clusters through both increases in the density of small (2–20 cm) bare patch intercepts and increases in the frequency of bare patch intercepts of 20–60 cm (rather than < 20 cm). Our approach demonstrates the utility of VLSA for analyzing interactions between grazing and other landscape features and highlights the importance of spatially explicit sampling across broad scales (pastures) while testing for potential shifts in patchiness of bare soil at the scale of plant interspaces.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Augustine2012,
      author = {Augustine, David J. and Booth, D. Terrance and Cox, Samuel E. and Derner, Justin D.},
      title = {Grazing Intensity and Spatial Heterogeneity in Bare Soil in a Grazing-Resistant Grassland},
      journal = {Rangeland Ecology & Management},
      publisher = {Society for Range Management},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {65},
      number = {1},
      pages = {39--46},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2111/REM-D-11-00005.1},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2111/REM-D-11-00005.1}
    }
    
    Austin, M. & Smith, T. A new model for the continuum concept 1989 Vegetatio
    Vol. 83, pp. 35-47 
    article  
    Abstract: A reformulation of the continuum concept is presented after considering the implications of the community/continuum controversy and current niche theory. Community is a spatial concept dependent on landscape pattern while the continuum is an environmental concept referring to an abstract space. When applying niche theory to plants, the mechanisms of competition are ill-defined and the assumption of bell-shaped response curves for species unrealistic. Eight testable propositions on the pattern of response of vegetation to environmental gradients are presented 1. Environmental gradients are of two types. a) resource gradients or b) direct physiological gradients. 2. The fundamental niche response of species to resource gradients is a series of similar nested response curves. 3. The fundamental niche response of species to direct gradients is a series of separate, independent, overlapping response curves. 4. Species fundamental response curves are such that they have a relative performance advantage in some part of the environmental space. 5. The shape of the realized niche is variable even bimodal but predictable from the fundamental response given the other species present. Propositions 6-8 describe the response shapes of emergent community properties to environmental gradient; species richness is bimodal, dominance trimodal and standing crop unimodal. Detailed comparisons of these propositions are made with the alternative theories of Ellenberg, Gauch and Whittaker, Grime, and Tilman. These theories are incomplete lacking several generally accepted properties of plants and vegetation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Austin1989,
      author = {Austin, M.P. and Smith, T.M.},
      title = {A new model for the continuum concept},
      journal = {Vegetatio},
      year = {1989},
      volume = {83},
      pages = {35--47}
    }
    
    Austin, S.H., Robinson, T.R., Robinson, W.D. & Ricklefs, R.E. Potential biases in estimating the rate parameter of sigmoid growth functions 2010 Methods in Ecology and Evolution, pp. no-no  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Austin2010,
      author = {Austin, Suzanne H. and Robinson, Tara Rodden and Robinson, W. Douglas and Ricklefs, Robert E.},
      title = {Potential biases in estimating the rate parameter of sigmoid growth functions},
      journal = {Methods in Ecology and Evolution},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {no--no},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.2041-210X.2010.00055.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2041-210X.2010.00055.x}
    }
    
    Baasch, A., Tischew, S. & Bruelheide, H. Twelve years of succession on sandy substrates in a post-mining landscape: a Markov chain analysis 2010 Ecological Applications  article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Baasch2010,
      author = {Baasch, A and Tischew, S and Bruelheide, H},
      title = {Twelve years of succession on sandy substrates in a post-mining landscape: a Markov chain analysis},
      journal = {Ecological Applications},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/09-1241.1}
    }
    
    Bach, E.M., Baer, S.G. & Six, J. Plant and Soil Responses to High and Low Diversity Grassland Restoration Practices. 2011 Environmental management, pp. 1-13  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The USDA's Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) has predominantly used only a few species of dominant prairie grasses (CP2 practice) to reduce soil erosion, but recently has offered a higher diversity planting practice (CP25) to increase grassland habitat quality. We quantified plant community composition in CP25 and CP2 plantings restored for 4 or 8 years and compared belowground properties and processes among restorations and continuously cultivated soils in southeastern Nebraska, USA. Relative to cultivated soils, restoration increased soil microbial biomass (P = 0.033), specifically fungi (P < 0.001), and restored soils exhibited higher rates of carbon (C) mineralization (P = 0.010). High and low diversity plantings had equally diverse plant communities; however, CP25 plantings had greater frequency of cool-season (C(3)) grasses (P = 0.007). Older (8 year) high diversity restorations contained lower microbial biomass (P = 0.026), arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) biomass (P = 0.003), and C mineralization rates (P = 0.028) relative to 8 year low diversity restorations; older plantings had greater root biomass than 4 year plantings in all restorations (P = 0.001). Low diversity 8 year plantings contained wider root C:N ratios, and higher soil microbial biomass, microbial community richness, AMF biomass, and C mineralization rate relative to 4 year restorations (P < 0.050). Net N mineralization and nitrification rates were lower in 8 year than 4 year high diversity plantings (P = 0.005). We attributed changes in soil C and N pools and fluxes to increased AMF associated with C(4) grasses in low diversity plantings. Thus, reduced recovery of AMF in high diversity plantings restricted restoration of belowground microbial diversity and microbially-mediated soil processes over time.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bach2011,
      author = {Bach, Elizabeth M and Baer, Sara G and Six, Johan},
      title = {Plant and Soil Responses to High and Low Diversity Grassland Restoration Practices.},
      journal = {Environmental management},
      publisher = {Springer New York},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {1--13},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/t78q07118210777v/},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-011-9787-0}
    }
    
    Baddeley, A. & Turner, R. Spatstat: an R package for analyzing spatial point patterns 2005 Journal of Statistical Software
    Vol. 12(6), pp. 1-42 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Baddeley2005,
      author = {Baddeley, Adrian and Turner, Rolf},
      title = {Spatstat: an R package for analyzing spatial point patterns},
      journal = {Journal of Statistical Software},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {12},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1--42},
      url = {www.jstatsoft.org}
    }
    
    Bagchi, S. & Ritchie, M.E. Herbivory and plant tolerance: experimental tests of alternative hypotheses involving non-substitutable resources 2010 Oikos
    Vol. 9999(9999), pp. no-no 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: A mechanistic understanding of the highly variable effects of herbivores on plant production in different ecosystems remains a major challenge. To explain these patterns, the compensatory continuum hypothesis (CCH) predicts plants to compensate for defoliation when resources are abundant, whereas the growth rate hypothesis (GRH) makes the opposite claim of high herbivory tolerance under resource-poor conditions. The limiting resource model (LRM) tries to reconcile this dichotomy by incorporating the indirect effects of herbivores on plant resources and predicts that the potential for plant compensation is dependent upon whether, and how, herbivory influences limiting resources. Although extensively evaluated in laboratory monocultures, it remains uncertain whether these models can also explain the response of heterogeneous and multi-species natural plant communities to defoliation. Here we investigate community-wide plant response to defoliation and report data from a field experiment in the arid and primarily water-limited Trans-Himalayan grazing ecosystem in northern India involving clipping, irrigation and nutrient-feedback with herbivore dung. Without nutrient-feedback, plants compensated for defoliation in absence of irrigation but failed to compensate under irrigation. Whereas, in the presence of nutrient-feedback plants compensated for defoliation when irrigated. This divergent pattern is not consistent with the CCH and GRH, and is only partially explained by the LRM. Instead, these pluralistic results are consistent with the hypothesis that herbivory may alter the relative strengths of water and nutrient limitation since irrigation increased root:shoot ratio in absence of fertilization in unclipped plots, but not in the corresponding clipped plots. So, herbivory appears to increase relative strength of nutrient-limitation for plants that otherwise seem to be primarily water-limited. Extending the LRM framework to include herbivore-mediated transitions between water and nutrient-limitation may clarify the underlying mechanisms that modulate herbivory-tolerance under different environmental conditions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bagchi2010a,
      author = {Bagchi, Sumanta and Ritchie, Mark E.},
      title = {Herbivory and plant tolerance: experimental tests of alternative hypotheses involving non-substitutable resources},
      journal = {Oikos},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {9999},
      number = {9999},
      pages = {no--no},
      url = {http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/123596708/abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2010.18932.x}
    }
    
    Bagchi, S. & Ritchie, M.E. Introduced grazers can restrict potential soil carbon sequestration through impacts on plant community composition 2010 Ecology Letters
    Vol. 9999(9999), pp. no-no 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Ecology Letters (2010) Grazing occurs over a third of the earth's land surface and may potentially influence the storage of 109 Mg year22121 of greenhouse gases as soil C. Displacement of native herbivores by high densities of livestock has often led to overgrazing and soil C loss. However, it remains unknown whether matching livestock densities to those of native herbivores can yield equivalent soil C sequestration. In the Trans-Himalayas we found that, despite comparable grazing intensities, watersheds converted to pastoralism had 49% lower soil C than watersheds which retain native herbivores. Experimental grazer-exclusion within each watershed type, show that this difference appears to be driven by indirect effects of livestock diet selection, leading to vegetation shifts that lower plant production and reduce likely soil C inputs from vegetation by c. 25 gC m22122 year22121. Our results suggest that while accounting for direct impacts (stocking density) is a major step, managing indirect impacts on vegetation composition are equally important in influencing soil C sequestration in grazing ecosystems.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bagchi2010b,
      author = {Bagchi, Sumanta and Ritchie, Mark E.},
      title = {Introduced grazers can restrict potential soil carbon sequestration through impacts on plant community composition},
      journal = {Ecology Letters},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {9999},
      number = {9999},
      pages = {no--no},
      url = {http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/123435947/abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2010.01486.x}
    }
    
    Baker, M.E. & King, R.S. A new method for detecting and interpreting biodiversity and ecological community thresholds 2010 Methods in Ecology and Evolution
    Vol. 1(1), pp. 25-37 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Baker2010,
      author = {Baker, Matthew E. and King, Ryan S.},
      title = {A new method for detecting and interpreting biodiversity and ecological community thresholds},
      journal = {Methods in Ecology and Evolution},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {1},
      number = {1},
      pages = {25--37},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.2041-210X.2009.00007.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2041-210X.2009.00007.x}
    }
    
    Bakker, J. & Berendse, F. Constraints in the restoration of ecological diversity in grassland and heathland communities 1999 Trends in Ecology and Evolution
    Vol. 14, pp. 63- 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bakker1999,
      author = {Bakker, JP and Berendse, F},
      title = {Constraints in the restoration of ecological diversity in grassland and heathland communities},
      journal = {Trends in Ecology and Evolution},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {14},
      pages = {63--},
      url = {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0169534798015444}
    }
    
    Bakker, J., Grootjans, A., Hermy, M. & Poschlod, P. How to define targets for ecological restoration 2000 Applied Vegetation Science
    Vol. 3, pp. 3-7 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bakker2000,
      author = {Bakker, JP and Grootjans, AP and Hermy, M and Poschlod, P},
      title = {How to define targets for ecological restoration},
      journal = {Applied Vegetation Science},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {3},
      pages = {3--7},
      url = {http://www.biw.kuleuven.be/lbh/lbnl/ecology/pdf-files/pdf-art/bakker/ApplVegSc-2000.pdf}
    }
    
    Barbault, R. Biodiversity dynamics: from population and community ecology approaches to a landscape ecology point of view 1995 Landscape and Urban Planning
    Vol. 31, pp. 89-98 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Species richness and species diversity are classic concepts in ecology. What is new in the science of biodiversity after the Convention on Biological Diversity is: (1) that the emphasis has moved from the species to the ecosystem; (2) that the functional significance of biodiversity has been stressed. Thus, population and community ecology along with landscape ecology, should offer the best theoretical framework to analyse what can be called ‘biodiversity dynamics’. Some promising pathways and areas are emphasized and the very concept of functional diversity is discussed. Species richness, genetic variability and extinction probability are closely linked with landscape traits such as habitat diversity, structural heterogeneity, patch dynamics and perturbations. Thus, it is suggested that landscape ecology hold a central role, since it will allow the response to biodiversity issues in the framework of environmental heterogeneity and patchiness.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Barbault1995,
      author = {Barbault, Robert},
      title = {Biodiversity dynamics: from population and community ecology approaches to a landscape ecology point of view},
      journal = {Landscape and Urban Planning},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {31},
      pages = {89--98},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0169-2046(94)01038-A}
    }
    
    Barberis, C., Bätzing, W., Gosar, A., Cunder, T., Lottersberger, F., Penz, H., Pohl, B., Rieder, P., Ruppert, K. & Veron, F. Landwirtschaft im Alpenraum- unverzichtbar, aber zukunftslos? 1996 , pp. 242  book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Barberis1996,
      author = {Barberis, Corrado and Bätzing, Werner and Gosar, Anton and Cunder, Tomaz and Lottersberger, F. and Penz, Hugo and Pohl, Berthold and Rieder, Peter and Ruppert, Karl and Veron, Francois},
      title = {Landwirtschaft im Alpenraum- unverzichtbar, aber zukunftslos?},
      publisher = {Europäische Akademie Bozen},
      year = {1996},
      pages = {242}
    }
    
    Barlow, A.C.D., Greenwood, C.J., Ahmad, I.U. & Smith, J.L.D. Use of an Action-Selection Framework for Human-Carnivore Conflict in the Bangladesh Sundarbans. 2010 Conservation Biology  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Human-carnivore conflict is manifested in the death of humans, livestock, and carnivores. The resulting negative local attitudes and retribution killings imperil the future of many endangered carnivores. We tailored existing management tools to create a framework to facilitate the selection of actions to alleviate human-carnivore conflict and applied the framework to the human-tiger conflict in the Bangladesh Sundarbans. We identified potential actions that consider previous management efforts, local knowledge, cost-effectiveness, fieldwork experience of authors and project staff, previous research on tiger ecology by the authors, and recommendations from human-carnivore conflict studies in other countries. Our framework includes creation of a profile to improve understanding of the nature of the conflict and its underlying causality. Identified actions include deterrents, education, direct tiger management, and response teams. We ranked actions by their potential to reduce conflict and the monetary cost of their implementation. We ranked tiger-response teams and monitoring problem tigers as the two best actions because both had relatively high impact and cost-effectiveness. We believe this framework could be used under a wide range of human-wildlife conflict situations because it provides a structured approach to selection of mitigating actions. Uso de un Marco de Selección de Acciones en un Conflicto Humanos-Carnvoros en el Sundabarns de BangladeshResumen: El conflicto humanos-carnvoros se manifiesta como la muerte de humanos, ganado y carnvoros. Las actitudes locales negativas resultantes y las aniquiliciones en retribución ponen en peligro el futuro de muchos carnvoros en estatus de riesgo. Ajustamos herramientas de manejo existentes para crear un marco de referencia para facilitar la selección de acciones para atenuar conflictos humanos-carnvoros y lo aplicamos al conflicto humanos-tigres en el Sundabarns de Bangladesh. Identificamos acciones potenciales que consideran los esfuerzos de manejo previos, el conocimiento local, la rentabilidad, la experiencia de campo de autores y personal adscrito a proyectos, la investigación previa sobre ecologa de tigres y las recomendaciones de estudios de conflictos humanos-carnvoros en otros pases. Nuestro marco incluye la creación de un perfil para mejorar el entendimiento de la naturaleza de un conflicto y las causas subyacentes. Las acciones identificadas incluyen deterrentes, educación, manejo directo de tigres y equipos de respuesta. Clasificamos las acciones por su potencial para reducir el conflicto y el costo monetario de su implementación. Clasificamos a los equipos de respuesta a tigres y al monitoreo de problemas de tigres como las dos mejores acciones porque ambas tuvieron impacto y rentabilidad relativamente altos. Consideramos que este marco de referencia puede ser utilizado en un amplio rango de situaciones de conflicto entre humanos y vida silvestre porque proporciona un acercamiento estructurado a la selección de acciones de mitigación.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Barlow2010,
      author = {Barlow, Adam C D and Greenwood, Christina J and Ahmad, Ishtiaq U and Smith, James L D},
      title = {Use of an Action-Selection Framework for Human-Carnivore Conflict in the Bangladesh Sundarbans.},
      journal = {Conservation Biology},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20345402},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01496.x}
    }
    
    Barnett, D.T. & Stohlgren, T.J. A nested-intensity design for surveying plant diversity 2003
    Vol. 12(2)Biodiversity and Conservation, pp. 255-278-278 
    misc DOI URL 
    Abstract: Managers of natural landscapes need cost-efficient, accurate, and precise systems to inventory plant diversity. We investigated a nested-intensity sampling design to assess local and landscape-scale heterogeneity of plant species richness in aspen stands in southern Colorado, USA. The nested-intensity design used three vegetation sampling techniques: the Modified-Whittaker, a 1000-m2 multiple-scale plot (n = 8); a 100-m2 multiple-scale Intensive plot (n = 15); and a 100-m2 single-scale Extensive plot (n = 28). The large Modified-Whittaker plot (1000 m2) recorded greater species richness per plot than the other two sampling techniques (P 2 subplots (P 2 plots of the other designs. The Intensive plots extended the environmental gradient sampled, capturing 17 species missed by the other techniques, and improved species–area calculations. The greater number of Extensive plots further expanded the gradient sampled, and captured 18 additional species. The multi-scale Modified-Whittaker and Intensive designs allowed quantification of the slopes of species–area curves in the single-scale Extensive plots. Multiple linear regressions were able to predict the slope of species–area curves (adj R2 = 0.64, P &lt; 0.001) at each Extensive plot, allowing comparison of species richness at each sample location. Comparison of species–accumulation curves generated with each technique suggested that small, single-scale plot techniques might be very misleading because they underestimate species richness by missing locally rare species at every site. A combination of large and small multi-scale and single-scale plots greatly improves our understanding of native and exotic plant diversity patterns.
    BibTeX:
    @misc{Barnett2003,
      author = {Barnett, David T. and Stohlgren, Thomas J.},
      title = {A nested-intensity design for surveying plant diversity},
      booktitle = {Biodiversity and Conservation},
      publisher = {Springer Netherlands},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {12},
      number = {2},
      pages = {255--278--278},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/up1784r3l45xq6l3/},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1021939010065}
    }
    
    Baron, J., Gunderson, L., Allen, C., Fleishman, E., McKenzie, D., Meyerson, L., Oropeza, J. & Stephenson, N. Options for National Parks and Reserves for Adapting to Climate Change 2009 Environmental Management
    Vol. 44(6), pp. 1033-1042 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Past and present climate has shaped the valued ecosystems currently protected in parks and reserves, but future climate change will redefine these conditions. Continued conservation as climate changes will require thinking differently about resource management than we have in the past; we present some logical steps and tools for doing so. Three critical tenets underpin future management plans and activities: (1) climate patterns of the past will not be the climate patterns of the future; (2) climate defines the environment and influences future trajectories of the distributions of species and their habitats; (3) specific management actions may help increase the resilience of some natural resources, but fundamental changes in species and their environment may be inevitable. Science-based management will be necessary because past experience may not serve as a guide for novel future conditions. Identifying resources and processes at risk, defining thresholds and reference conditions, and establishing monitoring and assessment programs are among the types of scientific practices needed to support a broadened portfolio of management activities. In addition to the control and hedging management strategies commonly in use today, we recommend adaptive management wherever possible. Adaptive management increases our ability to address the multiple scales at which species and processes function, and increases the speed of knowledge transfer among scientists and managers. Scenario planning provides a broad forward-thinking framework from which the most appropriate management tools can be chosen. The scope of climate change effects will require a shared vision among regional partners. Preparing for and adapting to climate change is as much a cultural and intellectual challenge as an ecological challenge.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Baron2009,
      author = {Baron, Jill and Gunderson, Lance and Allen, Craig and Fleishman, Erica and McKenzie, Donald and Meyerson, Laura and Oropeza, Jill and Stephenson, Nate},
      title = {Options for National Parks and Reserves for Adapting to Climate Change},
      journal = {Environmental Management},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {44},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1033--1042},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-009-9296-6},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-009-9296-6}
    }
    
    Baron, V.S., Dick, a.C., Mapfumo, E., Malhi, S.S., Naeth, M.A. & Chanasyk, D.S. Grazing Impacts on Soil Nitrogen and Phosphorus under Parkland Pastures 2001 Journal of Range Management
    Vol. 54(6), pp. 704 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Because intensive grazing is new to the humid western Canadian parkland (prairies), there is little information available about its effects on soil N and P status. This study addressed the question of grazing intensity and pasture species effects on soil macronutrient status in a Typic Haplustoll at Lacombe, Alberta. Paddocks of smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.), mead- ow bromegrass (Bromus riparius Rhem.), and winter triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack.), replicated 4 times, were subjected to 3 grazing intensities (heavy, medium, and light as defined by fre- quency and severity of defoliation) using yearling beef heifers. Nitrogen (N), P and K fertilisers were broadcast annually at 100, 22 and 42 kg ha-' during production years. The experiment was maintained on the same paddocks for 4 years. In the establish- ment year and in the third and fourth production years, soil sam- ples were taken randomly from each paddock to a depth of 60 cm. Concentrations of nitrate-N (NO3-N), ammonium-N (NH4- N), mineral-N (the sum of N03-N and NH4-N), total Kjeldahl-N, and extractable-P were determined in the 0-15, 15-30, 30-60, and 0-60-cm depths. Nitrate-N concentration was (1.7 to 2.4 times) greater for heavy than light grazed treatments for each soil depth increment and the amount of N03-N in the 0-60 cm depth was 2.2 times greater than light paddocks. More N03-N was mea- sured under perennials than triticale (22.2 vs 13.6 mg kg-', respectively) at the 30-60-cm depth. Ammonium-N amount (0-60 cm) was greater in meadow bromegrass (30 kg ha-') than in triti- cale (25 kg ha-'), but not smooth bromegrass paddocks for the 0- 15-cm depth. Extractable-P concentration was greater in the 0- 15-cm depth of heavy (154 mg kg-') than in medium (138 mg kg-') or light-grazed (127 mg kg-') paddocks and was higher under meadow bromegrass than under triticale. Given the large amounts of N03-N in the heavy paddocks, there is potential for loss through both leaching and denitrification. Differences among treatments for NH4-N, and P concentrations are not of particular concern environmentally, but are important from a fertility management point of view.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Baron2001,
      author = {Baron, V. S. and Dick, a. C. and Mapfumo, E. and Malhi, S. S. and Naeth, M. A. and Chanasyk, D. S.},
      title = {Grazing Impacts on Soil Nitrogen and Phosphorus under Parkland Pastures},
      journal = {Journal of Range Management},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {54},
      number = {6},
      pages = {704},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/4003675?origin=crossref},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/4003675}
    }
    
    Baselga, A. & Orme, C.D.L. betapart : an R package for the study of beta diversity 2012 Methods in Ecology and Evolution
    Vol. 3(5), pp. 808-812 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: 1. Beta diversity, that is, the variation in species composition among sites, can be the result of species replacement between sites (turnover) and species loss from site to site (nestedness). 2. We present betapart, an R package for computing total dissimilarity as Sø rensen or Jaccard indices, as well as their respective turnover and nestedness components. 3. betapart allows the assessment of spatial patterns of beta diversity using multiple-site dissimilarity measures accounting for compositional heterogeneity across several sites or pairwise measures providing distance matrices accounting for the multivariate structure of dissimilarity. 4. betapart also allows computing patterns of temporal difference in assemblage composition, and its turnover and nestedness components. 5. Several example analyses are shown, using the data included in the package, to illustrate the relevance of separating the turnover and nestedness components of beta diversity to infer different mechanisms behind biodiversity patterns.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Baselga2012,
      author = {Baselga, Andrés and Orme, C. David L.},
      title = {betapart : an R package for the study of beta diversity},
      journal = {Methods in Ecology and Evolution},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {3},
      number = {5},
      pages = {808--812},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.2041-210X.2012.00224.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2041-210X.2012.00224.x}
    }
    
    Bassler, G., Lichtenecker, A., Karrer, G., Krassnitzer, S. & Seger, M. Der Vertragsnaturschutz als Werkzeug zur Erhaltung naturschutzfachlich bedeutsamer Wiesentypen. Evaluierung des Status-Quo anhand zweier Fallstudien im Waldviertel 2002 10. Österreichisches Botanikertreffen, 30. Mai - 1. Juni 2002, Bundesanstalt für alpenländische Landwirtschaft Gumpenstein, pp. 113-116  inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Bassler2002,
      author = {Bassler, G and Lichtenecker, A and Karrer, G and Krassnitzer, S and Seger, M},
      title = {Der Vertragsnaturschutz als Werkzeug zur Erhaltung naturschutzfachlich bedeutsamer Wiesentypen. Evaluierung des Status-Quo anhand zweier Fallstudien im Waldviertel},
      booktitle = {10. Österreichisches Botanikertreffen, 30. Mai - 1. Juni 2002, Bundesanstalt für alpenländische Landwirtschaft Gumpenstein},
      year = {2002},
      pages = {113--116}
    }
    
    Baum, A.W., Patzek, T., Bender, M., Renich, S. & Jackson, W. A Fresh Look at Energy, Materials, and Labor in Agriculture 2010 Nature Precedingshttp://precedings.nature.com/documents/4291/version/1  misc URL 
    BibTeX:
    @misc{Baum2010,
      author = {Baum, Aaron W and Patzek, Tadeusz and Bender, Martin and Renich, Steve and Jackson, Wes},
      title = {A Fresh Look at Energy, Materials, and Labor in Agriculture},
      booktitle = {Nature Precedings},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://precedings.nature.com/documents/4291/version/1}
    }
    
    Beale, C.M., Lennon, J.J., Yearsley, J.M., Brewer, M.J. & Elston, D. a. Regression analysis of spatial data. 2010 Ecology letters
    Vol. 13(2), pp. 246-64 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Many of the most interesting questions ecologists ask lead to analyses of spatial data. Yet, perhaps confused by the large number of statistical models and fitting methods available, many ecologists seem to believe this is best left to specialists. Here, we describe the issues that need consideration when analysing spatial data and illustrate these using simulation studies. Our comparative analysis involves using methods including generalized least squares, spatial filters, wavelet revised models, conditional autoregressive models and generalized additive mixed models to estimate regression coefficients from synthetic but realistic data sets, including some which violate standard regression assumptions. We assess the performance of each method using two measures and using statistical error rates for model selection. Methods that performed well included generalized least squares family of models and a Bayesian implementation of the conditional auto-regressive model. Ordinary least squares also performed adequately in the absence of model selection, but had poorly controlled Type I error rates and so did not show the improvements in performance under model selection when using the above methods. Removing large-scale spatial trends in the response led to poor performance. These are empirical results; hence extrapolation of these findings to other situations should be performed cautiously. Nevertheless, our simulation-based approach provides much stronger evidence for comparative analysis than assessments based on single or small numbers of data sets, and should be considered a necessary foundation for statements of this type in future.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Beale2010,
      author = {Beale, Colin M and Lennon, Jack J and Yearsley, Jon M and Brewer, Mark J and Elston, David a},
      title = {Regression analysis of spatial data.},
      journal = {Ecology letters},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {13},
      number = {2},
      pages = {246--64},
      url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2009.01422.x/abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2009.01422.x}
    }
    
    Beck, J. & Schwanghart, W. Comparing measures of species diversity from incomplete inventories: an update 2010 Methods in Ecology and Evolution
    Vol. 9999(9999) 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: 1. Measuring biodiversity quantitatively is a key component to its investigation, but many methods are known to be biased by undersampling (i.e. incomplete inventories), a common situation in ecological field studies. 2. Following a long tradition of comparing measures of alpha diversity to judge their usefulness, we used simulated data to assess bias of nine diversity measures 2013 some of them proposed fairly recently, such as estimating true species richness depending on the completeness of inventories (Brose, U. & Martinez, N.D. Oikos (2004) 105, 292), bias-corrected Shannon diversity (Chao, A. & Shen, T.-J. Environmental and Ecological Statistics (23) 10, 429), while others are commonly applied (e.g. Shannon's entropy, Fisher's 03B1) or long known but rarely used (estimating Shannon's entropy from Fisher's 03B1). 3. We conclude that the 'effective number of species' based on bias-corrected Shannon's entropy is an unbiased estimator of diversity at sample completeness c. >0.5, while below that it is still less biased than, e.g., estimated species richness (Brose, U. & Martinez, N.D. Oikos (2004) 105, 292). 4. Fisher's 03B1 cannot be tested with the same rigour because it cannot measure the diversity of completely inventoried communities, and we present simulations illustrating this effect when sample completeness approaches high values. However, we can show that Fisher's 03B1 produces relatively stable values at low sample completeness (an effect previously shown only in empirical data), and we tentatively conclude that it may still be considered a good (possibly superior) measure of diversity if completeness is very low.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Beck2010,
      author = {Beck, Jan and Schwanghart, Wolfgang},
      title = {Comparing measures of species diversity from incomplete inventories: an update},
      journal = {Methods in Ecology and Evolution},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {9999},
      number = {9999},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2041-210X.2009.00003.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2041-210X.2009.00003.x}
    }
    
    Bedia, J. & Busqué, J. Productivity, grazing utilization, forage quality and primary production controls of species-rich alpine grasslands with Nardus stricta in northern Spain 2012 Grass and Forage Science, pp. n/a-n/a  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bedia2012,
      author = {Bedia, J. and Busqué, J.},
      title = {Productivity, grazing utilization, forage quality and primary production controls of species-rich alpine grasslands with Nardus stricta in northern Spain},
      journal = {Grass and Forage Science},
      year = {2012},
      pages = {n/a--n/a},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1365-2494.2012.00903.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2494.2012.00903.x}
    }
    
    Beecham, J. & Farnsworth, K. Animal foraging from an individual perspective: an object orientated model 1998 Ecological Modelling
    Vol. 113(1-3), pp. 141-156 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: A model system, HOOFS (Hierarchical Object Orientated Foraging Simulator), has been developed to study foraging by animals in a complex environment. The model is implemented using an individual-based object-orientated structure. Different species of animals inherit their general properties from a generic animal object which inherits from the basic dynamic object class. Each dynamic object is a separate program thread under the control of a central scheduler. The environment is described as a map of small hexagonal patches, each with their own level of resources and a patch-specific rate of resource replenishment. Each group of seven patches (0th order) is grouped into a 1st order super-patch with seven nth order super-patches making up a n+1th order super-patch for n up to a specified value. At any time each animal is associated with a single patch. Patch choice is made by combining the information on the resources available within different order patches and super-patches along with information on the spatial location of other animals. The degree of sociality of an animal is defined in terms of optimal spacing from other animals and by the weighting of patch choice based on social factors relative to that based on food availability. Information, available to each animal, about patch resources diminishes with distance from that patch. The model has been used to demonstrate that social interactions can constrain patch choice and result in a short-term reduction of intake and a greater degree of variability in the level of resources in patches. We used the model to show that the effect of this variability on the animal’s intake depends on the pattern of patch replenishment. Author Keywords: Animal foraging; Food intake; Hierarchical hexagonal map; Individual-based model; Object-orientated modelling; Social behaviour Index Terms: reproductive toxicity; boron
    BibTeX:
    @article{Beecham1998,
      author = {Beecham, JA and Farnsworth, KD},
      title = {Animal foraging from an individual perspective: an object orientated model},
      journal = {Ecological Modelling},
      publisher = {Elsevier},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {113},
      number = {1-3},
      pages = {141--156},
      url = {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0304380098001392},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3800(98)00139-2}
    }
    
    Beierkuhnlein, C., Thiel, D., Jentsch, A., Willner, E. & Kreyling, J. Ecotypes of European grass species respond differently to warming and extreme drought 2011 Journal of Ecology
    Vol. 99(3), pp. 703-713 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: 1. Climate extremes are expected to increase in frequency and magnitude as a consequence of glo- bal warming. 2. Managed permanent grasslands cover a large surface in Europe and contribute substantially to agricultural production. These managed plant communities are dominated by perennial clonal spe- cies. Their capacity to adapt to rapidly changing environmental conditions may be limited. 3. We hypothesize that those plant populations that have already been exposed to conditions that are expected to occur due to future climate change, particularly conditions that would be ‘extreme’ in the target area, are able to cope better with these conditions. 4. For a common-garden experiment we selected ecotypes (provenances as supported by accessions in seed banks) of important European grass species: Arrhenatherum elatius, Festuca pratensis, Holcus lanatus and Alopecurus pratensis. Southern target locations of ecotypes (populations) were identified based on climate model projections for the local site in Northern Bavaria, Germany. 5. In a controlled experiment, the plants were exposed to warming and extreme drought. Drought conditions(16–19 days, depending on the species) were imposed starting from the end of May in combination with and without an increase in the average temperature from May to September 2009 ( 1.5 K compared with control; +2.5 K compared with ambient conditions outside of the experi- + mental units). 6. Ecotypes and drought manipulation had significant impacts on biomass production and tissue die-back. Significant interactions between ecotype and drought indicated a different drought toler- ance of the ecotypes in some cases. The warming treatment yielded a less significant response. The local ecotype generally did not perform significantly worse than the presumably better-adapted southern ecotypes. 7. Synthesis. The selection of ecotypes that are adapted to more extreme climatic conditions could be an option for maintaining future ecosystem functioning in temperate managed grasslands, as was indicated by the clear differences between ecotypes in our experiment. Based on our data, how- ever, performance cannot be predicted from climatic origin. Therefore, we recommend enhancing the genetic variability within populations of species in general.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Beierkuhnlein2011,
      author = {Beierkuhnlein, Carl and Thiel, Daniel and Jentsch, Anke and Willner, Evelin and Kreyling, Juergen},
      title = {Ecotypes of European grass species respond differently to warming and extreme drought},
      journal = {Journal of Ecology},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {99},
      number = {3},
      pages = {703--713},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2011.01809.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2011.01809.x}
    }
    
    Bekoff, M. Social Play Behaviour 2001 (2), pp. 81-90  article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bekoff2001,
      author = {Bekoff, Marc},
      title = {Social Play Behaviour},
      year = {2001},
      number = {2},
      pages = {81--90}
    }
    
    Bell, S.S., Fonseca, M.S. & Motten, L.B. Linking Restoration and Landscape Ecology 1997 Restoration Ecology
    Vol. 5(4), pp. 318-323 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bell1997,
      author = {Bell, Susan S. and Fonseca, Mark S. and Motten, Little B.},
      title = {Linking Restoration and Landscape Ecology},
      journal = {Restoration Ecology},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {5},
      number = {4},
      pages = {318--323},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1046/j.1526-100X.1997.00545.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1526-100X.1997.00545.x}
    }
    
    Ben-Hur, E., Fragman-Sapir, O., Hadas, R., Singer, A. & Kadmon, R. Functional trade-offs increase species diversity in experimental plant communities 2012 Ecology Letters, pp. n/a-n/a  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Functional trade-offs have long been recognised as important mechanisms of species coexistence, but direct experimental evidence for such mechanisms is extremely rare. Here, we test the effect of one classical trade-off - a negative correlation between seed size and seed number - by establishing microcosm plant communities with positive, negative and no correlation between seed size and seed number and analysing the effect of the seed size/number correlation on species richness. Consistent with theory, a negative correlation between seed size and seed number led to a higher number of species in the communities and a corresponding wider range of seed size (a measure of functional richness) by promoting coexistence of large- and small-seeded species. Our study provides the first direct evidence that a seed size/number trade-off may contribute to species coexistence, and at a wider context, demonstrates the potential role of functional trade-offs in maintaining species diversity.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ben-Hur2012,
      author = {Ben-Hur, Eyal and Fragman-Sapir, Ori and Hadas, Rivka and Singer, Alon and Kadmon, Ronen},
      title = {Functional trade-offs increase species diversity in experimental plant communities},
      journal = {Ecology Letters},
      year = {2012},
      pages = {n/a--n/a},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22891693},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2012.01850.x}
    }
    
    Berdanier, A.B. & Klein, J.A. Growing Season Length and Soil Moisture Interactively Constrain High Elevation Aboveground Net Primary Production 2011 Ecosystems, pp. 1-12-12  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Although high elevation meadows are often considered to be primarily temperature-limited, aboveground net primary production (ANPP) is influenced by both growing season length (GSL) and soil moisture (SM). Progress in understanding these responses comes from studies at individual sites that are often focused on single abiotic drivers, so little is known about how climatic constraints relate to one another and limit ANPP at larger scales. We examined the independent and combined effects of these two key climate drivers (GSL and SM) across a suite of high elevation meadows from two continents. We also sampled gradients of each variable at a single site to explore mechanisms for SM and GSL limitations. Here, we show that high elevation meadows are limited by both GSL and SM levels. GSL constrained maximum ANPP by approximately 4 g m−2 d−1 whereas average daily ANPP beneath this constraint was significantly influenced by SM. Carbon isotope and plant/soil nitrogen data suggest that SM influenced ANPP through its impact on nitrogen availability. Increases in GSL can increase ANPP unless those increases are accompanied by SM decreases. These interactive effects can produce distinct ecological patterns and must be considered when predicting high elevation meadow responses to future climate changes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Berdanier2011,
      author = {Berdanier, Aaron B. and Klein, Julia A.},
      title = {Growing Season Length and Soil Moisture Interactively Constrain High Elevation Aboveground Net Primary Production},
      journal = {Ecosystems},
      publisher = {Springer New York},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {1--12--12},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/a423054162u07802/},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10021-011-9459-1}
    }
    
    Bernhardt-Römermann, M., Gray, A., Vanbergen, A.J., Bergès, L., Bohner, A., Brooker, R.W., De Bruyn, L., De Cinti, B., Dirnböck, T., Grandin, U., Hester, A.J., Kanka, R., Klotz, S., Loucougaray, G., Lundin, L., Matteucci, G., Mészáros, I., Oláh, V., Preda, E., Prévosto, B., Pykälä, J., Schmidt, W., Taylor, M.E., Vadineanu, A., Waldmann, T. & Stadler, J. Functional traits and local environment predict vegetation responses to disturbance: a pan-European multi-site experiment 2011 Journal of Ecology
    Vol. 99(3), pp. 777-787 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bernhardt-Romermann2011a,
      author = {Bernhardt-Römermann, Markus and Gray, Alan and Vanbergen, Adam J. and Bergès, Laurent and Bohner, Andreas and Brooker, Rob W. and De Bruyn, Luc and De Cinti, Bruno and Dirnböck, Thomas and Grandin, Ulf and Hester, Alison J. and Kanka, Róbert and Klotz, Stefan and Loucougaray, Grégory and Lundin, Lars and Matteucci, Giorgio and Mészáros, Ilona and Oláh, Viktor and Preda, Elena and Prévosto, Bernard and Pykälä, Juha and Schmidt, Wolfgang and Taylor, Michele E. and Vadineanu, Angheluta and Waldmann, Theresa and Stadler, Jutta},
      title = {Functional traits and local environment predict vegetation responses to disturbance: a pan-European multi-site experiment},
      journal = {Journal of Ecology},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {99},
      number = {3},
      pages = {777--787},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2011.01794.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2011.01794.x}
    }
    
    Bernhardt-Römermann, M., Römermann, C., Sperlich, S. & Schmidt, W. Explaining grassland biomass - the contribution of climate, species and functional diversity depends on fertilization and mowing frequency 2011 Journal of Applied Ecology
    Vol. 48(5), pp. 1-10 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: 1. Grassland ecosystems are often used to generate biomass in temperate regions of the world. It is well known that biomass is influenced by climate and biodiversity, but the relative importance of these two factors in relation to management has not been widely studied. To recommend manage- ment treatmentsmaximizing biomass yields we aimto quantify the relative effects of climate species and functional diversity on biomass in differentlymanaged grasslands. 2. We studied the development of biomass yields over the last 37 years on a grassland site in Ger- many,withmowing at five frequencies (one to eight times per year), each with and without fertiliza- tion. We measured plant species richness (SR) and functional richness (FR) (the diversity of functional species properties) using presence–absence indices. We also measured species evenness (SE), functional evenness and functional divergence (FD) using abundance weighted indices. Cli- mate was included as the mean temperature and sumof precipitation during the growing period. By relating biomass to the above-mentioned climatic and biodiversity parameters, we extracted the contribution of these to biomass yields. 3. Biomass changed over timefor all treatments and wasmaximal at intermediatemowing frequen- cies. Temporal changes in biomass were partly explained by climate and different aspects of biodi- versity, although this differed significantly between treatments. The relative importance of precipitation was highest at high mowing frequencies; the contribution of temperature was highest on less disturbed, unfertilized plots. FR and SR influenced biomass changes in the most intensive disturbance regimes on unfertilized and fertilized plots respectively. FD was most important on intensively disturbed, fertilized plots. SEinfluenced biomass at lowmowing frequencies. 4. Synthesis and applications. Climate, species and functional diversity influence annual grass- land biomass yields but their importance depends on nutrient status and management fre- quency. Our results indicate that management treatments with intermediate disturbance regimes will maximize biomass yields in temperate environments. This recommendation may become even more important in the context of climate change: at intermediate mowing fre- quencies the influence of climatic variables on biomass is less important by comparison to different aspects of biodiversity.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bernhardt-Romermann2011b,
      author = {Bernhardt-Römermann, Markus and Römermann, Christine and Sperlich, Stefan and Schmidt, Wolfgang},
      title = {Explaining grassland biomass - the contribution of climate, species and functional diversity depends on fertilization and mowing frequency},
      journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {48},
      number = {5},
      pages = {1--10},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.01968.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.01968.x}
    }
    
    Bertaglia, M., Joost, S. & Roosend, J. Identifying European marginal areas in the context of local sheep and goat breeds conservation: A geographic information system approach 2007 Agricultural Systems
    Vol. 94(3), pp. 657-670 
    article  
    Abstract: Local sheep and goat breeds are generally argued to be remarkably well adapted to marginal rural areas. The latter are often said to be particularly or solely suitable for extensive husbandry mostly based on small ruminants. However, many local sheep and goat breeds are presently endangered. Both conserving these breeds and maintaining an active agricultural presence in marginal areas are presently two major priorities for agricultural and rural development policy in Europe. The objective of this paper is to analyse the spatial link between the geographic distribution of traditional, locally adapted sheep and goat breeds and the relative marginality of regions. The concept of marginal areas is discussed and defined and an index of relative marginality is computed in a Geographic Information System. The index combines land use, demographic and socio-economic data. The correlation between the marginality of a region measured by the index and the geographic distribution of sheep and goat breeds is analysed using a simple logit model. The broader interest of the index as a tool for agricultural and rural development policy applications is then discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bertaglia2007,
      author = {Bertaglia, Marco and Joost, Stéphane and Roosend, Jutta},
      title = {Identifying European marginal areas in the context of local sheep and goat breeds conservation: A geographic information system approach},
      journal = {Agricultural Systems},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {94},
      number = {3},
      pages = {657--670}
    }
    
    Bestelmeyer, B.T., Goolsby, D.P. & Archer, S.R. Spatial perspectives in state-and-transition models: a missing link to land management? 2011 Journal of Applied Ecology, pp. no-no  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bestelmeyer2011,
      author = {Bestelmeyer, Brandon T. and Goolsby, Darroc P. and Archer, Steven R.},
      title = {Spatial perspectives in state-and-transition models: a missing link to land management?},
      journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {no--no},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.01982.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.01982.x}
    }
    
    Bestelmeyer, B.T., Tugel, A.J., Peacock, G.L., Robinett, D.G., Shaver, P.L., Brown, J.R., Herrick, J.E., Sanchez, H. & Havstad, K.M. Synthesis Paper State-and-Transition Models for Heterogeneous Landscapes: A Strategy for Development and Application 2009 Rangeland Ecology & Management
    Vol. 62(1), pp. 1-15 
    article  
    Abstract: Interpretation of assessment and monitoring data requires information about how reference conditions and ecological resilience vary in space and time. Reference conditions used as benchmarks are often specified via potential-based land classifications (e.g., ecological sites) that describe the plant communities potentially observed in an area based on soil and climate. State-and-transition models (STMs) coupled to ecological sites specify indicators of ecological resilience and thresholds. Although general concepts surrounding STMs and ecological sites have received increasing attention, strategies to apply and quantify these concepts have not. In this paper, we outline concepts and a practical approach to potential-based land classification and STM development. Quantification emphasizes inventory techniques readily available to natural resource professionals that reveal processes interacting across spatial scales. We recommend a sequence of eight steps for the co-development of ecological sites and STMs, including 1) creation of initial concepts based on literature and workshops; 2) extensive, low-intensity traverses to refine initial concepts and to plan inventory; 3) development of a spatial hierarchy for sampling based on climate, geomorphology, and soils; 4) stratified medium-intensity inventory of plant communities and soils across a broad extent and with large sample sizes; 5) storage of plant and soil data in a single database; 6) model-building and analysis of inventory data to test initial concepts; 7) support and/ or refinement of concepts; and 8) high-intensity characterization and monitoring of states. We offer a simple example of how data assembled via our sequence are used to refine ecological site classes and STMs. The linkage of inventory to expert knowledge and site-based mechanistic experiments and monitoring provides a powerful means for specifying management hypotheses and, ultimately, promoting resilience in grassland, shrubland, savanna, and forest ecosystems.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bestelmeyer2009,
      author = {Bestelmeyer, Brandon T. and Tugel, Arlene J and Peacock, George L and Robinett, Daniel G and Shaver, Pat L and Brown, Joel R and Herrick, Jeffrey E and Sanchez, Homer and Havstad, Kris M},
      title = {Synthesis Paper State-and-Transition Models for Heterogeneous Landscapes: A Strategy for Development and Application},
      journal = {Rangeland Ecology & Management},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {62},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1--15}
    }
    
    Billeter, R., Liira, J., Bailey, D., Bugter, R., Arens, P., Augenstein, I., Aviron, S., Baudry, J., Bukacek, R., Burel, F. & Others Indicators for biodiversity in agricultural landscapes: a pan-European study 2008 Journal of Applied Ecology
    Vol. 45(1), pp. 141-150 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: 1. In many European agricultural landscapes, species richness is declining considerably. Studies performed at a very large spatial scale are helpful in understanding the reasons for this decline and as a basis for guiding policy. In a unique, large-scale study of 25 agricultural landscapes in seven European countries, we investigated relationships between species richness in several taxa, and the links between biodiversity and landscape structure and management. 2. We estimated the total species richness of vascular plants, birds and five arthropod groups in each 16-km2 landscape, and recorded various measures of both landscape structure and intensity of agricultural land use. We studied correlations between taxonomic groups and the effects of landscape and land-use parameters on the number of species in different taxonomic groups. Our statistical approach also accounted for regional variation in species richness unrelated to landscape or land-use factors. 3. The results reveal strong geographical trends in species richness in all taxonomic groups. No single species group emerged as a good predictor of all other species groups. Species richness of all groups increased with the area of semi-natural habitats in the landscape. Species richness of birds and vascular plants was negatively associated with fertilizer use. 4. Synthesis and applications. We conclude that indicator taxa are unlikely to provide an effective means of predicting biodiversity at a large spatial scale, especially where there is large biogeographical variation in species richness. However, a small list of landscape and land-use parameters can be used in agricultural landscapes to infer large-scale patterns of species richness. Our results suggest that to halt the loss of biodiversity in these landscapes, it is important to preserve and, if possible, increase the area of semi-natural habitat.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Billeter2008,
      author = {Billeter, R and Liira, J and Bailey, D and Bugter, R and Arens, P and Augenstein, I and Aviron, S and Baudry, J and Bukacek, R and Burel, F and Others},
      title = {Indicators for biodiversity in agricultural landscapes: a pan-European study},
      journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
      publisher = {John Wiley & Sons},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {45},
      number = {1},
      pages = {141--150},
      url = {http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119392047/abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2007.01393.x}
    }
    
    Birch, J.C., Newton, A.C., Aquino, C.A., Cantarello, E., Echeverra, C., Kitzberger, T., Schiappacasse, I. & Garavito, N.T. Cost-effectiveness of dryland forest restoration evaluated by spatial analysis of ecosystem services. 2010 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, pp. 1003369107-  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Although ecological restoration is widely used to combat environmental degradation, very few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of this approach. We examine the potential impact of forest restoration on the value of multiple ecosystem services across four dryland areas in Latin America, by estimating the net value of ecosystem service benefits under different reforestation scenarios. The values of selected ecosystem services were mapped under each scenario, supported by the use of a spatially explicit model of forest dynamics. We explored the economic potential of a change in land use from livestock grazing to restored native forest using different discount rates and performed a cost-benefit analysis of three restoration scenarios. Results show that passive restoration is cost-effective for all study areas on the basis of the services analyzed, whereas the benefits from active restoration are generally outweighed by the relatively high costs involved. These findings were found to be relatively insensitive to discount rate but were sensitive to the market value of carbon. Substantial variation in values was recorded between study areas, demonstrating that ecosystem service values are strongly context specific. However, spatial analysis enabled localized areas of net benefits to be identified, indicating the value of this approach for identifying the relative costs and benefits of restoration interventions across a landscape.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Birch2010,
      author = {Birch, Jennifer C and Newton, Adrian C and Aquino, Claudia Alvarez and Cantarello, Elena and Echeverra, Cristian and Kitzberger, Thomas and Schiappacasse, Ignacio and Garavito, Natalia Tejedor},
      title = {Cost-effectiveness of dryland forest restoration evaluated by spatial analysis of ecosystem services.},
      journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {1003369107--},
      url = {http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/1003369107v1},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1003369107}
    }
    
    Bland, J. & Altman, D. Correlation, regression, and repeated data. 1994 BMJ: British Medical Journal
    Vol. 308, pp. 896 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bland1994,
      author = {Bland, JM and Altman, DG},
      title = {Correlation, regression, and repeated data.},
      journal = {BMJ: British Medical Journal},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {308},
      pages = {896},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2539813/}
    }
    
    Blaschka, A. Der Truppenübungsplatz Hochfilzen: Landschaft, Nutzung, Hemerobie und Diversität - Eine vegetationsökologische Untersuchung 2000 , pp. 168School: Paris Lodron Universität Salzburg  mastersthesis  
    BibTeX:
    @mastersthesis{Blaschka2000,
      author = {Blaschka, Albin},
      title = {Der Truppenübungsplatz Hochfilzen: Landschaft, Nutzung, Hemerobie und Diversität - Eine vegetationsökologische Untersuchung},
      school = {Paris Lodron Universität Salzburg},
      year = {2000},
      pages = {168}
    }
    
    Blaschka, A. & Guggenberger, T. Decision support for grazing management: Evaluation of suitability and estimation of potential on alpine pastures for sheep and goats 2009 EFITA Conference 2009. Papers presented at the 7th EFITA conference Wageningen, the Netherlands, pp. 355-363  inproceedings  
    Abstract: in this paper a methodology for both a qualitative and quantitative assessment of suitability and potential of grazing areas based on GIS (Geographical information Systems) is presented. in the past, the use of Alpine pastures during summer was an economical resource for farmers, which became neglected due to intensification of agriculture after World War II. Nowadays Alpine pastures are becoming importantagain, mainly because of new demand for typical, local products, but also because the extensive management on alpine pastures creates landscapes of high touristic value and high biodiversity. However, this requires new solutions for management of mountain pastures, or more generally, tbe development of innovative land management tools.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Blaschka2009a,
      author = {Blaschka, Albin and Guggenberger, Thomas},
      title = {Decision support for grazing management: Evaluation of suitability and estimation of potential on alpine pastures for sheep and goats},
      booktitle = {EFITA Conference 2009. Papers presented at the 7th EFITA conference Wageningen, the Netherlands},
      publisher = {Wageningen Academic Publishers B.V. Wageningen},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {355--363}
    }
    
    Blaschka, A. & Guggenberger, T. Ein integratives Modell zur Eignungsprüfung und Potentialschätzung alpiner Weiden für Schafe und Ziegen 2009 GIL Jahrestagung, pp. 29-32  inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Blaschka2009b,
      author = {Blaschka, Albin and Guggenberger, Thomas},
      title = {Ein integratives Modell zur Eignungsprüfung und Potentialschätzung alpiner Weiden für Schafe und Ziegen},
      booktitle = {GIL Jahrestagung},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {29--32}
    }
    
    Blaschka, A. & Guggenberger, T. Land use as foundation for ecological restoration - Development of a methodological framework 2010 Proceedings 7th European Conference on Ecological Restoration Avignon, France, 23-27/08/2010 - online: http://ser.semico.be/ser-pdf/EASER2010084.pdf., pp. 4pp.  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Blaschka2010,
      author = {Blaschka, Albin and Guggenberger, Thomas},
      title = {Land use as foundation for ecological restoration - Development of a methodological framework},
      booktitle = {Proceedings 7th European Conference on Ecological Restoration Avignon, France, 23-27/08/2010 - online: http://ser.semico.be/ser-pdf/EASER2010084.pdf.},
      publisher = {SER Europe},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {4pp.},
      url = {http://ser.semico.be/ser-pdf/EASER2010084.pdf}
    }
    
    Blaschka, A. & Kickinger, S. Fieldwork and classification of vegetation data as basis for remote sensing 2006   unpublished  
    BibTeX:
    @unpublished{Blaschka2006,
      author = {Blaschka, Albin and Kickinger, Sophie},
      title = {Fieldwork and classification of vegetation data as basis for remote sensing},
      year = {2006}
    }
    
    Bloor, J.M.G., Pichon, P., Falcimagne, R., Leadley, P. & Soussana, J.-F. Effects of Warming, Summer Drought, and CO2 Enrichment on Aboveground Biomass Production, Flowering Phenology, and Community Structure in an Upland Grassland Ecosystem 2010 Ecosystems(June)  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Future climate scenarios predict simultaneous changes in environmental conditions, but the im- pacts of multiple climate change drivers on ecosys- tem structure and function remain unclear. We used a novel experimental approach to examine the re- sponses of an upland grassland ecosystem to the 2080 climate scenario predicted for the study area (3.5°C temperature increase, 20% reduction in summer precipitation, atmospheric CO2 levels of 600 ppm) over three growing seasons. We also as- sessed whether patterns of grassland response to a combination of climate change treatments could be forecast by ecosystem responses to single climate change drivers. Effects of climate change on above- ground production showed considerable seasonal and interannual variation; April biomass increased in response to both warming and the simultaneous application of warming, summer drought, and CO2 enrichment, whereas October biomass responses were either non-significant or negative depending on the year. Negative impacts of summer drought on production were only observed in combination with a below-average rainfall regime, and showed lagged effects on spring biomass. Elevated CO2 had no sig- nificant effect on aboveground biomass during this study. Both warming and the 2080 climate change scenario were associated with a significant advance in flowering time for the dominant grass species studied. However, flowering phenology showed no significant response to either summer drought or elevated CO2. Species diversity and equitability showed no response to climate change treatments throughout this study. Overall, our data suggest that single-factor warming experiments may provide valuable information for projections of future eco- system changes in cool temperate grasslands.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bloor2010,
      author = {Bloor, Juliette M. G. and Pichon, Patrick and Falcimagne, Robert and Leadley, Paul and Soussana, Jean-François},
      title = {Effects of Warming, Summer Drought, and CO2 Enrichment on Aboveground Biomass Production, Flowering Phenology, and Community Structure in an Upland Grassland Ecosystem},
      journal = {Ecosystems},
      year = {2010},
      number = {June},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/index/10.1007/s10021-010-9363-0},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10021-010-9363-0}
    }
    
    BMLFUW Grüner Bericht 2008. Bericht über die Situation der österreichischen Land- und Forstwirtschaft 2008 , pp. 320pp.  book URL 
    BibTeX:
    @book{BMLFUW2008,
      author = {BMLFUW},
      title = {Grüner Bericht 2008. Bericht über die Situation der österreichischen Land- und Forstwirtschaft},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {320pp.},
      url = {http://www.gruenerbericht.at}
    }
    
    BMLFUW Österreichisches Programm für die Entwicklung des Ländlichen Raums 2007-2013 2007 , pp. 529pp.  book URL 
    BibTeX:
    @book{LE07-13,
      author = {BMLFUW},
      title = {Österreichisches Programm für die Entwicklung des Ländlichen Raums 2007-2013},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {529pp.},
      url = {http://land.lebensministerium.at/filemanager/download/23918/}
    }
    
    BMLFUW Ländliche Entwicklung 2007 – 2013. Nationaler Strategieplan Österreichs für die Entwicklung des ländlichen Raumes 2007-2013 2007 , pp. 41pp.  book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{StratLE07-13,
      author = {BMLFUW},
      title = {Ländliche Entwicklung 2007 – 2013. Nationaler Strategieplan Österreichs für die Entwicklung des ländlichen Raumes 2007-2013},
      publisher = {Bundesministerium für Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Umwelt und Wasserwirtschaft},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {41pp.}
    }
    
    Bolker, B.M. Ecological Models and Data in R 2007 , pp. 408  book URL 
    BibTeX:
    @book{Bolker2007,
      author = {Bolker, Benjamin M},
      title = {Ecological Models and Data in R},
      publisher = {Princeton University Press},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {408},
      url = {http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&amp;lr=&amp;id=yULf2kZSfeMC&amp;oi=fnd&amp;pg=PR9&amp;dq=Ecological+Models+and+Data+in+R&amp;ots=t86uFVtI6L&amp;sig=we1xqEKZA-kWxkZ1coH7lHKGpf4}
    }
    
    Bolker, B.M., Brooks, M.E., Clark, C.J., Geange, S.W., Poulsen, J.R., Stevens, M.H.H. & White, J.-S.S. Generalized linear mixed models: a practical guide for ecology and evolution. 2009 Trends in Ecology and Evolution
    Vol. 24(3), pp. 127-35 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: How should ecologists and evolutionary biologists analyze nonnormal data that involve random effects? Nonnormal data such as counts or proportions often defy classical statistical procedures. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) provide a more flexible approach for analyzing nonnormal data when random effects are present. The explosion of research on GLMMs in the last decade has generated considerable uncertainty for practitioners in ecology and evolution. Despite the availability of accurate techniques for estimating GLMM parameters in simple cases, complex GLMMs are challenging to fit and statistical inference such as hypothesis testing remains difficult. We review the use (and misuse) of GLMMs in ecology and evolution, discuss estimation and inference and summarize 'best-practice' data analysis procedures for scientists facing this challenge.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bolker2009,
      author = {Bolker, Benjamin M and Brooks, Mollie E and Clark, Connie J and Geange, Shane W and Poulsen, John R and Stevens, M Henry H and White, Jada-Simone S},
      title = {Generalized linear mixed models: a practical guide for ecology and evolution.},
      journal = {Trends in Ecology and Evolution},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {24},
      number = {3},
      pages = {127--35},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2008.10.008},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2008.10.008}
    }
    
    Booth, A.L. & Skelton, N.W. The Use of Domestic Goats and Vinegar as Municipal Weed Control Alternatives 2009 Environmental Practice
    Vol. 11(01), pp. 3-16 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{CambridgeJournals:5398320,
      author = {Booth, Annie L and Skelton, Norman W},
      title = {The Use of Domestic Goats and Vinegar as Municipal Weed Control Alternatives},
      journal = {Environmental Practice},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {11},
      number = {01},
      pages = {3--16},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1466046609090012},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1466046609090012}
    }
    
    Boschetti, M., Bocchi, S. & Brivio, P.A. Assessment of pasture production in the Italian Alps using spectrometric and remote sensing information 2007 Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
    Vol. 118(1-4), pp. 267-272 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Three years of summer field studies (2002-2004) were conducted at two sites in the Central Italian Alps. Field spectroradiometer data were acquired on different vegetation typologies where current above ground biomass was measured with traditional agronomic methods. Radiometric measurements were synthesised into a set of spectral vegetation indices. Log-transformed regression analysis between fresh biomass and spectral vegetation indices indicated that soil-adjusted vegetation indices (SAVI, MSAVI and OSAVI) show a better correlation (r2 > 0.60) than more commonly employed indices as SR and NDVI (r2 < 0.50). Cross validation procedure showed that a regressive model based on MSAVI index was the most predictive. Analysis of covariance revealed that data from different years and vegetation types significantly influenced the relation, however no improvement in the regressive model was found when data were used separately. After a suitable calibration procedure, a fresh biomass map of the study area was obtained using Landsat-7 imagery. Results showed that the integrated use of field spectral measurements and satellite derived information can provide a valuable support to the assessment of pasture biomass production in alpine environment.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Boschetti2007,
      author = {Boschetti, Mirco and Bocchi, Stefano and Brivio, Pietro Alessandro},
      title = {Assessment of pasture production in the Italian Alps using spectrometric and remote sensing information},
      journal = {Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {118},
      number = {1-4},
      pages = {267--272},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?ob=ArticleURL&udi=B6T3Y-4KBVV0K-1&user=10&coverDate=01/31/2007&alid=775793255&rdoc=1&fmt=high&orig=search&cdi=4959&docanchor=&view=c&ct=1&acct=C000050221&version=1&urlVersion=0&userid=10&md5=69aeb03b2c5483f61189f78322de7ebd},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2006.05.024}
    }
    
    Bossuyt, B. & Honnay, O. Can the seed bank be used for ecological restoration? An overview of seed bank characteristics in European communities 2008 Journal of Vegetation Science
    Vol. 19(6), pp. 875-884 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Question: Can seeds in the seed bank be considered as a potential source of material for the restoration of European plant communities including forest, marsh, grassland and heathland?
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bossuyt2008,
      author = {Bossuyt, Beatrijs and Honnay, Olivier},
      title = {Can the seed bank be used for ecological restoration? An overview of seed bank characteristics in European communities},
      journal = {Journal of Vegetation Science},
      publisher = {International Association of Vegetation Science},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {19},
      number = {6},
      pages = {875--884},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3170/2008-8-18462},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3170/2008-8-18462}
    }
    
    Boyd, D. & Foody, G. An overview of recent remote sensing and GIS based research in ecological informatics 2010 Ecological Informatics  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: This article provides an overview of some of the recent research in ecological informatics involving remote sensing and GIS. Attention focuses on a selected range of issues including topics such as the nature of remote sensing data sets, issues of accuracy and uncertainty, data visualization and sharing activities as well as developments in aspects of ecological modeling research. It is shown that considerable advances have been made over recent years and foundations for future research established.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Boyd2010,
      author = {Boyd, D.S. and Foody, G.M.},
      title = {An overview of recent remote sensing and GIS based research in ecological informatics},
      journal = {Ecological Informatics},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoinf.2010.07.007},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoinf.2010.07.007}
    }
    
    Brå then, K.A., Ims, R.A., Yoccoz, N.G., Fauchald, P., Tveraa, T. & Hausner, V.H. Induced Shift in Ecosystem Productivity? Extensive Scale Effects of Abundant Large Herbivores 2007 Ecosystems
    Vol. 10(5), pp. 773-789 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abundant large herbivores can strongly alter vegetation composition, shifting the ecosystem into a lasting state of changed productivity. Previous studies of the effects of abundant reindeer on alpine and arctic vegetation have yielded equivocal results, probably due to differing environmental contexts. To overcome context dependency we devised a large-scale survey in the region of Finnmark, northern Norway, possessing some of the most densely stocked reindeer herds in the world. The effects of reindeer abundance on summer pasture vegetation were assessed by employing a quasi-experimental design, including site fertility as a potential modifier of the reindeer–vegetation interaction. The study design comprised ten pairs of neighboring management districts (encompassing 18,003 km2), where over the two last decades a high-density district on average had reindeer densities more than twice as high and calf weights consistently lower than the low-density district. The abundance of different plant functional groups, ranging from those having facilitating to retarding effects on ecosystem productivity, were quantified by the point intercept method on plots selected according to a hierarchical, stratified random sampling design. Species with strong retarding effects on ecosystem productivity (for example, ericoids) were by far the most abundant. However, we found no consistent effects of reindeer density on their abundance. The most consistent differences between high- and low-density districts were found in plant functional groups with facilitating to neutral effects on ecosystem productivity. In particular, the abundance of N-facilitators, large dicotyledons and grasses were substantially reduced in the high-density districts. However, this reduction was restricted to fertile sites. Thus, reindeer when present at high densities have homogenized the biomass of palatable plants across environmental productivity gradients according to predictions from exploitation ecosystem models. Such reduction of plants with facilitating to neutral effects on ecosystem productivity indicates a reduced state of ecosystem productivity in high-density districts.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Brathen2007,
      author = {Brå then, Kari Anne and Ims, Rolf A. and Yoccoz, Nigel G. and Fauchald, Per and Tveraa, Torkild and Hausner, Vera H.},
      title = {Induced Shift in Ecosystem Productivity? Extensive Scale Effects of Abundant Large Herbivores},
      journal = {Ecosystems},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {10},
      number = {5},
      pages = {773--789},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/180g54x213t153h3/}
    }
    
    Braakhekke, W.G. & Hooftman, D.A. The resource balance hypothesis of plant species diversity in grassland 1999 Journal of Vegetation Science
    Vol. 10(2), pp. 187-200 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: We hypothesize that plant species diversity is favoured when actual resource supply ratios are balanced according to the optimum resource supply ratios for the vegetation as a whole. This 'resource balance hypothesis of plant species diversity' (RBH) follows from two different mechanisms of plant species coexistence, namely: 'differential resource limitation', which allows species to coexist in a competitive equilibrium in a homogeneous environment and 'micro-habitat differentiation', which builds on spatial heterogeneity. Both mechanisms require that resource supply ratios are intermediate between the optimum supply ratios of the species present in the species pool. Additional conditions, concerning the resource acquisition and requirement ratios of the species, are easier to meet for the second mechanism than for the first. To test the RBH we measured species diversity parameters in 74 grassland plots, as well as the N, P and K concentrations in the above-ground biomass. We used a new ceiling detection algorithm to examine the relationship between maximum observed diversity and the N/P-, P/K- and K/N-ratios in the biomass. Most of these ceiling relationships could be described by parabolic curves with significant quadratic terms. This indicates that high diversity does not occur at the extremes of the observed ranges of nutrient ratios. This supports the RBH.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Braakhekke1999,
      author = {Braakhekke, Willem G. and Hooftman, Danny A.P.},
      title = {The resource balance hypothesis of plant species diversity in grassland},
      journal = {Journal of Vegetation Science},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {10},
      number = {2},
      pages = {187--200},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.2307/3237140},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3237140}
    }
    
    Bradshaw, J.W., Blackwell, E.J. & Casey, R. a. Dominance in domestic dogs—useful construct or bad habit? 2009 Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research
    Vol. 4(3), pp. 135-144 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The term ‘‘dominance’’ is widely used in the academic and popular literature on the behavior of domestic dogs, especially in the context of aggression. Although dominance is correctly a property of relationships, it has been erroneously used to describe a supposed trait of individual dogs, even though there is little evidence that such a trait exists. When used correctly to describe a relationship between 2 individuals, it tends to be misapplied as a motivation for social interactions, rather than sim- ply a quality of that relationship. Hence, it is commonly suggested that a desire ‘to be dominant’ ac- tually drives behavior, especially aggression, in the domestic dog. By contrast, many recent studies of wolf packs have questioned whether there is any direct correspondence between dominance within a relationship and agonistic behavior, and in contrast to wolves, hierarchical social structures have little relationship with reproductive behavior in feral dog packs. Nor do the exchanges of aggressive and sub- missive behavior in feral dogs, originally published by S. K. Pal and coworkers, fit the pattern predicted from wolf behavior, especially the submissive behavior observed between members of different packs. In the present study of a freely interacting group of neutered male domestic dogs, pairwise relation- ships were evident, but no overall hierarchy could be detected. Since there seems to be little empirical basis for wolf-type dominance hierarchies in dogs, the authors have examined alternative constructs. Parker’s Resource Holding Potential (RHP) appears to be less useful when applied to domestic dogs than to other species, although it has the advantage of incorporating the concept of subjective resource value (V) as a factor influencing whether or not conflicts are escalated. The authors propose that as- sociative learning, combined with V, can provide more parsimonious explanations for agonistic behavior in dogs than can the traditional concept of dominance.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bradshaw2009,
      author = {Bradshaw, John W.S. and Blackwell, Emily J. and Casey, Rachel a.},
      title = {Dominance in domestic dogs—useful construct or bad habit?},
      journal = {Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research},
      publisher = {Elsevier Inc},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {4},
      number = {3},
      pages = {135--144},
      url = {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1558787808001159},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jveb.2008.08.004}
    }
    
    Braun-Blanquet, J. Grundzüge der Vegetationskunde 1928
    Vol. 7Pflanzensoziologie 
    book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Braun-Blanquet1928,
      author = {Braun-Blanquet, Josias},
      title = {Grundzüge der Vegetationskunde},
      booktitle = {Pflanzensoziologie},
      publisher = {Springer},
      year = {1928},
      volume = {7}
    }
    
    Breckenridge, R.P., Dakins, M., Bunting, S., Harbour, J.L. & Lee, R.D. Using Unmanned Helicopters to Assess Vegetation Cover in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystems 2012 Rangeland Ecology & Management
    Vol. 65(4), pp. 362-370 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Evaluating vegetation cover is an important factor in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems. Remote sensing methods with sufficient accuracy could dramatically alter how biotic resources are monitored on both public and private lands. Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in conjunction with the University of Idaho, evaluated whether unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are sufficiently accurate and more efficient than the point-frame field method for monitoring vegetative cover and bare ground in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. These values are of interest to land managers because typically there are limited natural resource scientists and funding for comprehensive ground evaluations. In this project, unmanned helicopters were used to collect still-frame imagery to determine vegetation cover during June and July 2005. The images were used to estimate percent cover for six vegetative cover classes (shrub, dead shrub, grass, forbs, litter, and bare ground). Field plots used to collect imagery and on-the-ground measurements were located on the INL site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho. Ocular assessments of digital imagery were performed using SamplePoint, and the results were compared with field measurements collected using a point-frame method. The helicopter imagery evaluation showed a high degree of agreement with field cover class values for grass, litter, and bare ground and reasonable agreement for dead shrubs. Shrub cover was often overestimated, and forbs were generally underestimated. The helicopter method took 45% less time than the field method. This study demonstrates that UAV technology provides a viable method for monitoring selective types of cover on rangelands and could save time and resources.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Breckenridge2012,
      author = {Breckenridge, Robert P. and Dakins, Maxine and Bunting, Stephen and Harbour, Jerry L. and Lee, Randy D.},
      title = {Using Unmanned Helicopters to Assess Vegetation Cover in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystems},
      journal = {Rangeland Ecology & Management},
      publisher = {Society for Range Management},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {65},
      number = {4},
      pages = {362--370},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2111/REM-D-10-00031.1}
    }
    
    Brenner, S., Nie E. & Pfeffer, E. Quantifizierung horizontaler Nährstoffbewegungen durch angepasste Weidewirtschaft mit Schafen in Naturschutzgebieten 2002 , pp. 92pp.  book URL 
    BibTeX:
    @book{Brenner2002,
      author = {Brenner, S. and Nie E. and Pfeffer, E.},
      title = {Quantifizierung horizontaler Nährstoffbewegungen durch angepasste Weidewirtschaft mit Schafen in Naturschutzgebieten},
      publisher = {Landwirtschaftliche Fakultät der Universität Bonn},
      year = {2002},
      pages = {92pp.},
      edition = {Schriftenr},
      url = {http://www.usl.uni-bonn.de/pdf/Forschungsbericht 85.pdf}
    }
    
    Breuste, J. & Qureshi, S. Urban sustainability, urban ecology and the Society for Urban Ecology (SURE) 2011 Urban Ecosystems
    Vol. 14(3), pp. 313-317 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Breuste2011,
      author = {Breuste, Jürgen and Qureshi, Salman},
      title = {Urban sustainability, urban ecology and the Society for Urban Ecology (SURE)},
      journal = {Urban Ecosystems},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {14},
      number = {3},
      pages = {313--317},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/index/10.1007/s11252-011-0186-3},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11252-011-0186-3}
    }
    
    Breves, G. & Rodehutscord, M. Gibt es Grenzen in der Zucht auf Milchleistung?- Aus der Sicht der Physiologie 2000 27. Viehwirtschaftliche Fachtagung, 6.-8. Juni, pp. 1-4  inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Breves2000,
      author = {Breves, G. and Rodehutscord, M.},
      title = {Gibt es Grenzen in der Zucht auf Milchleistung?- Aus der Sicht der Physiologie},
      booktitle = {27. Viehwirtschaftliche Fachtagung, 6.-8. Juni},
      publisher = {Bundesanstalt für alpenländische Landwirtschaft Gumpenstein},
      year = {2000},
      pages = {1--4}
    }
    
    Brewer, J.S. & Menzel, T. A Method for Evaluating Outcomes of Restoration When No Reference Sites Exist 2009 Restoration Ecology
    Vol. 17(1), pp. 4-11 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Brewer2009,
      author = {Brewer, J. Stephen and Menzel, Timothy},
      title = {A Method for Evaluating Outcomes of Restoration When No Reference Sites Exist},
      journal = {Restoration Ecology},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {17},
      number = {1},
      pages = {4--11},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1526-100X.2008.00456.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-100X.2008.00456.x}
    }
    
    Briemle, G., Nitsche, S. & Nitsche, L. Nutzungswertzahlen für Gefäß pflanzen des Grünlandes 2002 Schriftenreihe für Vegetationskunde
    Vol. 38, pp. 203-225 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Briemle2002,
      author = {Briemle, G. and Nitsche, S. and Nitsche, L.},
      title = {Nutzungswertzahlen für Gefäß pflanzen des Grünlandes},
      journal = {Schriftenreihe für Vegetationskunde},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {38},
      pages = {203--225}
    }
    
    van den Brink, P.J., den Besten, P.J., bij de Vaate, A. & ter Braak, C.J.F. Principal response curves technique for the analysis of multivariate biomonitoring time series. 2009 Environmental monitoring and assessment
    Vol. 152(1-4), pp. 271-81 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Although chemical and biological monitoring is often used to evaluate the quality of surface waters for regulatory purposes and/or to evaluate environmental status and trends, the resulting biological and chemical data sets are large and difficult to evaluate. Multivariate techniques have long been used to analyse complex data sets. This paper discusses the methods currently in use and introduces the principal response curves method, which overcomes the problem of cluttered graphical results representation that is a great drawback of most conventional methods. To illustrate this, two example data sets are analysed using two ordination techniques, principal component analysis and principal response curves. Whereas PCA results in a difficult-to-interpret diagram, principal response curves related methods are able to show changes in community composition in a diagram that is easy to read. The principal response curves method is used to show trends over time with an internal reference (overall mean or reference year) or external reference (e.g. preferred water quality or reference site). Advantages and disadvantages of both methods are discussed and illustrated.
    BibTeX:
    @article{VandenBrink2009a,
      author = {van den Brink, Paul J and den Besten, Piet J and bij de Vaate, Abraham and ter Braak, Cajo J F},
      title = {Principal response curves technique for the analysis of multivariate biomonitoring time series.},
      journal = {Environmental monitoring and assessment},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {152},
      number = {1-4},
      pages = {271--81},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18484186},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-008-0314-6}
    }
    
    Briske, D.D., Derner, J.D., Brown, J.R., Fuhlendorf, S.D., Teague, W.R., Havstad, K.M., Gillen, R.L., Ash, A.J. & Willms, W.D. Rotational Grazing on Rangelands: Reconciliation of Perception and Experimental Evidence 2008 Rangeland Ecology & Management
    Vol. 61(1), pp. 3-17 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: In spite of overwhelming experimental evidence to the contrary, rotational grazing continues to be promoted and implemented as the only viable grazing strategy. The goals of this synthesis are to 1) reevaluate the complexity, underlying assumptions, and ecological processes of grazed ecosystems, 2) summarize plant and animal production responses to rotational and continuous grazing, 3) characterize the prevailing perceptions influencing the assessment of rotational and continuous grazing, and 4) attempt to direct the profession toward a reconciliation of perceptions advocating support for rotational grazing systems with that of the experimental evidence. The ecological relationships of grazing systems have been reasonably well resolved, at the scales investigated, and a continuation of costly grazing experiments adhering to conventional research protocols will yield little additional information. Plant production was equal or greater in continuous compared to rotational grazing in 87% (20 of 23) of the experiments. Similarly, animal production per head and per area were equal or greater in continuous compared to rotational grazing in 92% (35 of 38) and 84% (27 of 32) of the experiments, respectively. These experimental data demonstrate that a set of potentially effective grazing strategies exist, none of which have unique properties that set one apart from the other in terms of ecological effectiveness. The performance of rangeland grazing strategies are similarly constrained by several ecological variables establishing that differences among them are dependent on the effectiveness of management models, rather than the occurrence of unique ecological phenomena. Continued advocacy for rotational grazing as a superior strategy of grazing on rangelands is founded on perception and anecdotal interpretations, rather than an objective assessment of the vast experimental evidence. We recommend that these evidence-based conclusions be explicitly incorporated into management and policy decisions addressing this predominant land use on rangelands.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Briske2008,
      author = {Briske, David D. and Derner, J. D. and Brown, J. R. and Fuhlendorf, S. D. and Teague, W. R. and Havstad, K. M. and Gillen, R. L. and Ash, A. J. and Willms, W. D.},
      title = {Rotational Grazing on Rangelands: Reconciliation of Perception and Experimental Evidence},
      journal = {Rangeland Ecology & Management},
      publisher = {Society for Range Management},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {61},
      number = {1},
      pages = {3--17},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2111/06-159R.1},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2111/06-159R.1}
    }
    
    Briske, D.D., Fuhlendorf, S.D. & Smeins, F.E. A Unified Framework for Assessment and Application of Ecological Thresholds 2006 Rangeland Ecology & Management
    Vol. 59(3), pp. 225-236 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The goal of this synthesis is to initiate development of a unified framework for threshold assessment that is able to link ecological theory and processes with management knowledge and application. Specific objectives include the investigation of threshold mechanisms, elaboration of threshold components, introduction of threshold categories and trajectories, and presentation of an operational definition of ecological thresholds. A greater understanding of ecological thresholds is essential because they have become a focal point within the state-and-transition framework and their occurrence has critical consequences for land management. Threshold occurrence may be best interpreted as a switch from the dominance of negative feedbacks that maintain ecosystem resilience to the dominance of positive feedbacks that degrade resilience and promote the development of post-threshold states on individual ecological sites. Threshold categories have been identified to serve as ecological benchmarks to describe the extent of threshold progression and increase insight into feedback mechanisms that determine threshold reversibility. Threshold trajectories describe the developmental pathway that post-threshold states may follow once a threshold has been exceeded. These trajectories may produce a continuum of potential post-threshold states, but the majority of them may be organized into four broad states. This framework lends itself to management application by providing an operational definition of thresholds that is based on a probabilistic interpretation. Probabilities associated with 1) the occurrence of triggers that initiate threshold progression, 2) the trajectory of post-threshold states, and 3) threshold reversibility will provide an operational procedure for threshold assessment and application. If thresholds are to play a central role in rangeland ecology and management, then the rangeland profession must accept responsibility for their conceptual development, ecological validity, and managerial effectiveness.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Briske2006,
      author = {Briske, David D. and Fuhlendorf, S. D. and Smeins, F. E.},
      title = {A Unified Framework for Assessment and Application of Ecological Thresholds},
      journal = {Rangeland Ecology & Management},
      publisher = {Society for Range Management},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {59},
      number = {3},
      pages = {225--236},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2111/05-115R.1},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2111/05-115R.1}
    }
    
    Briske, D.D., Fuhlendorf, S.D. & Smeins, F.E. State-and-Transition Models, Thresholds, and Rangeland Health: A Synthesis of Ecological Concepts and Perspectives 2005 Rangeland Ecology & Management
    Vol. 58(1), pp. 1-10 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: This article synthesizes the ecological concepts and perspectives underpinning the development and application of state-and-transition models, thresholds, and rangeland health. Introduction of the multiple stable state concept paved the way for the development of these alternative evaluation procedures by hypothesizing that multiple stable plant communities can potentially occupy individual ecological sites. Vegetation evaluation procedures must be able to assess continuous and reversible as well as discontinuous and nonreversible vegetation dynamics because both patterns occur and neither pattern alone provides a complete assessment of vegetation dynamics on all rangelands. Continuous and reversible vegetation dynamics prevail within stable vegetation states, whereas discontinuous and nonreversible dynamics occur when thresholds are surpassed and one stable state replaces another. State-and-transition models can accommodate both categories of vegetation dynamics because they represent vegetation change along several axes, including fire regimes, weather variability, and management prescriptions, in addition to the succession-grazing axis associated with the traditional range model. Ecological thresholds have become a focal point of state-and-transition models because threshold identification is necessary for recognition of the various stable plant communities than can potentially occupy an ecological site. Thresholds are difficult to define and quantify because they represent a complex series of interacting components, rather than discrete boundaries in time and space. Threshold components can be categorized broadly as structural and functional based on compositional and spatial vegetation attributes, and on modification of ecosystem processes, respectively. State-and-transition models and rangeland health procedures have developed in parallel, rather than as components of an integrated framework, because the two procedures primarily rely on structural and functional thresholds, respectively. It may be prudent for rangeland professionals to consider the introduction of these alternative evaluation procedures as the beginning of a long-term developmental process, rather than as an end point marked by the adoption of an alternative set of standardized evaluation procedures.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Briske2005,
      author = {Briske, David D. and Fuhlendorf, S. D. and Smeins, F. E.},
      title = {State-and-Transition Models, Thresholds, and Rangeland Health: A Synthesis of Ecological Concepts and Perspectives},
      journal = {Rangeland Ecology & Management},
      publisher = {Society for Range Management},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {58},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1--10},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2111/1551-5028(2005)58<1:SMTARH>2.0.CO;2},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2111/1551-5028(2005)58<1:SMTARH>2.0.CO;2}
    }
    
    Briske, D.D., Fuhlendorf, S.D. & Smeins, F.E. Vegetation dynamics on rangelands: a critique of the current paradigms 2003 Journal of Applied Ecology
    Vol. 40(4), pp. 601-614 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: 1. Rangeland ecologists have been debating the validity of two current paradigms for the evaluation of vegetation dynamics on rangelands. This debate frequently contrasts the conventional model of continuous and reversible vegetation dynamics (range model) with a more contemporary model that can accommodate discontinuous and non-reversible vegetation change (state-and-transition model). 2. The range and the state-and-transition models are conceptually related to the equi- librium and non-equilibrium paradigms within ecology, respectively. The methodolo- gical dichotomy that has developed between the range and the state-and-transition models has fostered the perception that these two ecological paradigms are mutually exclusive. We challenge this perception and contend that both methodologies and their corresponding paradigms are non-exclusive. 3. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium ecosystems are not distinguished on the basis of unique processes or functions, but rather by the evaluation of system dynamics at various temporal and spatial scales. Consequently, ecosystems may express both equilibrium and non-equilibrium dynamics. This confirms early interpretations that ecosystems are dis- tributed along a continuum from equilibrium to non-equilibrium states. 4. Although both equilibrium and non-equilibrium dynamics occur in numerous eco- systems, the empirical evidence is frequently confounded by (i) uncertainty regarding the appropriate evidence necessary to distinguish between paradigms; (ii) dispropor- tionate responses among vegetation attributes to climate and grazing; (iii) comparisons among systems with varying degrees of managerial involvement; and (iv) the evaluation of vegetation dynamics at various spatial and temporal scales. 5. Synthesis and applications. This critique supports the conclusion that a paradigm shift has not taken place in rangeland ecology, but rather, the debate has forced a more comprehensive interpretation of vegetation dynamics along the entirety of the equilib- rium–non-equilibrium continuum. Therefore, the rangeland debate should be redirected from the dichotomy between paradigms to one of paradigm integration.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Briske2003,
      author = {Briske, David D. and Fuhlendorf, S. D. and Smeins, F. E.},
      title = {Vegetation dynamics on rangelands: a critique of the current paradigms},
      journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {40},
      number = {4},
      pages = {601--614},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1046/j.1365-2664.2003.00837.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2664.2003.00837.x}
    }
    
    Briske, D.D., Sayre, N.F., Huntsinger, L., Fernandez-Gimenez, M., Budd, B. & Derner, J.D. Origin, Persistence, and Resolution of the Rotational Grazing Debate: Integrating Human Dimensions Into Rangeland Research 2011 Rangeland Ecology & Management
    Vol. 64(4), pp. 325-334 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The debate regarding the benefits of rotational grazing has eluded resolution within the US rangeland profession for more than 60 yr. This forum examines the origin of the debate and the major reasons for its persistence in an attempt to identify common ground for resolution, and to search for meaningful lessons from this central chapter in the history of the US rangeland profession. Rotational grazing was a component of the institutional and scientific response to severe rangeland degradation at the turn of the 20th century, and it has since become the professional norm for grazing management. Managers have found that rotational grazing systems can work for diverse management purposes, but scientific experiments have demonstrated that they do not necessarily work for specific ecological purposes. These interpretations appear contradictory, but we contend that they can be reconciled by evaluation within the context of complex adaptive systems in which human variables such as goal setting, experiential knowledge, and decision making are given equal importance to biophysical variables. The scientific evidence refuting the ecological benefits of rotational grazing is robust, but also narrowly focused, because it derives from experiments that intentionally excluded these human variables. Consequently, the profession has attempted to answer a broad, complex question—whether or not managers should adopt rotational grazing—with necessarily narrow experimental research focused exclusively on ecological processes. The rotational grazing debate persists because the rangeland profession has not yet developed a management and research framework capable of incorporating both the social and biophysical components of complex adaptive systems. We recommend moving beyond the debate over whether or not rotational grazing works by focusing on adaptive management and the integration of experiential and experimental, as well as social and biophysical, knowledge to provide a more comprehensive framework for the management of rangeland systems.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Briske2011,
      author = {Briske, David D. and Sayre, Nathan F. and Huntsinger, L. and Fernandez-Gimenez, M. and Budd, B. and Derner, J. D.},
      title = {Origin, Persistence, and Resolution of the Rotational Grazing Debate: Integrating Human Dimensions Into Rangeland Research},
      journal = {Rangeland Ecology & Management},
      publisher = {Society for Range Management},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {64},
      number = {4},
      pages = {325--334},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2111/REM-D-10-00084.1},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2111/REM-D-10-00084.1}
    }
    
    Brosofske, K., Chen, J., Crow, T. & Saunders, S. Vegetation responses to landscape structure at multiple scales across a Northern Wisconsin , USA , pine barrens landscape 1999 Plant Ecology
    Vol. 143, pp. 203-218 
    article  
    Abstract: Increasing awareness of the importance of scale and landscape structure to landscape processes and concern about loss of biodiversity has resulted in efforts to understand patterns of biodiversity across multiple scales. We examined plant species distributions and their relationships to landscape structure at varying spatial scales across a pine barrens landscape in northern Wisconsin, U.S.A. We recorded plant species cover in 1x1 m plots every 5 m along a 3575 m transect, along with variables describing macro- and micro-landscape structure. A total of 139 understory plant species were recorded. The distributions of many species appeared to be strongly associated with landscape structural features, such as distinct management patches and roads. TWINSPAN and detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) identified three groups of species that overlapped extensively in the ordination, possibly reflecting the relatively homogeneous nature of disturbance in the pine barrens landscape. Distribution of understory plants did not reflect all of the patch types we identified along the transect; plot ordination and classification resulted in three to five plot groups that differed in niche breadth. Wavelet transforms showed varying relationships between landscape features and plant diversity indices (Shannon-Weiner, Simpson's Dominance) at different resolutions. Wavelet variances indicated that patterns of Shannon diversity were dominated by coarse resolutions ranging from similar to 900-1500 m, which may have been related to topography. Patterns of Simpson's Dominance were dominated by similar to 700 m resolution, possibly associated with canopy cover. However, a strong correspondence between overstory patch type and diversity was found for several patch types at ranges of scales that varied by patch type. Effects of linear features such as roads were apparent in the wavelet transforms at resolutions of about 5-1000 m, suggesting roads may have an important impact on plant diversity at landscape scales. At broad scales, landscape context appeared more important to diversity than individual patches, suggesting that changes in structure at fine resolutions could alter overall diversity characteristics of the landscape. Therefore, a hierarchical perspective is necessary to recognize potential large-scale change resulting from small-scale activities.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Brosofske1999,
      author = {Brosofske, K.D. and Chen, J. and Crow, T.R. and Saunders, S.C.},
      title = {Vegetation responses to landscape structure at multiple scales across a Northern Wisconsin , USA , pine barrens landscape},
      journal = {Plant Ecology},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {143},
      pages = {203--218}
    }
    
    Brower, A. The myth of encroachment 2012 Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice
    Vol. 2(1), pp. 3 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Brower2012,
      author = {Brower, Ann},
      title = {The myth of encroachment},
      journal = {Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {2},
      number = {1},
      pages = {3},
      url = {http://www.pastoralismjournal.com/content/2/1/3},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2041-7136-2-3}
    }
    
    Brownstein, G., Steel, J.B., Porter, S., Gray, A., Wilson, C., Wilson, P.G. & Bastow Wilson, J. Chance in plant communities: a new approach to its measurement using the nugget from spatial autocorrelation 2012 Journal of Ecology, pp. no-no  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Brownstein2012,
      author = {Brownstein, Gretchen and Steel, John B. and Porter, Stefan and Gray, Abraham and Wilson, Craig and Wilson, Padarn G. and Bastow Wilson, J.},
      title = {Chance in plant communities: a new approach to its measurement using the nugget from spatial autocorrelation},
      journal = {Journal of Ecology},
      year = {2012},
      pages = {no--no},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.01973.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.01973.x}
    }
    
    Brus, D. & de Gruijter, J. Random sampling or geostatistical modelling? Choosing between design-based and model-based sampling strategies for soil (with discussion) 1997 Geoderma
    Vol. 80(1-2), pp. 1-44 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Classical sampling theory has been repeatedly identified with classical statistics which assumes that data are identically and independently distributed. This explains the switch of many soil scientists from design-based sampling strategies, based on classical sampling theory, to the model-based approach, which is based on geostatistics. However, in design-based sampling, independence has a different meaning and is determined by the sampling design, whereas in the model-based approach it is determined by the postulated model for the process studied. Design-based strategies are therefore also valid in areas with autocorrelation. Design-based and model-based estimates of spatial means are compared in a simulation study on the basis of the design-based quality criteria. The simulated field consists of four homogeneous units that are realizations of models with different means, variances and variograms. Performance is compared for two sample sizes (140 and 1520) and two block sizes (8 × 6.4 km2, 1.6 × 1.6 km2). The two strategies are Stratified Simple Random Sampling combined with the Horvitz-Thompson estimator (STSI, tHT), and Systematic Sampling combined with the block kriging predictor (SY, tOK). Point estimates of spatial means by (SY, tOK) were more accurate in all cases except the global mean (8 × 6.4 km2 block) estimated from the small sample. In interval estimates on the other hand, p-coverages were in general better with the design-based strategy, except when the number of sample points in the block was small. Factors that determine the effectiveness and efficiency of the two approaches are the type of request, the interest in objective estimates, the need for separate unique estimates of the estimation variance for all points or subregions, the interest in valid and accurate estimates of the estimation or prediction variance, the quality of the model, the autocorrelation between observation and prediction points, and the sample size. These factors will be assembled in a decision-tree that can be helpful in choosing between the two approaches. Models can also be used in the design-based approach. They describe the population itself, whereas in the model-based approach they describe the data generating processes. Errors in such models result in less accurate estimates, but the estimated accuracy is still valid.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Brus1997,
      author = {Brus, D.J. and de Gruijter, J.J.},
      title = {Random sampling or geostatistical modelling? Choosing between design-based and model-based sampling strategies for soil (with discussion)},
      journal = {Geoderma},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {80},
      number = {1-2},
      pages = {1--44},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7061(97)00072-4},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7061(97)00072-4}
    }
    
    Buijs, A.E., Pedroli, B. & Luginbühl, Y. From hiking through farmland to farming in a leisure landscape: changing social perceptions of the European landscape 2006 Landscape Ecology
    Vol. 21(3), pp. 375-389 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The idea that landscape has been created by human activities on a biophysical basis allows for clear cause–effect reasoning. However, landscape planning and management practice learns that it is impossible to neglect the social perception of landscape, i.e. the ways people think about nature and landscape. It is the result of social research and human sciences of the last decade that a differentiation in views of nature and landscape can be identified in the different groups of social actors in the landscape. Case studies from France and the Netherlands show a marked change in values attributed to nature and landscape in the end of the last century. Social demand for landscape is growing and a shift from a functional image of nature and landscape to a more hedonistic image like the Arcadian and wilderness images has taken place. Comparing the Netherlands with France and rural with urban inhabitants, the influence of urbanisation is evident in this process. It is further shown that images of nature vary considerably between for example farmers, urban residents, hunters and conservationists. The way people perceive landscape seems determined by their functional ties with the landscape and the social praxis in which they encounter the landscape. It is concluded that the concept of landscape is nearer to the lifeworld of people than the abstract notions of nature and biodiversity. This implies a big challenge both for national and international landscape policies and for local landscape management initiatives to be developed, taking into due consideration both the material and immaterial nature of landscape.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Buijs2006,
      author = {Buijs, Arjen E and Pedroli, Bas and Luginbühl, Yves},
      title = {From hiking through farmland to farming in a leisure landscape: changing social perceptions of the European landscape},
      journal = {Landscape Ecology},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {21},
      number = {3},
      pages = {375--389},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/211r6v6546225871},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10980-005-5223-2}
    }
    
    Bullock, J.M., Aronson, J., Newton, A.C., Pywell, R.F. & Rey-Benayas, J.M. Restoration of ecosystem services and biodiversity: conflicts and opportunities. 2011 Trends in Ecology and Evolution
    Vol. 26(10), pp. 541-9 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Ecological restoration is becoming regarded as a major strategy for increasing the provision of ecosystem services as well as reversing biodiversity losses. Here, we show that restoration projects can be effective in enhancing both, but that conflicts can arise, especially if single services are targeted in isolation. Furthermore, recovery of biodiversity and services can be slow and incomplete. Despite this uncertainty, new methods of ecosystem service valuation are suggesting that the economic benefits of restoration can outweigh costs. Payment for Ecosystem Service schemes could therefore provide incentives for restoration, but require development to ensure biodiversity and multiple services are enhanced and the needs of different stakeholders are met. Such approaches must be implemented widely if new global restoration targets are to be achieved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bullock2011,
      author = {Bullock, James M and Aronson, James and Newton, Adrian C and Pywell, Richard F and Rey-Benayas, Jose M},
      title = {Restoration of ecosystem services and biodiversity: conflicts and opportunities.},
      journal = {Trends in Ecology and Evolution},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {26},
      number = {10},
      pages = {541--9},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2011.06.011},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2011.06.011}
    }
    
    Bullock, J.M., Pywell, R.F. & Walker, K.J. Long-term enhancement of agricultural production by restoration of biodiversity 2007 Journal of Applied Ecology
    Vol. 44(1), pp. 6-12 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: 1. Experimental manipulations have shown positive impacts of increased species richness on ecosystem productivity, but there remain some questions about this relationship. First, most studies last < 4 years, which raises issues about whether diversity–productivity relationships are maintained in mature communities. Secondly, the conservation relevance of many studies is debatable. We addressed both issues using long-term experimental studies of the agriculturally relevant hay yield of recreated species-rich grasslands. 2. Grasslands were recreated within replicated experiments in ex-arable fields at two sites in southern England by using either species-poor or species-rich seed mixtures. The species-poor mixture comprised seven grasses as recommended for grassland creation in English agri-environment schemes. The species-rich mixture comprised 11 grasses and 28 forbs and was designed to recreate a typical southern English hay meadow. 3. After 8 years the plots sown with species-rich mixtures resembled target diverse com- munity types. The plots sown with species-poor mixtures had been colonized by a number of forbs but had lower numbers of grasses, legumes and other forbs than the species-rich plots. Increased hay yield of the species-rich plots in the first years of the experiments have been described in an earlier paper, and these differences were maintained after 8 years. 4. In the eighth year the species-rich plots had an average 43% higher hay yield than the species-poor plots. Regression analysis showed that the variation in hay yield was related to differences in the number of non-leguminous forbs and showed no relation to grass or legume numbers. This suggests increased hay yield is an effect of the greater range of life forms exhibited by forbs rather than a simple fertilizing effect of legumes. 5. The nitrogen content and phosphorus content of the hay showed complex treatment effects over time. However, the nutritional value of the hay was above the minimum requirements for livestock. 6. Synthesis and applications . The aims of conservationists and farmers can often be in conflict. This study has shown that the recreation of diverse grasslands of conservation value can have a positive impact on hay yield, which benefits the farm business, and this is repeated across differing sites. Because the effect is maintained over time, farm income will be increased in the long term.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bullock2007,
      author = {Bullock, James M. and Pywell, Richard F. and Walker, Kevin J.},
      title = {Long-term enhancement of agricultural production by restoration of biodiversity},
      journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {44},
      number = {1},
      pages = {6--12},
      url = {http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2006.01252.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2006.01252.x}
    }
    
    Bunzel-Drüke, M., Drüke, J., Hauswirth, L. & Vierhaus, H. Groß tiere und Landschaft - Von der Praxis zur Theorie 1999 Natur- und Kulturlandschaft
    Vol. 3, pp. 210-229 
    article  
    Abstract: Seven years after the start, the all-year grazing project with Heck cattle („restored aurochs“) in the Lippe floodplain has proved to be quite a success. The management of the animals requires only little effort and the expected reducement of human disturbances in the reserve came true. First results of studies monitoring vegetation structure and breeding birds suggest the developement of a species-rich mosaic landscape. The grazing project near the Lippe river proved to be the impulse for the pursuit of the question of what the natural landscape of Central Europe would look like if man had not extinguished several large animal species respectively reduced their numbers. Under the influence of the at least 18 typical large herbivore species the interglacial natural landscape of Central Europe can be assumed as a spatial and temporal mosaic of all imaginable transitions between forests and open landscapes. The expansive dark beech forests in the Holocene were able to develop only because some large herbivore species had vanished before the end of the last glacial. If herbivory is acknowledged as a relevant factor for Central European ecosystems and landscapes, this has to be regognized in nature conservation too, eg. when establishing nature development areas and national parks in which natural processes are meant to occur and in "natural" silviculture. Further studies are imperative, as well as the establishment of nature conservation projects in which large herbivore mammals are integrated.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bunzel1999,
      author = {Bunzel-Drüke, Margret and Drüke, Joachim and Hauswirth, Luise and Vierhaus, Henning},
      title = {Groß tiere und Landschaft - Von der Praxis zur Theorie},
      journal = {Natur- und Kulturlandschaft},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {3},
      pages = {210--229}
    }
    
    Burke, S. Regression and Calibration 2001 LCGC Online Supplement, pp. 13-18  article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Burke2001a,
      author = {Burke, Shaun},
      title = {Regression and Calibration},
      journal = {LCGC Online Supplement},
      year = {2001},
      pages = {13--18},
      url = {http://www.lcgceurope.com/lcgceurope/data/articlestandard/lcgceurope/502001/4500/article.pdf}
    }
    
    Burke, S. Missing Values, Outliers, Robust Statistics and Non-parametric Methods 2001 LCGC Online Supplement, pp. 19-24  article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Burke2001b,
      author = {Burke, Shaun},
      title = {Missing Values, Outliers, Robust Statistics and Non-parametric Methods},
      journal = {LCGC Online Supplement},
      year = {2001},
      pages = {19--24},
      url = {http://www.lcgceurope.com/lcgceurope/data/articlestandard/lcgceurope/502001/4509/article.pdf}
    }
    
    Burke, S. Analysis of Variance 1998 LCGC Online Supplement, pp. 9-12  article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Burke1998,
      author = {Burke, Shaun},
      title = {Analysis of Variance},
      journal = {LCGC Online Supplement},
      year = {1998},
      pages = {9--12},
      url = {http://chromatographyonline.findanalytichem.com/lcgc/Statistics+&+Data+Analysis/Analysis-of-Variance/ArticleStandard/Article/detail/4493}
    }
    
    Burke, S. Understanding the Structure of Scientific Data 1997 LCGC Online Supplement, pp. 3-8  article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Burke1997,
      author = {Burke, Shaun},
      title = {Understanding the Structure of Scientific Data},
      journal = {LCGC Online Supplement},
      year = {1997},
      pages = {3--8},
      url = {http://chromatographyonline.findanalytichem.com/lcgc/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=4489}
    }
    
    Burkhard, B., Kroll, F. & Müller, F. Landscapes‘ Capacities to Provide Ecosystem Services – a Concept for Land-Cover Based Assessments 2010 Landscape Online, pp. 1-22  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Landscapes differ in their capacities to provide ecosystem goods and services, which are the benefits humans obtain from nature. Structures and functions of ecosystems needed to sustain the provision of ecosystem services are altered by various human activities. In this paper, a concept for the assessment of multiple ecosystem services is proposed as a basis for discussion and further development of a respective evaluation instrument. Using quantitative and qualitative assessment data in combination with land cover and land use information originated from remote sensing and GIS, impacts of human activities can be evaluated. The results reveal typical patterns of different ecosystems‘ capacities to provide ecosystem services. The proposed approach thus delivers useful integrative information for environmental management and landscape planning, aiming at a sustainable use of services provided by nature. The research concept and methodological framework presented here for discussion have initially been applied in different case studies and shall be developed further to provide a useful tool for the quantification and spatial modelling of multiple ecosystem services in different landscapes. An exemplary application of the approach dealing with food provision in the Halle-Leipzig region in Germany is presented. It shows typical patterns of ecosystem service distribution around urban areas. As the approach is new and still rather general, there is great potential for improvement, especially with regard to a data-based quantification of the numerous hypotheses, which were formulated as base for the assessment. Moreover, the integration of more detailed landscape information on different scales will be needed in future in order to take the heterogeneous distribution of landscape properties and values into account. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to foster critical discussions on the methodological development presented here.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Burkhard2010,
      author = {Burkhard, Benjamin and Kroll, Franziska and Müller, Felix},
      title = {Landscapes‘ Capacities to Provide Ecosystem Services – a Concept for Land-Cover Based Assessments},
      journal = {Landscape Online},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {1--22},
      url = {http://www.landscapeonline.de/archive/2009/15/BurkhardetalLO152009.pdf},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3097/LO.200915}
    }
    
    Butchart, S.H.M., Walpole, M., Collen, B., van Strien, A., Scharlemann, J.P.W., Almond, R.E.A., Baillie, J.E.M., Bomhard, B., Brown, C., Bruno, J., Carpenter, K.E., Carr, G.M., Chanson, J., Chenery, A.M., Csirke, J., Davidson, N.C., Dentener, F., Foster, M., Galli, A., Galloway, J.N., Genovesi, P., Gregory, R.D., Hockings, M., Kapos, V., Lamarque, J.-F., Leverington, F., Loh, J., McGeoch, M.A., McRae, L., Minasyan, A., Morcillo, M.H., Oldfield, T.E.E., Pauly, D., Quader, S., Revenga, C., Sauer, J.R., Skolnik, B., Spear, D., Stanwell-Smith, D., Stuart, S.N., Symes, A., Tierney, M., Tyrrell, T.D., Vié, J.-C. & Watson, R. Global Biodiversity: Indicators of Recent Declines. 2010 Science
    Vol. 328(5982), pp. 1164-1168 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: In 2002, world leaders committed through the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) to achieve a significant reduction in the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010. We compiled 31 indicators to report on progress toward this target. Most indicators of the state of biodiversity (covering species' population trends, extinction risk, habitat extent/condition, and community composition) showed declines, with no significant recent reductions in rate, whereas indicators of pressures on biodiversity (including resource consumption, invasive alien species, nitrogen pollution, overexploitation, and climate change impacts) showed increases. Despite some local successes and increasing responses (including extent and biodiversity coverage of protected areas, sustainable forest management, policy responses to invasive alien species, and biodiversity-related aid), the rate of biodiversity loss does not appear to be slowing.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Butchart2010,
      author = {Butchart, Stuart H M and Walpole, Matt and Collen, Ben and van Strien, Arco and Scharlemann, Jörn P W and Almond, Rosamunde E A and Baillie, Jonathan E M and Bomhard, Bastian and Brown, Claire and Bruno, John and Carpenter, Kent E and Carr, Geneviève M and Chanson, Janice and Chenery, Anna M and Csirke, Jorge and Davidson, Nick C and Dentener, Frank and Foster, Matt and Galli, Alessandro and Galloway, James N and Genovesi, Piero and Gregory, Richard D and Hockings, Marc and Kapos, Valerie and Lamarque, Jean-Francois and Leverington, Fiona and Loh, Jonathan and McGeoch, Melodie A and McRae, Louise and Minasyan, Anahit and Morcillo, Monica Hernández and Oldfield, Thomasina E E and Pauly, Daniel and Quader, Suhel and Revenga, Carmen and Sauer, John R and Skolnik, Benjamin and Spear, Dian and Stanwell-Smith, Damon and Stuart, Simon N and Symes, Andy and Tierney, Megan and Tyrrell, Tristan D and Vié, Jean-Christophe and Watson, Reg},
      title = {Global Biodiversity: Indicators of Recent Declines.},
      journal = {Science},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {328},
      number = {5982},
      pages = {1164--1168},
      url = {http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/328/5982/1164},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1187512}
    }
    
    Butler, K.F. & Koontz, T.M. Theory into Practice: Implementing Ecosystem Management Objectives in the USDA Forest Service 2005 Environmental Management
    Vol. 35(2), pp. 138 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: In the United States and around the world, scientists and practitioners have debated the definition and merits of ecosystem management as a new approach to natural resource management. While these debates continue, a growing number of organizations formally have adopted ecosystem management. However, adoption does not necessarily lead to successful implementation, and theories are not always put into practice. In this article, we examine how a leading natural resource agency, the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, has translated ecosystem management theory into concrete policy objectives and how successfully these objectives are perceived to be implemented throughout the national forest system. Through document analysis, interviews, and survey responses from 345 Forest Service managers (district rangers, forest supervisors, and regional foresters), we find that the agency has incorporated numerous ecosystem management components into its objectives. Agency managers perceive that the greatest attainment of such objectives is related to collaborative stewardship and integration of scientific information, areas in which the organization has considerable prior experience. The objectives perceived to be least attained are adaptive management and integration of social and economic information, areas requiring substantial new resources and a knowledge base not traditionally emphasized by natural resource managers. Overall, success in implementing ecosystem management objectives is linked to committed forest managers.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Butler2005,
      author = {Butler, Kelly F. and Koontz, Tomas M.},
      title = {Theory into Practice: Implementing Ecosystem Management Objectives in the USDA Forest Service},
      journal = {Environmental Management},
      publisher = {Springer New York},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {35},
      number = {2},
      pages = {138},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/x01mt82635k16616/},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-004-0312-6}
    }
    
    Buzas, M.A. Patterns of species diversity and their explanation Taxon 1972 Taxon
    Vol. 21, pp. 275-286 
    article  
    Abstract: Patterns of species diversity and equitability, and the hypotheses suggested to explain them are examined in the terrestrial and marine environments, and the fossil record. Although all the hypotheses are important in explaining diversity, none of them singularly or in various combinations are sufficient to explain the observed patterns. Quantification of the variables suggested to explain the observations will no doubt help clarify and give more credibility to the explanation of diversity, but such studies are only in their infancy.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Buzas1972,
      author = {Buzas, Martin A.},
      title = {Patterns of species diversity and their explanation Taxon},
      journal = {Taxon},
      year = {1972},
      volume = {21},
      pages = {275--286}
    }
    
    Byrne, M., Stone, L. & Millar, M.A. Assessing genetic risk in revegetation 2011 Journal of Applied Ecology
    Vol. 48(6), pp. 1365-1373 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: 1. Revegetation can provide major environmental benefits in degraded landscapes, but there is also potential for negative impacts from genetic change in local native populations. Broad areas of revegetation may provide a large source of foreign genes in landscapes where small remnant native populations act as a sink. Genetic change from hybridisation can threaten population persistence and contribute to species extinction through genetic assimilation or demographic swamping. 2. Implementation of revegetation within a risk management framework allows identification of risk factors, analysis and evaluation of risk to inform decision-making and management to minimise and mitigate the risk. Informed analysis and evaluation of genetic risk is important in revegetation because it will be difficult to control or reverse the impacts in natural ecosystems and they are often not expressed until the second generation or later. 3. A risk assessment protocol is presented based on evaluation of factors that influence the likelihood and consequences of adverse genetic change from revegetation arising through pollen dispersal. 4. The assessment is applicable to a broad range of revegetation activities and contributes to the development of informed decision-making processes in implementation of revegetation systems and land use practices that protect and enhance biodiversity in degraded landscapes. 5. Synthesis and applications. Implementation of revegetation programmes within a risk management framework will help to ensure that significant environmental benefits are captured with minimal concomitant negative impacts on the surrounding biodiversity. A genetic risk protocol provides a tool for evaluation of potential adverse genetic impacts on native populations from revegetation and can be implemented in conjunction with weed risk assessment. Risk assessment as an integral part of evaluation of environmental impact for large-scale revegetation programmes will contribute to the development of informed decision-making processes in the implementation of revegetation systems, and ultimately, it will aid in the development of land uses that protect and enhance biodiversity in degraded landscapes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Byrne2011,
      author = {Byrne, Margaret and Stone, Lynley and Millar, Melissa A.},
      title = {Assessing genetic risk in revegetation},
      journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {48},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1365--1373},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.02045.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.02045.x}
    }
    
    Cabell, J.F. & Oelofse, M. An Indicator Framework for Assessing Agroecosystem Resilience 2012 Ecology and Society
    Vol. 17(1), pp. art18 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cabell2012,
      author = {Cabell, Joshua F. and Oelofse, Myles},
      title = {An Indicator Framework for Assessing Agroecosystem Resilience},
      journal = {Ecology and Society},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {17},
      number = {1},
      pages = {art18},
      url = {http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol17/iss1/art18/},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.5751/ES-04666-170118}
    }
    
    Cadotte, M.W., Carscadden, K. & Mirotchnick, N. Beyond species: functional diversity and the maintenance of ecological processes and services 2011 Journal of Applied Ecology, pp. no-no  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cadotte2011,
      author = {Cadotte, Marc W. and Carscadden, Kelly and Mirotchnick, Nicholas},
      title = {Beyond species: functional diversity and the maintenance of ecological processes and services},
      journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {no--no},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.02048.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.02048.x}
    }
    
    Cairol, D., Coudel, E. & Laplana, R. Multifunctionality of agriculture and rural areas: From trade negotiations to contributing to sustainable development 2008 International Journal of Agricultural Resources, Governance and Ecology
    Vol. 7(4-5), pp. 17 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cairol2008,
      author = {Cairol, Dominique and Coudel, Emilie and Laplana, Ramon},
      title = {Multifunctionality of agriculture and rural areas: From trade negotiations to contributing to sustainable development},
      journal = {International Journal of Agricultural Resources, Governance and Ecology},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {7},
      number = {4-5},
      pages = {17},
      url = {http://www.inderscience.com/browse/index.php?journalID=1&year=2008&vol=7&issue=4/5}
    }
    
    Calenge, C. Exploring habitat selection by wildlife with adehabitat 2007 Journal of Statistical Software
    Vol. 22(6), pp. 2-19 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Knowledge of the environmental features affecting habitat selection by animals is important for designing wildlife management and conservation policies. The package adehabitat for the R software is designed to provide a computing environment for the analysis and modelling of such relationships. This paper focuses on the preliminary steps of data exploration and analysis, performed prior to a more formal modelling of habitat selection. In this context, I illustrate the use of a factorial analysis, the K-select analysis. This method is a factorial decomposition of marginality, one measure of habitat selection. This method was chosen to present the package because it illustrates clearly many of its features (home range estimation, spatial analyses, graphical possibilities, etc.). I strongly stress the powerful capabilities of factorial methods for data analysis, using as an example the analysis of habitat selection by the wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) in a Mediterranean environment.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Calenge2007,
      author = {Calenge, Clément},
      title = {Exploring habitat selection by wildlife with adehabitat},
      journal = {Journal of Statistical Software},
      publisher = {American Statistical Association},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {22},
      number = {6},
      pages = {2--19},
      url = {http://www.jstatsoft.org/v22/i06/paper}
    }
    
    Calenge, C. The package “adehabitat” for the R software: A tool for the analysis of space and habitat use by animals 2006 Ecological Modelling
    Vol. 197(3-4), pp. 516-519 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Calenge2006a,
      author = {Calenge, Clément},
      title = {The package “adehabitat” for the R software: A tool for the analysis of space and habitat use by animals},
      journal = {Ecological Modelling},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {197},
      number = {3-4},
      pages = {516--519},
      url = {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0304380006001414},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2006.03.017}
    }
    
    Calenge, C., Dufour, A. & Maillard, D. K-select analysis: a new method to analyse habitat selection in radio-tracking studies 2005 Ecological Modelling
    Vol. 186, pp. 143-153 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Calenge2005,
      author = {Calenge, C and Dufour, AB and Maillard, D},
      title = {K-select analysis: a new method to analyse habitat selection in radio-tracking studies},
      journal = {Ecological Modelling},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {186},
      pages = {143--153},
      url = {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0304380004006167}
    }
    
    Calvo, G. & Fonte, M. Towards Multifunctional Agriculture for Social, Environmental and Economic Sustainability 2009   unpublished URL 
    BibTeX:
    @unpublished{Calvo2009,
      author = {Calvo, G and Fonte, M},
      title = {Towards Multifunctional Agriculture for Social, Environmental and Economic Sustainability},
      publisher = {International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development},
      year = {2009},
      url = {http://eprints.jcu.edu.au/11367/}
    }
    
    Canfield, D.E., Glazer, A.N. & Falkowski, P.G. The Evolution and Future of Earth's Nitrogen Cycle 2010 Science
    Vol. 330(6001), pp. 192-196 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Atmospheric reactions and slow geological processes controlled Earth's earliest nitrogen cycle, and by 2.7 billion years ago, a linked suite of microbial processes evolved to form the modern nitrogen cycle with robust natural feedbacks and controls. Over the past century, however, the development of new agricultural practices to satisfy a growing global demand for food has drastically disrupted the nitrogen cycle. This has led to extensive eutrophication of fresh waters and coastal zones as well as increased inventories of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Microbial processes will ultimately restore balance to the nitrogen cycle, but the damage done by humans to the nitrogen economy of the planet will persist for decades, possibly centuries, if active intervention and careful management strategies are not initiated.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Canfield2010,
      author = {Canfield, D. E. and Glazer, A. N. and Falkowski, P. G.},
      title = {The Evolution and Future of Earth's Nitrogen Cycle},
      journal = {Science},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {330},
      number = {6001},
      pages = {192--196},
      url = {http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/330/6001/192},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1186120}
    }
    
    Carlson, T.N. & Ripley, D.A. On the relation between NDVI, fractional vegetation cover, and leaf area index 1997 Remote Sensing of Environment
    Vol. 62(3), pp. 241-252 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: We use a simple radiative transfer model with vegetation, soil, and atmospheric components to illustrate how the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), leaf area index (LAI), and fractional vegetation cover are dependent. In particular, we suggest that LAI and fractional vegetation cover may not be independent quantitites, at least when the former is defined without regard to the presence of bare patches between plants, and that the customary variation of LAI with NDVI can be explained as resulting from a variation in fractional vegetation cover. The following points are made: i) Fractional vegetation cover and LAI are not entirely independent quantities, depending on how LAI is defined. Care must be taken in using LAI and fractional vegetation cover independently in a model because the former may partially take account of the latter; ii) A scaled NDVI taken between the limits of minimum (bare soil) and miximum fractional vegetation cover is insenstive to atmospheric correction for both clear and hazy conditions, at least for viewing angles less than about 20 degrees from nadir; iii) A simple relation between scaled NDVI and fractional vegetation cover, previously described in the literature, is further confirmed by the .simulations; iv) The sensitive dependence of LAI on NDVI when the former is below a value of about 2-4 may be viewed as being due to the variation in the bare soil component.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Carlson1997,
      author = {Carlson, Toby N and Ripley, David A},
      title = {On the relation between NDVI, fractional vegetation cover, and leaf area index},
      journal = {Remote Sensing of Environment},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {62},
      number = {3},
      pages = {241--252},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?ob=ArticleURL&udi=B6V6V-3T7HM33-4&user=10&coverDate=12/31/1997&alid=775801600&rdoc=1&fmt=high&orig=search&cdi=5824&sort=d&docanchor=&view=c&ct=1&acct=C000050221&version=1&urlVersion=0&userid=10&md5=cb545d34abf392d6744fbfb5315f8125},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0034-4257(97)00104-1}
    }
    
    Carpenter, S.R. Large-Scale Perturbations: Opportunities for Innovation 1990 Ecology
    Vol. 71(6), pp. 2038 - 2043 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Several approaches are discussed for statistical analysis of large-scale (and possibly unreplicated) ecological experiments. These include intervention analyses and comparisons of alternative models using Bayes' formula. Such techniques are unfamiliar to many ecologists and are not typically included in graduate curricula in ecology. I argue for increased training in these areas and for collaborations between statisticians and ecologists to develop innovative approaches to the analysis of large-scale perturbations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Carpenter1990,
      author = {Carpenter, Stephen R.},
      title = {Large-Scale Perturbations: Opportunities for Innovation},
      journal = {Ecology},
      year = {1990},
      volume = {71},
      number = {6},
      pages = {2038 -- 2043},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/1938617}
    }
    
    Carpenter, S.R., Mooney, H.A., Agard, J., Capistrano, D., DeFries, R.S., Diaz, S., Dietz, T., Duraiappah, A.K., Oteng-Yeboah, A., Pereira, H.M., Perrings, C., Reid, W.V., Sarukhan, J., Scholes, R.J. & Whyte, A. Science for managing ecosystem services: Beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2009 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
    Vol. 106(5), pp. 1305-1312 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) introduced a new framework for analyzing social-ecological systems that has had wide influence in the policy and scientific communities. Studies after the MA are taking up new challenges in the basic science needed to assess, project, and manage flows of ecosystem services and effects on human well-being. Yet, our ability to draw general conclusions remains limited by focus on discipline-bound sectors of the full social-ecological system. At the same time, some polices and practices intended to improve ecosystem services and human well-being are based on untested assumptions and sparse information. The people who are affected and those who provide resources are increasingly asking for evidence that interventions improve ecosystem services and human well-being. New research is needed that considers the full ensemble of processes and feedbacks, for a range of biophysical and social systems, to better understand and manage the dynamics of the relationship between humans and the ecosystems on which they rely. Such research will expand the capacity to address fundamental questions about complex social-ecological systems while evaluating assumptions of policies and practices intended to advance human well-being through improved ecosystem services.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Carpenter2009,
      author = {Carpenter, Stephen R and Mooney, Harold A and Agard, John and Capistrano, Doris and DeFries, Ruth S and Diaz, Sandra and Dietz, Thomas and Duraiappah, Anantha K and Oteng-Yeboah, Alfred and Pereira, Henrique Miguel and Perrings, Charles and Reid, Walter V and Sarukhan, Jose and Scholes, Robert J and Whyte, Anne},
      title = {Science for managing ecosystem services: Beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment},
      journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {106},
      number = {5},
      pages = {1305--1312},
      url = {http://www.pnas.org/content/106/5/1305.abstract}
    }
    
    Carvalho, J.C., Cardoso, P., Borges, P.A.V., Schmera, D. & Podani, J. Measuring fractions of beta diversity and their relationships to nestedness: a theoretical and empirical comparison of novel approaches 2012 Oikos, pp. 1-10  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Beta diversity and nestedness are central concepts of ecology and biogeography and evaluation of their relationships is in the focus of contemporary ecological and conservation research. Beta diversity patterns are originated from two distinct processes: the replacement (or turnover) of species and the loss (or gain) of species leading to richness differences. Nested distributional patterns are generally thought to have a component deriving from beta diversity which is independent of replacement processes. Quantification of these phenomena is often made by calculating a measure of beta diversity, and the resulting value being subsequently partitioned into a contribution by species replacement plus a fraction shared by beta diversity and nestedness. Three methods have been recently proposed for such partitioning, all of them based on pairwise comparisons of sites. In this paper, the performance of these methods was evaluated on theoretical grounds and tested by a simulation study in which different gradients of dissimilarity, with known degrees of species replacement and species loss, were created. Performance was also tested using empirical data addressing land-use induced changes in endemic arthropod communities of the Terceira Island in the Azores. We found that the partitioning of bcc (dissimilarity in terms of the Jaccard index) into two additive fractions, b-3 (dissimilarity due to species replacement) plus brich (dissimilarity due to richness differences) reflects the species replacement and species loss processes across the simulated gradients in an ecologically and mathematically meaningful way, whilst the other two methods lack mathematical consistency and prove conceptually self-contradictory. Moreover, the first method identified a selective local extinction process for endemic arthropods, triggered by land-use changes, while the latter two methods overweighted the replacement component and led to false conclusions. Their basic flaw derives from the fact that the proposed replacement and nestedness components (deemed to account for species loss) are not scaled in the same way as the measure that accounts for the total dissimilarity (Sø rensen and Jaccard indices). We therefore recommend the use of bcc 5 b-3 1 brich, since its components are scaled in the same units and their responses are proportional to the replacement and the gain/ loss of species.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Carvalho2012,
      author = {Carvalho, José C. and Cardoso, Pedro and Borges, Paulo A. V. and Schmera, Dénes and Podani, János},
      title = {Measuring fractions of beta diversity and their relationships to nestedness: a theoretical and empirical comparison of novel approaches},
      journal = {Oikos},
      year = {2012},
      pages = {1--10},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2012.20980.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2012.20980.x}
    }
    
    Casanoves, F., Pla, L., Di Rienzo, J.A. & Daz, S. FDiversity: a software package for the integrated analysis of functional diversity 2010 Methods in Ecology and Evolution, pp. no-no  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Casanoves2010,
      author = {Casanoves, Fernando and Pla, Laura and Di Rienzo, Julio A. and Daz, Sandra},
      title = {FDiversity: a software package for the integrated analysis of functional diversity},
      journal = {Methods in Ecology and Evolution},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {no--no},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.2041-210X.2010.00082.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2041-210X.2010.00082.x}
    }
    
    Cayuela, L., Granzow-de la Cerda, n., Albuquerque, F.S. & Golicher, D.J. taxonstand: An r package for species names standardisation in vegetation databases 2012 Methods in Ecology and Evolution, pp. no-no  article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cayuela2012,
      author = {Cayuela, Luis and Granzow-de la Cerda, Íñigo and Albuquerque, Fabio S. and Golicher, Duncan J.},
      title = {taxonstand: An r package for species names standardisation in vegetation databases},
      journal = {Methods in Ecology and Evolution},
      year = {2012},
      pages = {no--no},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.2041-210X.2012.00232.x}
    }
    
    Chamberlain, M.J. Are We Sacrificing Biology for Statistics 2008 Journal of Wildlife Management
    Vol. 72(5), pp. 1057-1058 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Chamberlain2008,
      author = {Chamberlain, Michael J.},
      title = {Are We Sacrificing Biology for Statistics},
      journal = {Journal of Wildlife Management},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {72},
      number = {5},
      pages = {1057--1058},
      url = {http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.2193/2008-168},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2193/2008-168}
    }
    
    Chao, A., Jost, L., Chiang, S.C., Jiang, Y.H. & Chazdon, R.L. A Two-Stage Probabilistic Approach to Multiple-Community Similarity Indices 2008 Biometrics
    Vol. 64(4), pp. 1178-1186 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: A traditional approach for assessing similarity among N (N<2) communities is to use multiple pairwise comparisons. However, pairwise similarity indices do not completely characterize multiple-community similarity because the information shared by at least three communities is ignored. We propose a new and intuitive two-stage probabilistic approach, which leads to a general framework to simultaneously compare multiple communities based on abundance data. The approach is specifically used to extend the commonly used Morisita index and NESS (normalized expected species shared) index to the case of N communities. For comparing N communities, a profile of N2212 1 indices is proposed to characterize similarity of species composition across communities. Based on sample abundance data, nearly unbiased estimators of the proposed indices and their variances are obtained. These generalized NESS and Morisita indices are applied to comparison of three size classes of plant data (seedling, saplings, and trees) within old-growth and secondary rain forest plots in Costa Rica.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Chao2008,
      author = {Chao, Anne and Jost, Lou and Chiang, S C and Jiang, Y -H. and Chazdon, Robin L},
      title = {A Two-Stage Probabilistic Approach to Multiple-Community Similarity Indices},
      journal = {Biometrics},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {64},
      number = {4},
      pages = {1178--1186},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0420.2008.01010.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0420.2008.01010.x}
    }
    
    Chapple, R.S., Ramp, D., Bradstock, R.A., Kingsford, R.T., Merson, J.A., Auld, T.D., Fleming, P.J.S. & Mulley, R.C. Integrating Science into Management of Ecosystems in the Greater Blue Mountains. 2011 Environmental management, pp. 1-16-16  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Effective management of large protected conservation areas is challenged by political, institutional and environmental complexity and inconsistency. Knowledge generation and its uptake into management are crucial to address these challenges. We reflect on practice at the interface between science and management of the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area (GBMWHA), which covers approximately 1 million hectares west of Sydney, Australia. Multiple government agencies and other stakeholders are involved in its management, and decision-making is confounded by numerous plans of management and competing values and goals, reflecting the different objectives and responsibilities of stakeholders. To highlight the complexities of the decision-making process for this large area, we draw on the outcomes of a recent collaborative research project and focus on fire regimes and wild-dog control as examples of how existing knowledge is integrated into management. The collaborative research project achieved the objectives of collating and synthesizing biological data for the region; however, transfer of the project's outcomes to management has proved problematic. Reasons attributed to this include lack of clearly defined management objectives to guide research directions and uptake, and scientific information not being made more understandable and accessible. A key role of a local bridging organisation (e.g., the Blue Mountains World Heritage Institute) in linking science and management is ensuring that research results with management significance can be effectively transmitted to agencies and that outcomes are explained for nonspecialists as well as more widely distributed. We conclude that improved links between science, policy, and management within an adaptive learning-by-doing framework for the GBMWHA would assist the usefulness and uptake of future research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Chapple2011,
      author = {Chapple, Rosalie S and Ramp, Daniel and Bradstock, Ross A and Kingsford, Richard T and Merson, John A and Auld, Tony D and Fleming, Peter J S and Mulley, Robert C},
      title = {Integrating Science into Management of Ecosystems in the Greater Blue Mountains.},
      journal = {Environmental management},
      publisher = {Springer New York},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {1--16--16},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/f374488823125518/},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-011-9721-5}
    }
    
    Chase, J.M., Kraft, N.J.B., Smith, K.G., Vellend, M. & Inouye, B.D. Using null models to disentangle variation in community dissimilarity from variation in $-diversity 2011 Ecosphere
    Vol. 2(2), pp. art24 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: $-diversity represents the compositional variation among communities from site-to-site, linking local ($-diversity) and regional ($-diversity). Researchers often desire to compare values of $-diversity across localities or experimental treatments, and to use this comparison to infer possible mechanisms of community assembly. However, the majority of metrics used to estimate $-diversity, including most dissimilarity metrics (e.g., Jaccard's and Sø renson's dissimilarity index), can vary simply because of changes in the other two diversity components ($ or $-diversity). Here, we overview the utility of taking a null model approach that allows one to discern whether variation in the measured dissimilarity among communities results more from changes in the underlying structure by which communities vary, or instead simply due to difference in $-diversity among localities or experimental treatments. We illustrate one particular approach, originally developed by Raup and Crick (1979) in the paleontological litera...
    BibTeX:
    @article{Chase2011,
      author = {Chase, Jonathan M. and Kraft, Nathan J. B. and Smith, Kevin G. and Vellend, Mark and Inouye, Brian D},
      title = {Using null models to disentangle variation in community dissimilarity from variation in $-diversity},
      journal = {Ecosphere},
      publisher = {Ecological Society of America},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {2},
      number = {2},
      pages = {art24},
      url = {http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/ES10-00117.1},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/ES10-00117.1}
    }
    
    Chen, J., Shiyomi, M., Hori, Y. & Yamamura, Y. Frequency distribution models for spatial patterns of vegetation abundance 2008 Ecological Modelling
    Vol. 211(3-4), pp. 403-410 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: In a plant community, measurements of the number of plant individuals, the number of binary occurrences, plant cover, and biomass per unit area have frequently been used to explain species composition and spatial variation. Studies have shown that frequency distribution can be expressed in several ways: the number of individuals can be expressed using the negative binomial distribution, the number of binary occurrences can be expressed using the beta-binomial distribution, plant cover can be expressed by the beta distribution, and biomass by the gamma distribution. In this study, we have mathematically clarified the relationships between these distributions and their biological relevance. We have also defined a spatial heterogeneity index for each of the above four methods of measurement. For each of these four distribution patterns, several-fitted examples of plant populations or communities, obtained from grassland surveys, are provided.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Chen2008,
      author = {Chen, Jun and Shiyomi, Masae and Hori, Yoshimichi and Yamamura, Yasuo},
      title = {Frequency distribution models for spatial patterns of vegetation abundance},
      journal = {Ecological Modelling},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {211},
      number = {3-4},
      pages = {403--410},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VBS-4R3BWFV-2/2/948b31ea39dbc1f5e614b1e22861dd73},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2007.09.017}
    }
    
    Chen, J.M. & Cihlar, J. Retrieving leaf area index of boreal conifer forests using Landsat TM images 1996 Remote Sensing of Environment
    Vol. 55(2), pp. 153-162 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Vegetation indices, including the simple ratio (SR) and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), from Landsat TM data were correlated to ground-based measurements of LAI, effective LAI, and the crown closure in boreal conifer forests located near Candle Lake and Prince Albert, Saskatchewan and near Thompson, Manitoba, as part of the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS). The measurements were made using two optical instruments: the Plant Canopy Analyzer (LAI-2000, LI-COR) and the TRAC (Tracing Radiation and Architecture of Canopies). The TRAC was recently developed to quantify the effect of canopy architecture on optical measurements of leaf area index. The stands were located on georeferenced Landsat TM images using global positioning system (GPS) measurements. It is found that late spring Landsat images are superior to summer images for determining overstory LAI in boreal conifer stands because the effect of the understory is minimized in the spring before the full growth of the understory and moss cover. The effective LAI, obtained from gap fraction measurements assuming a random distribution of foliage spatial positions, was found to be better correlated to SR and NDVI than LAI. The effective LAI is less variable and easier to measure than LAI, and is also an intrinsic attribute of plant canopies. It is therefore suggested to use effective LAI as the most important parameter for radiation interception considerations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Chen1996,
      author = {Chen, Jing M and Cihlar, Josef},
      title = {Retrieving leaf area index of boreal conifer forests using Landsat TM images},
      journal = {Remote Sensing of Environment},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {55},
      number = {2},
      pages = {153--162},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?ob=ArticleURL&udi=B6V6V-3Y0RYSF-5&user=10&coverDate=02/29/1996&alid=775798840&rdoc=1&fmt=high&orig=search&cdi=5824&sort=d&docanchor=&view=c&ct=1&acct=C000050221&version=1&urlVersion=0&userid=10&md5=61d2ea6bc2cbad3ffd6a50af9491658f},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0034-4257(95)00195-6}
    }
    
    Chesson, P. Mechanisms of maintenance of species diversity 2000 Annual review of Ecology and Systematics
    Vol. 31, pp. 343-366 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The focus of most ideas on diversity maintenance is species coexistence, which may be stable or unstable. Stable coexistence can be quantified by the long-term rates at which community members recover from low density. Quantification shows that coexistence mechanisms function in two major ways: They may be (a) equalizing because they tend to minimize average fitness differences between species, or (b) stabilizing because they tend to increase negative intraspecific interactions relative to negative interspecific interactions. Stabilizing mechanisms are essential for species coexistence and include traditional mechanisms such as resource partitioning and frequency-dependent predation, as well as mechanisms that depend on fluctuations in population densities and environmental factors in space and time. Equalizing mechanisms contribute to stable coexistence because they reduce large average fitness inequalities which might negate the effects of stabilizing mechanisms. Models of unstable coexitence, in which species diversity slowly decays over time, have focused almost exclusively on equalizing mechanisms. These models would be more robust if they also included stabilizing mechanisms, which arise in many and varied ways but need not be adequate for full stability of a system. Models of unstable coexistence invite a broader view of diversity maintenance incorporating species turnover.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Chesson2000,
      author = {Chesson, Peter},
      title = {Mechanisms of maintenance of species diversity},
      journal = {Annual review of Ecology and Systematics},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {31},
      pages = {343--366},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/221736}
    }
    
    Chesson, P. & Huntly, N. The Roles of Harsh and Fluctuating Conditions in the Dynamics of Ecological Communities 1997 The American Naturalist
    Vol. 150(5), pp. 519-553 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Harsh conditions (e.g., mortality and stress) reduce population growth rates directly; secondarily, they may reduce the intensity of interactions between organisms. Near-exclusive fo- cus on the secondary effect of these forms of harshness has led ecologists to believe that they reduce the importance of ecological interactions, such as competition, and favor coexistence of even ecologically very similar species. By examining both the costs and the benefits, we show that harshness alone does not lessen the importance of species interactions or limit their role in community structure. Species coexistence requires niche differences, and harshness does not in itself make coexistence more likely. Fluctuations in environmental conditions (e.g., disturbance, seasonal change, and weather variation) also have been regarded as decreasing species interac- tions and favoring coexistence, but we argue that coexistence can only be favored when fluctua- tions create spatial or temporal niche opportunities. We argue that important diversity-promoting roles for harsh and fluctuating conditions depend on deviations from the assumptions of additive effects and linear dependencies most commonly found in ecological models. Such considerations imply strong roles for species interactions in the diversity of a community.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Chesson1997,
      author = {Chesson, Peter and Huntly, Nancy},
      title = {The Roles of Harsh and Fluctuating Conditions in the Dynamics of Ecological Communities},
      journal = {The American Naturalist},
      publisher = {The University of Chicago Press},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {150},
      number = {5},
      pages = {519--553},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/286080},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/286080}
    }
    
    Chevin, L.-M., Lande, R. & Mace, G.M. Adaptation, Plasticity, and Extinction in a Changing Environment: Towards a Predictive Theory 2010 PLoS Biology
    Vol. 8(4), pp. 1-8 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The authors analyze developmental, genetic, and demographic mechanisms by which populations tolerate changing environments and discuss empirical methods for determining the critical rate of sustained environmental change that causes population extinction.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Chevin2010,
      author = {Chevin, Luis-Miguel and Lande, Russell and Mace, Georgina M.},
      title = {Adaptation, Plasticity, and Extinction in a Changing Environment: Towards a Predictive Theory},
      journal = {PLoS Biology},
      publisher = {Public Library of Science},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {8},
      number = {4},
      pages = {1--8},
      url = {http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000357},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000357}
    }
    
    Chytrý, M. & Otýpková, Z. Plot sizes used for phytosociological sampling of European vegetation 2003 Journal of Vegetation Science
    Vol. 14(4), pp. 563-570 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: In European phytosociology, variable plot sizes are traditionally used for sampling different vegetation types. This practice may generate problems in current vegetation or habitat survey projects based on large data sets, which include relevés made by many authors at different times. In order to determine the extent of variation in plot sizes used in European phytosociology, we collected a data set of 41 174 relevés with an indication of plot size, published in six major European journals focusing on phytosociology from 1970 to 2000. As an additional data set, we took 27 365 relevés from the Czech National Phytosociological Database. From each data set, we calculated basic statistical figures for plot sizes used to sample vegetation of various phytosociological classes.
    The results show that in Europe the traditionally used size of vegetation plots is roughly proportional to vegetation height; however, there is a large variation in plot size, both within and among vegetation classes. The effect of variable plot sizes on vegetation analysis and classification is not sufficiently known, but use of standardized plot sizes would be desirable in future projects of vegetation or habitat survey. Based on our analysis, we suggest four plot sizes as possible standards. They are 4 m2 for sampling aquatic vegetation and low-grown herbaceous vegetation, 16 m2 for most grassland, heathland and other herbaceous or low-scrub vegetation types, 50 m2 for scrub, and 200 m2 for woodlands. It has been pointed out that in some situations, sampling in either small or large plots may result in assignment of relevés to different phytosociological classes or habitat types. Therefore defining vegetation and habitat types as scale-dependent concepts is needed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Chytry2003,
      author = {Chytrý, Milan and Otýpková, Zdenka},
      title = {Plot sizes used for phytosociological sampling of European vegetation},
      journal = {Journal of Vegetation Science},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {14},
      number = {4},
      pages = {563--570},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1654-1103.2003.tb02183.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-1103.2003.tb02183.x}
    }
    
    CIPRA Convention on the protection of the Alps 1995
    Vol. 4(1)European Journal of Health Law, pp. 10pp. 
    unpublished DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @unpublished{AlpConv1995,
      author = {CIPRA},
      title = {Convention on the protection of the Alps},
      booktitle = {European Journal of Health Law},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {4},
      number = {1},
      pages = {10pp.},
      url = {http://www.alpconv.org/NR/rdonlyres/6709D78A-7B83-40E0-B4A0-D88DC62E575A/0/Rahmenkonventionen.pdf},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/15718099720521896}
    }
    
    Clark, F., Brook, B.W., Delean, S., Reşit Akçakaya, H. & Bradshaw, C.J.A. The theta-logistic is unreliable for modelling most census data 2010 Methods in Ecology and Evolution
    Vol. online 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: 1. The theta-logistic is a simple and flexible model for describing how the growth rate of a population slows as abundance increases. Starting at rm (taken as the maximum population growth rate), the growth response decreases in a convex or concave way (according to the shape parameter 03B8) to zero when the population reaches carrying capacity. 2. We demonstrate that fitting this model to census data is not robust and explain why. The parameters 03B8 and rm are able to play-off against each other (providing a constant product), thus allowing both to adopt extreme and ecologically implausible values. 3. We use simulated data to examine: (i) a population fluctuating around a constant carrying capacity (K); (ii) recovery of a population from 10% of carrying capacity; and (iii) a population subject to variation in K. We show that estimates of extinction risk depending on this or similar models are therefore prone to imprecision. We refute the claim that concave growth responses are shown to dominate in nature. 4. As the model can also be sensitive to temporal variation in carrying capacity, we argue that the assumption of a constant carrying capacity is both problematic and presents a fruitful direction for the development of phenomenological density-feedback models.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Clark2010,
      author = {Clark, Francis and Brook, Barry W. and Delean, Steven and Reşit Akçakaya, H. and Bradshaw, Corey J. A.},
      title = {The theta-logistic is unreliable for modelling most census data},
      journal = {Methods in Ecology and Evolution},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {online},
      url = {http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/123397271/abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2041-210X.2010.00029.x}
    }
    
    Clarke, K.R. & Ainsworth, M. A method of linking multivariate community structure to environmental variables 1993 Marine Ecology Progress Series
    Vol. 92, pp. 205-219 
    article  
    Abstract: The method of choice for multivariate representation of community structure is often non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (MDS). This has great flexibility in accomnodatingb iologically relevant (i.e. non correlation-based) definitions of similarity In species composition of 2 samples, and in preserving the rank-order relations amongst those similarities in the placing of samples in an ordination. Correlation-based techniques (such as Canonical Correlation) are then inappropriate in linking the observed biotic structure to measured environmental variables; a more natural approach is simply to compare separate sample ordinations from biotic and abiotic variables and choose that subset of environmental variables which provides a good match between the 2 configurations. In fact, the fundamental constructs here are not the ordination plots but the (rank) similarity matrices which underlie them: a suitable measure of agreement between 2 such matrices is therefore proposed and used to define an optimal subset of environmental variables whc h'b est explains' the biotic structure. This simple technique is illustrated wlth 3 data sets, from studles of macrobenthic, meiobenthic and diatom communities in estuarine and coastal waters.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Clarke1993,
      author = {Clarke, K. R. and Ainsworth, M.},
      title = {A method of linking multivariate community structure to environmental variables},
      journal = {Marine Ecology Progress Series},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {92},
      pages = {205--219}
    }
    
    Clewell, A., Rieger, J. & Munro, J. Guidelines for Developing and Managing Ecological Restoration Projects, 2nd Edition. 2005   electronic URL 
    BibTeX:
    @electronic{Clewell2005,
      author = {Clewell, A and Rieger, J and Munro, J},
      title = {Guidelines for Developing and Managing Ecological Restoration Projects, 2nd Edition.},
      year = {2005},
      url = {http://www.ser.org/content/guidelinesecologicalrestoration.asp}
    }
    
    Clewell, A.F. & Aronson, J. Ecological Restoration. Principles, Values, and Structure of an emerging Profession 2007 , pp. 216pp.  book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Clewell2007,
      author = {Clewell, Andre F. and Aronson, James},
      title = {Ecological Restoration. Principles, Values, and Structure of an emerging Profession},
      publisher = {Society for Ecological Restoration International, Island press},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {216pp.}
    }
    
    Cohen, W.B. & Justice, C.O. Validating MODIS Terrestrial Ecology Products : Linking In Situ and Satellite Measurements 1999 Remote Sensing of Environment
    Vol. 70(1), pp. 1-3 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cohen1999,
      author = {Cohen, Warren B and Justice, Christopher O},
      title = {Validating MODIS Terrestrial Ecology Products : Linking In Situ and Satellite Measurements},
      journal = {Remote Sensing of Environment},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {70},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1--3},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?ob=ArticleURL&udi=B6V6V-3XNK3WB-1&user=10&coverDate=10/31/1999&alid=775800408&rdoc=1&fmt=high&orig=search&cdi=5824&sort=d&docanchor=&view=c&ct=1&acct=C000050221&version=1&urlVersion=0&userid=10&md5=8ce5c3469f40178e226597c2965c0d42},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0034-4257(99)00053-X}
    }
    
    Colman, J.E., Tsegaye, D., Pedersen, C., Eidesen, R., Arntsen, H. r., Holand, y., Mann, A., Reimers, E. & Moe, S.R. Behavioral Interference Between Sympatric Reindeer and Domesticated Sheep in Norway 2012 Rangeland Ecology & Management
    Vol. 65(3), pp. 299-308 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Interspecific interaction among sympatric ungulates is important in management and conservation. We investigated behavioral interference between sympatric wild or semidomestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and sheep (Ovis aries) in two field studies and one enclosure experiment. For free-ranging wild and semidomestic reindeer, interference between the two species increased with decreasing distances, occurring only at less than 200 m and 30 m, for wild and semidomestic reindeer, respectively, and neither species consistently dominated the other. In a controlled, duplicated experiment we tested interference and confrontations at the feeding patch level among semidomestic reindeer and sheep within 40 × 50 m enclosures. When new reindeer or sheep were introduced into enclosures already occupied by reindeer, new reindeer resulted in significantly more interference and confrontations among individuals compared to new sheep; i.e., intraspecific interference was more prevalent than interspecific interference at equal densities. For all study areas, confrontations decreased with time after “first encounter,” indicating cohabituation. A sympatric use of pastures was not visually disruptive for recorded grazing behavior for either species.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Colman2012,
      author = {Colman, Jonathan E. and Tsegaye, Diress and Pedersen, Christian and Eidesen, Ruben and Arntsen, Herbjø rg and Holand, Ø ystein and Mann, Alex and Reimers, Eigil and Moe, Stein R.},
      title = {Behavioral Interference Between Sympatric Reindeer and Domesticated Sheep in Norway},
      journal = {Rangeland Ecology & Management},
      publisher = {Society for Range Management},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {65},
      number = {3},
      pages = {299--308},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2111/REM-D-11-00094.1}
    }
    
    Concepción, E.D., Daz, M., Kleijn, D., Báldi, A., Batáry, P., Clough, Y., Gabriel, D., Herzog, F., Holzschuh, A., Knop, E., Marshall, E.J.P., Tscharntke, T. & Verhulst, J. Interactive effects of landscape context constrain the effectiveness of local agri-environmental management 2012 Journal of Applied Ecology, pp. no-no  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Concepcion2012,
      author = {Concepción, Elena D. and Daz, Mario and Kleijn, David and Báldi, András and Batáry, Péter and Clough, Yann and Gabriel, Doreen and Herzog, Felix and Holzschuh, Andrea and Knop, Eva and Marshall, E. Jon P. and Tscharntke, Teja and Verhulst, Jort},
      title = {Interactive effects of landscape context constrain the effectiveness of local agri-environmental management},
      journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
      year = {2012},
      pages = {no--no},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02131.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02131.x}
    }
    
    Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity COP 5 Decision V/6 - Ecosystem approach 2000   misc URL 
    BibTeX:
    @misc{CBD2000,
      author = {Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity},
      title = {COP 5 Decision V/6 - Ecosystem approach},
      year = {2000},
      url = {http://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/?id=7148}
    }
    
    Constable, H., Guralnick, R., Wieczorek, J., Spencer, C. & Peterson, a.T. VertNet: a new model for biodiversity data sharing. 2010 PLoS Biology
    Vol. 8(2), pp. e1000309 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Constable2010,
      author = {Constable, Heather and Guralnick, Robert and Wieczorek, John and Spencer, Carol and Peterson, a Townsend},
      title = {VertNet: a new model for biodiversity data sharing.},
      journal = {PLoS Biology},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {8},
      number = {2},
      pages = {e1000309},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20169109 http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2821892&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000309}
    }
    
    Cook, C.N., Wardell-Johnson, G., Keatley, M., Gowans, S.A., Gibson, M.S., Westbrooke, M.E. & Marshall, D.J. Is what you see what you get? Visual vs. measured assessments of vegetation condition 2010 Journal of Applied Ecology
    Vol. online, pp. 1-12 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cook2010,
      author = {Cook, Carly N. and Wardell-Johnson, Grant and Keatley, Marie and Gowans, Stacey A. and Gibson, Matthew S. and Westbrooke, Martin E. and Marshall, Dustin J.},
      title = {Is what you see what you get? Visual vs. measured assessments of vegetation condition},
      journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {online},
      pages = {1--12},
      url = {http://blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01803.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01803.x}
    }
    
    Cooke, S. On the basic-applied continuum in ecology and evolution and a call to action-perspectives of an early career researcher in academia 2011 Ideas in Ecology and Evolution
    Vol. 4, pp. 37-39 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cooke2011,
      author = {Cooke, S},
      title = {On the basic-applied continuum in ecology and evolution and a call to action-perspectives of an early career researcher in academia},
      journal = {Ideas in Ecology and Evolution},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {4},
      pages = {37--39},
      url = {http://library.queensu.ca/ojs/index.php/IEE/article/view/4226/4263},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4033/iee.2011.4.7.e}
    }
    
    Cooper, A. & Loftus, M. The application of multivariate land classification to vegetation survey in the Wicklow Mountains, Ireland 1998 Plant Ecology
    Vol. 135, pp. 229-241 
    article  
    Abstract: Multivariate land classification and land cover mapping by aerial photographic interpretation were used to model spatial variation of land cover in the Wicklow Mountains, Ireland and to structure a stratified random sampling programme of upland blanket bog vegetation. The total area of blanket bog with gully-erosion features was estimated as 33% of the area studied. Vegetation with hand peat-cutting patterns was estimated at 5 and there was 35% undissected (intact) vegetation. There were differences between land classes in the estimated area of land cover with gully-erosion features or hand peat-cutting patterns. Sample vegetation quadrats, stratified by land class and aerial photographic land cover type, were grouped by their plant species composition. The groups represented ombrotrophic mire, soligenous mire and shrub heath vegetation. There was significant association between vegetation group and land class, related to variation in regional landscape type, but no significant association between vegetation group and the aerial photographic land cover types, undissected (intact) and dissected (gullied and cut-over) peats. It is proposed that the similarity of vegetation between undissected and dissected blanket bog is related to vegetation regeneration. The need to consider differences in vegetation distribution, composition and dynamics in ecological management strategies is emphasised. The study demonstrated the value of stratified random field sampling for cost-efficient regional ecological assessment in upland blanket bog landscapes typified by the Wicklow mountains, Ireland.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cooper1998,
      author = {Cooper, Alan and Loftus, Mortimer},
      title = {The application of multivariate land classification to vegetation survey in the Wicklow Mountains, Ireland },
      journal = {Plant Ecology},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {135},
      pages = {229--241}
    }
    
    Cooper, T., Hart, K. & Baldock, D. Provision of public goods through agriculture in the European Union. The Provision of Public Goods through Agriculture in the European Union. Report prepared for DG Agriculture and Rural Development 2009
    Vol. 21Institute for European Environmental ldots, pp. 351pp. 
    book URL 
    BibTeX:
    @book{Cooper2009,
      author = {Cooper, Tamsin and Hart, Kaley and Baldock, David},
      title = {Provision of public goods through agriculture in the European Union. The Provision of Public Goods through Agriculture in the European Union. Report prepared for DG Agriculture and Rural Development},
      booktitle = {Institute for European Environmental ldots},
      publisher = {Institute for European Environmental Policy},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {21},
      pages = {351pp.},
      url = {http://www.ieep.eu/publications/pdfs/2010/finalpgreport.pdf}
    }
    
    Coppinger, R.P., Smith, C.K. & Miller, L. Observations on Why Mongrels May Make Effective Livestock Protecting Dogs 1985
    Vol. 38(November) 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Coppinger1985,
      author = {Coppinger, R P and Smith, C K and Miller, L},
      title = {Observations on Why Mongrels May Make Effective Livestock Protecting Dogs},
      year = {1985},
      volume = {38},
      number = {November}
    }
    
    Cormier, S.M. & Suter, G.W. A framework for fully integrating environmental assessment. 2008 Environmental management
    Vol. 42(4), pp. 543-56 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: A new framework for environmental assessment is needed because no existing framework explicitly includes all types of environmental assessments. We propose a framework that focuses on resolving environmental problems by integrating different types of assessments. Four general types of assessments are included: (1) condition assessments to detect chemical, physical, and biological impairments; (2) causal pathway assessments to determine causes and identify their sources; (3) predictive assessments to estimate environmental, economic, and societal risks, and benefits associated with different possible management actions; and (4) outcome assessments to evaluate the results of the decisions of an integrative assessment. The four types of assessments can be neatly arrayed in a two-by-two matrix based on the direction of analysis of causal relationships (rows) and whether the assessment identifies problems or solves them (columns). We suggest that all assessments have a common structure of planning, analysis, and synthesis, thus simplifying terminology and facilitating communication between types of assessments and environmental programs. The linkage between assessments is based on intermediate decisions that initiate another assessment or a final decision signaling the resolution of the problem. The framework is applied to three cases: management of a biologically impaired river, remediation of a contaminated site, and reregistration of a pesticide. We believe that this framework clarifies the relationships among the various types of assessment processes and their links to specific decisions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cormier2008,
      author = {Cormier, Susan M and Suter, Glenn W},
      title = {A framework for fully integrating environmental assessment.},
      journal = {Environmental management},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {42},
      number = {4},
      pages = {543--56},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18506517},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-008-9138-y}
    }
    
    Corona, M.E.P., Aldana, B.R.V.D., Criado, B.G. & Ciudad, A.G. Variations in Nutritional Quality and Biomass Production of Semiarid Grasslands 1998 Journal of Range Management
    Vol. 51(5), pp. 570 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Corona1998a,
      author = {Corona, M. Esther Perez and Aldana, Beatriz R. Vazquez De and Criado, Balbino Garcia and Ciudad, Antonia Garcia},
      title = {Variations in Nutritional Quality and Biomass Production of Semiarid Grasslands},
      journal = {Journal of Range Management},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {51},
      number = {5},
      pages = {570},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/4003378?origin=crossref},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/4003378}
    }
    
    Costanza, R., D'Arge, R., de Groot, R., Farber, S., Grasso, M., Hannon, B., Limburg, K., Naeem, S., O'Neill, R.V., Paruelo, J., Raskin, R.G., Sutton, P. & van Den Belt, M. The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital 1997 Nature
    Vol. 387(6630), pp. 253-260 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Costanza1997,
      author = {Costanza, Robert and D'Arge, Ralph and de Groot, Rudolf and Farber, Stephen and Grasso, Monica and Hannon, Bruce and Limburg, Karin and Naeem, Shahid and O'Neill, Robert V and Paruelo, Jose and Raskin, Robert G and Sutton, Paul and van Den Belt, Marjan},
      title = {The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital},
      journal = {Nature},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {387},
      number = {6630},
      pages = {253--260},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/387253a0},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/387253a0}
    }
    
    Coulson, T. Integral projections models, their construction and use in posing hypotheses in ecology 2012 Oikos
    Vol. 121(9), pp. 1337-1350 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Replicated experiments at the level of the population are often not feasible for field systems. Despite this, population-level observational studies play a critical role in biology. For example, they have revealed how environmental change generates ecological and evolutionary change in free-living populations. When replicated experiments are impossible, construct- ing models and using these to conduct in silico experiments is the next best thing. Recent advances in the construction and analysis of integral projection models (IPMs) mean they offer a remarkably powerful tool to study ecological and evolutionary dynamics. IPMs can be parameterised using data frequently collected by ecologists, but the ease with which they can be constructed and analysed is perhaps not as widely appreciated as it could be. In this paper, which is loosely related to the talk I gave when receiving the Per Brinck Oikos Award in 2012, I show how easily IPMs can be constructed and analysed, and I argue they play an important role in posing and testing hypotheses in population biology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Coulson2012,
      author = {Coulson, Tim},
      title = {Integral projections models, their construction and use in posing hypotheses in ecology},
      journal = {Oikos},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {121},
      number = {9},
      pages = {1337--1350},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2012.00035.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2012.00035.x}
    }
    
    Couteron, P., Seghieri, J. & Chadooeuf, J. A test fpr spatial relationships between neighbouring plants in plots of heterogeneous plant density 2003 Journal of Vegetation Science
    Vol. 14, pp. 163-172 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Couteron2003,
      author = {Couteron, Pierre and Seghieri, Josiane and Chadooeuf, Joel},
      title = {A test fpr spatial relationships between neighbouring plants in plots of heterogeneous plant density},
      journal = {Journal of Vegetation Science},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {14},
      pages = {163--172}
    }
    
    Cowling, R., Egoh, B., Knight, A., O'Farrell, P., Reyers, B., Rouget, M., Roux, D., Welz, A. & Wilhelm-Rechman, A. An operational model for mainstreaming ecosystem services for implementation 2008 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
    Vol. 105(28), pp. 9483 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Research on ecosystem services has grown markedly in recent years. However, few studies are embedded in a social process designed to ensure effective management of ecosystem services. Most research has focused only on biophysical and valuation assessments of putative services. As a mission-oriented discipline, ecosystem service research should be user-inspired and user-useful, which will require that researchers respond to stakeholder needs from the outset and collaborate with them in strategy development and implementation. Here we provide a pragmatic operational model for achieving the safeguarding of ecosystem services. The model comprises three phases: assessment, planning, and management. Outcomes of social, biophysical, and valuation assessments are used to identify opportunities and constraints for implementation. The latter then are transformed into user-friendly products to identify, with stakeholders, strategic objectives for implementation (the planning phase). The management phase undertakes and coordinates actions that achieve the protection of ecosystem services and ensure the flow of these services to beneficiaries. This outcome is achieved via mainstreaming, or incorporating the safeguarding of ecosystem services into the policies and practices of sectors that deal with land- and water-use planning. Management needs to be adaptive and should be institutionalized in a suite of learning organizations that are representative of the sectors that are concerned with decision-making and planning. By following the phases of our operational model, projects for safeguarding ecosystem services are likely to empower stakeholders to implement effective on-the-ground management that will achieve resilience of the corresponding social-ecological systems.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cowling2008a,
      author = {Cowling, R.M. and Egoh, Benis and Knight, A.T. and O'Farrell, P.J. and Reyers, Belinda and Rouget, M. and Roux, D.J. and Welz, Adam and Wilhelm-Rechman, Angelika},
      title = {An operational model for mainstreaming ecosystem services for implementation},
      journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
      publisher = {National Acad Sciences},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {105},
      number = {28},
      pages = {9483},
      url = {http://www.pnas.org/content/105/28/9483.short},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0706559105}
    }
    
    Cribari-Neto, F. & Zeileis, A. Beta regression in R 2010 Journal of Statistical Software
    Vol. 34(2), pp. 1-24 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The class of beta regression models is commonly used by practitioners to model vari- ables that assume values in the standard unit interval (0, 1). It is based on the assumption that the dependent variable is beta-distributed and that its mean is related to a set of regressors through a linear predictor with unknown coefficients and a link function. The model also includes a precision parameter which may be constant or depend on a (poten- tially different) set of regressors through a link function as well. This approach naturally incorporates features such as heteroskedasticity or skewness which are commonly observed in data taking values in the standard unit interval, such as rates or proportions. This paper describes the betareg package which provides the class of beta regressions in the R system for statistical computing. The underlying theory is briefly outlined, the implementation discussed and illustrated in various replication exercises.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cribari-Neto2010,
      author = {Cribari-Neto, F and Zeileis, Achim},
      title = {Beta regression in R},
      journal = {Journal of Statistical Software},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {34},
      number = {2},
      pages = {1--24},
      url = {http://epub.wu.ac.at/726/}
    }
    
    Cronin, J.P., Tonsor, S.J. & Carson, W.P. A simultaneous test of trophic interaction models: which vegetation characteristic explains herbivore control over plant community mass? 2009 Ecology Letters
    Vol. Early View, pp. 11pp. 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Predicting herbivore control over plants (i.e. changes in plant mass due to herbivore damage) is a central goal of ecology. Progress has been limited, however, because the vegetation characteristics thought to influence herbivore control are naturally correlated and typically experimentally confounded. To address this problem, we defined eight conventional models that predict herbivore control over plant community mass, each model based on a different vegetation characteristic (i.e. host concentration, tissue nitrogen, growth rate, size, tolerance of herbivory or net primary productivity). We then used structural equation modelling to test each model against two field experiments. Our results clearly rejected all models except for a tolerance of herbivory mechanism; stems with greater access to limiting resources better tolerated herbivory, regardless of where herbivore activity was greatest. Consequently, herbivore reductions of plant community mass were greatest at low resource availability. This adds to evidence that herbivore activity poorly predicts herbivore control.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cronin2009,
      author = {Cronin, James Patrick and Tonsor, Stephen J and Carson, Walter P},
      title = {A simultaneous test of trophic interaction models: which vegetation characteristic explains herbivore control over plant community mass?},
      journal = {Ecology Letters},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {Early View},
      pages = {11pp.},
      url = {http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/123227394/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2009.01420.x}
    }
    
    Crossman, N.D. & Bryan, B. a. Identifying cost-effective hotspots for restoring natural capital and enhancing landscape multifunctionality 2009 Ecological Economics
    Vol. 68(3), pp. 654-668 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Much effort is expended toward planning for conservation, natural resourcemanagement and sustainable land use in agricultural landscapes. Although often not explicitly stated, the aims of these efforts are often to restore natural capital for the provision of ecosystemservices and stimulate multifunctionality in landscapes. However, the scarcity of resources for, and the potentialeconomic impactof,ameliorativeactions that restorenatural capitalnecessitates the identification of cost-effective geographic priorities, or hotspots,which provide multiple ecosystem goods and services. This requires the integrated spatial modelling of multiple environmental and economic processes accompanied by clear goals and performance indicators. Identification of hotspots provides guidance for highly targeted land use change that cost-effectively adds to the stocks of natural capital in a landscape. Additionally, the multifunctionality of the landscape can be increased through the provision of multiple ecosystem goods and services. This paper begins by examining data requirements for identifying geographic hotspots for land use change. This study integrates traditionally disparate landscape-scale biophysicalandeconomicdataandmodels.The elementsofnatural capital considered here are species and ecosystems, soil and water resources, and the atmosphere. It is demonstrated that locating ameliorative actions towards hotspots will be more cost-effective at restoring natural capital and stimulating landscape multifunctionality than a random targeting approach. We calculate these efficiencies using a small set of indicators for assessingaspectsofmultifunctionality.The focusof this study is the agricultural landscapes of the Lower Murray region of south-eastern Australia.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Crossman2009,
      author = {Crossman, Neville D. and Bryan, Brett a.},
      title = {Identifying cost-effective hotspots for restoring natural capital and enhancing landscape multifunctionality},
      journal = {Ecological Economics},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {68},
      number = {3},
      pages = {654--668},
      url = {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0921800908002097},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2008.05.003}
    }
    
    Cumming, G., Fidler, F. & Vaux, D.L. Error bars in experimental biology. 2007 The Journal of cell biology
    Vol. 177(1), pp. 7-11 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Error bars commonly appear in figures in publications, but experimental biologists are often unsure how they should be used and interpreted. In this article we illustrate some basic features of error bars and explain how they can help communicate data and assist correct interpretation. Error bars may show confidence intervals, standard errors, standard deviations, or other quantities. Different types of error bars give quite different information, and so figure legends must make clear what error bars represent. We suggest eight simple rules to assist with effective use and interpretation of error bars.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cumming2007,
      author = {Cumming, Geoff and Fidler, Fiona and Vaux, David L},
      title = {Error bars in experimental biology.},
      journal = {The Journal of cell biology},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {177},
      number = {1},
      pages = {7--11},
      url = {http://jcb.rupress.org/cgi/content/abstract/177/1/7},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.200611141}
    }
    
    Czúcz, B., Gathman, J.P. & McPherson, G.R. The impending peak and decline of petroleum production: an underestimated challenge for conservation of ecological integrity. 2010 Conservation Biology
    Vol. 24(4), pp. 948-56 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: In the last few decades petroleum has been consumed at a much faster pace than new reserves have been discovered. The point at which global oil extraction will attain a peak ("peak oil") and begin a period of unavoidable decline is approaching. This eventuality will drive fundamental changes in the quantity and nature of energy flows through the human economic system, which probably will be accompanied by economic turmoil, political conflicts, and a high level of social tension. Besides being a geological and economic issue, peak oil is also a fundamental concern as it pertains to ecological systems and conservation because economics is a subsystem of the global ecosystem and changes in human energy-related behaviors can lead to a broad range of effects on natural ecosystems, ranging from overuse to abandonment. As it becomes more difficult to meet energy demands, environmental considerations may be easily superseded. Given the vital importance of ecosystems and ecosystem services in a postpetroleum era, it is crucially important to wisely manage our ecosystems during the transition period to an economy based on little or no use of fossil fuels. Good policies can be formulated through awareness and understanding gained from scenario-based assessments. Presently, most widely used global scenarios of environmental change do not incorporate resource limitation, including those of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Considering the potential magnitude of the effects of peak oil on society and nature, the development of resource-constrained scenarios should be addressed immediately. Ecologists and conservation biologists are in an important position to analyze the situation and provide guidance, yet the topic is noticeably absent from ecological discussions. We urge politicians, corporate chief executives, thought leaders, and citizens to consider this problem seriously because it is likely to develop into one of the key environmental issues of the 21st century.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Czucz2010,
      author = {Czúcz, Bálint and Gathman, Joseph P and McPherson, Guy R},
      title = {The impending peak and decline of petroleum production: an underestimated challenge for conservation of ecological integrity.},
      journal = {Conservation Biology},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {24},
      number = {4},
      pages = {948--56},
      url = {http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/123361301/abstract http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20412088},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01503.x}
    }
    
    Déri, E., Magura, T., Horváth, R., Kisfali, M., Ruff, G., Lengyel, S. & Tóthmérész, B. Measuring the Short-term Success of Grassland Restoration: The Use of Habitat Affinity Indices in Ecological Restoration 2010 Restoration Ecology
    Vol. 9999(9999) 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Agricultural intensification threatens grasslands worldwide and the restoration of grasslands from arable lands can at least partially counter this threat. We studied grassland restoration by following early successional changes of arthropod assemblages (spiders, Araneae; true bugs, Heteroptera; orthopterans, Orthoptera; and ground beetles, Carabidae) on 1- and 2-year-old restorations using arable lands and native grasslands as two ends of the succession timescale. To examine the changes in species composition among the habitat types, we used habitat affinity indices based on fidelity and/or specificity of the species. We found that the number of species did not differ between habitat types, while species composition changed markedly with time. Species richness was thus not adequate to detect favorable changes after grassland restoration. Habitat affinity indices, on the other hand, were useful to detect compositional changes caused by the increasing numbers of species characteristic of target grasslands as early as the second year after restoration. Habitat affinity indices are easy-to-use, easy-to-interpret measures of restoration success; therefore, we recommend their use as measures complementary to species richness and simple similarity. Our results show that sowing low-diversity seed mixture followed by mowing and grazing can be particularly successful in grassland restoration in time periods as short as 2 years.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Deri2010,
      author = {Déri, Eszter and Magura, Tibor and Horváth, Roland and Kisfali, Máté and Ruff, Gábor and Lengyel, Szabolcs and Tóthmérész, Béla},
      title = {Measuring the Short-term Success of Grassland Restoration: The Use of Habitat Affinity Indices in Ecological Restoration},
      journal = {Restoration Ecology},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {9999},
      number = {9999},
      url = {http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/123320443/abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-100X.2009.00631.x}
    }
    
    Dahlgren, J.P. Alternative regression methods are not considered in Murtaugh (2009) or by ecologists in general 2010 Ecology Letters
    Vol. 13(5), pp. E7-E9 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Ecology Letters (2010) 13: E72013E9 Murtaugh (2009) recently illustrated that all subsets variable selection is very similar to stepwise regression. This, however, does not necessarily mean both methods are useful. On the contrary, the same problems with overfitting should apply. Ecologists should, if model building is indeed necessary, consider more reliable regression methods now available.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dahlgren2010,
      author = {Dahlgren, Johan P.},
      title = {Alternative regression methods are not considered in Murtaugh (2009) or by ecologists in general},
      journal = {Ecology Letters},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {13},
      number = {5},
      pages = {E7--E9},
      url = {http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/123356334/abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2010.01460.x}
    }
    
    Dahlin, K., Asner, G.P. & Field, C.B. Environmental filtering and land-use history drive patterns in biomass accumulation in a mediterranean-type landscape 2011 Ecological Applications, pp. 110901162010001  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Aboveground biomass (AGB) reflects multiple and often undetermined ecological and land-use processes, yet detailed landscape-level studies of AGB are uncommon due to the difficulty in making consistent measurements at ecologically relevant scales. Working in a protected mediterranean-type landscape (Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, California, USA), we combined field measurements with remotely sensed data from the Carnegie Airborne Observatory's light detection and ranging (lidar) system to create a detailed AGB map. We then developed a predictive model using a maximum of 56 explanatory variables derived from geologic and historic-ownership maps, a digital elevation model, and geographic coordinates to evaluate possible controls over currently observed AGB patterns. We tested both ordinary least squares regression (OLS) and autoregressive approaches. OLS explained 44% of the variation in AGB, and simultaneous autoregression with a 100 m neighborhood improved the fit to an r2 = 0.72 while reducing the num...
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dahlin2011,
      author = {Dahlin, Kyla and Asner, Gregory Paul and Field, Christopher B.},
      title = {Environmental filtering and land-use history drive patterns in biomass accumulation in a mediterranean-type landscape},
      journal = {Ecological Applications},
      publisher = {ap},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {110901162010001},
      url = {http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/11-1401.1},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/11-1401.1}
    }
    
    Daily, G.C. & Matson, P.A. Ecosystem services: From theory to implementation 2008 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
    Vol. 105(28), pp. 9455-9456 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Around the world, leaders are increasingly recognizing ecosystems as natural capital assets that supply life-support services of tremendous value. The challenge is to turn this recognition into incentives and institutions that will guide wise investments in natural capital, on a large scale. Advances are required on three key fronts, each featured here: the science of ecosystem production functions and service mapping; the design of appropriate finance, policy, and governance systems; and the art of implementing these in diverse biophysical and social contexts. Scientific understanding of ecosystem production functions is improving rapidly but remains a limiting factor in incorporating natural capital into decisions, via systems of national accounting and other mechanisms. Novel institutional structures are being established for a broad array of services and places, creating a need and opportunity for systematic assessment of their scope and limitations. Finally, it is clear that formal sharing of experience, and defining of priorities for future work, could greatly accelerate the rate of innovation and uptake of new approaches.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Daily2008,
      author = {Daily, Gretchen C and Matson, Pamela A},
      title = {Ecosystem services: From theory to implementation},
      journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {105},
      number = {28},
      pages = {9455--9456},
      url = {http://www.pnas.org/content/105/28/9455.abstract}
    }
    
    Daily, G.C.G., Alexander, S., Ehrlich, P.P.R., Goulder, L., Lubchenco, J., Matson, P.A., Mooney, H.A., Postel, S., Schneider, S.H., Tilman, D. & Woodwell, G.M. Ecosystem services: benefits supplied to human societies by natural ecosystems 1997 Issues in Ecology
    Vol. 2, pp. 2-16 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Daily1997a,
      author = {Daily, Gretchen C GC and Alexander, Susan and Ehrlich, PR Paul R and Goulder, Larry and Lubchenco, Jane and Matson, Pamela A and Mooney, Harold A and Postel, Sandra and Schneider, Stephen H and Tilman, David and Woodwell, George M},
      title = {Ecosystem services: benefits supplied to human societies by natural ecosystems},
      journal = {Issues in Ecology},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {2},
      pages = {2--16},
      url = {http://cmbc.ucsd.edu/content/1/docs/Daily1.pdf http://www.wms.org/biod/value/EcosystemServices.html}
    }
    
    Dal Sasso, P., Ottolino, M.A. & Caliandro, L.P. Identification of Quarries Rehabilitation Scenarios: A Case Study Within the Metropolitan Area of Bari (Italy). 2012 Environmental management, pp. 1-18  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: This paper addresses quarries rehabilitation issue within a Metropolitan Area. Areas where mining activity is carried out have been subjected to physical and environmental degradation linked both to pursue the building materials extraction and to the city expansion continuously asking for new areas to be developed with residential and service functions. These changes also occurred where environmental and landscape values are present. It has been therefore pointed out the issue of such areas redevelopment that, to be functionally reintegrated, must be consistently linked to the activities and the territorial local contexts characteristics. In this paper the quarries reuse issue is carried out through parameters identification able to define the quarries relationship with the neighboring towns and with their surroundings besides to identify their physical, environmental and landscaping characteristics. Quarry reuse alternatives have been identified among those consistent with the rehabilitation goals, as defined by the planning sector and internationally approved, while their selection is derived from the application of a two-step methodology: a multi-criteria analysis related to punctual parameters at a "site-specific" level, followed by a further territorial indicators checking over the wide area. This application has led to socially accepted results identifying the examined quarries for reuses ranging from agricultural-forestry and urban to functional or naturalistic. The proposed method has also proved to be suitable to address the abandoned quarries reuse problem with a systemic and consultative approach, as it is able to correlate the many variables present in the social and spatial complexity of the Metropolitan Areas.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DalSasso2012,
      author = {Dal Sasso, Pasquale and Ottolino, Maria Antonella and Caliandro, Lucia Patrizia},
      title = {Identification of Quarries Rehabilitation Scenarios: A Case Study Within the Metropolitan Area of Bari (Italy).},
      journal = {Environmental management},
      publisher = {Springer New York},
      year = {2012},
      pages = {1--18},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/gw5643173g3796m4/},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-012-9847-0}
    }
    
    Dallimer, M., Tinch, D., Acs, S., Hanley, N., Southall, H.R., Gaston, K.J. & Armsworth, P.R. 100 Years of Change: Examining Agricultural Trends, Habitat Change and Stakeholder Perceptions Through the 20th Century 2009 Journal of Applied Ecology
    Vol. 46(2), pp. 334-343 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: 1. The 20th century has witnessed substantial increases in the intensity of agricultural land management, much of which has been driven by policies to enhance food security and production. The knock-on effects in agriculturally dominated landscapes include habitat degradation and biodiversity loss. We examine long-term patterns of agricultural and habitat change at a regional scale, using the Peak District of northern England as a case study. As stakeholders are central to the implementation of successful land-use policy, we also assess their perceptions of historical changes. 2. In the period 1900 to 2000, there was a fivefold rise in sheep density, along with higher cattle density. We found a reduction in the number of farms, evidence of a shift in land ownership patterns, and increased agricultural specialization, including the virtual disappearance of upland arable production. 3. Despite previous studies showing a substantial loss in heather cover, we found that there had been no overall change in the proportion of land covered by dwarf shrub moor. Nonetheless, turnover rates were high, with only 55% of sampled sites maintaining dwarf shrub moor coverage between 1913 and 2000. 4. Stakeholders identified many of the changes revealed by the historical data, such as increased sheep numbers, fewer farms and greater specialization. However, other land-use changes were not properly described. For instance, although there had been no overall change in the proportion of dwarf shrub moor and the size of the rural labour force had not fallen, stakeholders reported a decline in both. Spatial heterogeneity of the changes, shifting baselines and problems with historical data sources might account for some of these discrepancies. 5. Synthesis and applications . A marked increase in sheep numbers, combined with general agricultural intensification, have been the dominant land-use processes in the Peak District during the 20th century. Stakeholders only correctly perceived some land-use changes. Policy and management objectives should therefore be based primarily on actual historical evidence. However, understanding stakeholder perceptions and how they differ from, or agree with, the available evidence will contribute to the successful uptake of land management policies and partly determine the costs of policy implementation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dallimer2009,
      author = {Dallimer, Martin and Tinch, Dugald and Acs, Szvetlana and Hanley, Nick and Southall, Humphrey R. and Gaston, Kevin J. and Armsworth, Paul R.},
      title = {100 Years of Change: Examining Agricultural Trends, Habitat Change and Stakeholder Perceptions Through the 20th Century},
      journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {46},
      number = {2},
      pages = {334--343},
      url = {http://blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2009.01619.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2009.01619.x}
    }
    
    Dalling, J.W., Davis, A.S., Schutte, B.J. & Elizabeth Arnold, A. Seed survival in soil: interacting effects of predation, dormancy and the soil microbial community 2010 Journal of Ecology, pp. no-no  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dalling2010,
      author = {Dalling, James W. and Davis, Adam S. and Schutte, Brian J. and Elizabeth Arnold, A.},
      title = {Seed survival in soil: interacting effects of predation, dormancy and the soil microbial community},
      journal = {Journal of Ecology},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {no--no},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2010.01739.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2010.01739.x}
    }
    
    Damgaard, C. & Fayolle, A. Measuring the importance of competition: a new formulation of the problem 2010 Journal of Ecology
    Vol. 98, pp. 1-6 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: 1. Currently, there is a debate among plant ecologists on the concepts of the intensity of competition and the importance of competition, which is central to many issues of modern plant population ecology and plant community ecology. 2. It is problematic that the current measures of intensity and importance of competition, typically, are reported as dimensionless indices because they hide the fact that both indices are functions of plant density and the level of the environmental gradient. 3. Here, a new formulation of the concepts is suggested, which explicitly highlights the functional dependencies on plant density and the level of the environmental gradient. The new measures are a generalization of the previous indices and correspond to the previous indices in the case of a simple experimental design. 4. The suggested measures of the intensity and importance of competition are exemplified using data from a response surface competition experiment between Agrostis capillaris and Festuca ovina along a herbicide gradient, where the expected clear effect of plant density was demonstrated. 5. Synthesis. As the suggested measures of the intensity and importance of competition explicitly highlight the functional dependencies on plant density and the level of the environmental gradient, we think that they will help to ensure a closer connection between experimental plant ecology and the attempts to model plant populations and communities.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Damgaard2010,
      author = {Damgaard, Christian and Fayolle, Adeline},
      title = {Measuring the importance of competition: a new formulation of the problem},
      journal = {Journal of Ecology},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {98},
      pages = {1--6},
      url = {http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/122666406/abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2009.01587.x}
    }
    
    Darimont, C.T. & Paquet, P.C. The Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) of British Columbia’s Coastal Rainforests : Findings from Year 2000 Pilot Study and Conservation Assessment 2000 , pp. 62pp.  unpublished  
    BibTeX:
    @unpublished{Darimont2000,
      author = {Darimont, Chris T. and Paquet, Paul C.},
      title = {The Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) of British Columbia’s Coastal Rainforests : Findings from Year 2000 Pilot Study and Conservation Assessment},
      year = {2000},
      pages = {62pp.}
    }
    
    Davies, K.W., Bates, J.D. & Nafus, A.M. Comparing Burned and Mowed Treatments in Mountain Big Sagebrush Steppe. 2012 Environmental management  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Fires in mountain big sagebrush [Artemisia tridentata spp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle] plant communities historically shifted dominance from woody to herbaceous vegetation. However, fire return intervals have lengthened with European settlement, and sagebrush dominance has increased at the expense of herbaceous vegetation in some plant communities. Management actions may be needed to decrease sagebrush in dense sagebrush stands to increase herbaceous vegetation. Prescribed fire is often used to remove sagebrush; however, mechanical treatments, such as mowing, are increasingly used because they are more controllable and do not pose an inherent risk of escape compared with fire. However, information on the effects of burned and mowed treatments on herbaceous vegetation and whether fire and mowed applications elicit similar vegetation responses are limited. We evaluated the effects of prescribed burning and mowing for 3 years after treatment in mountain big sagebrush plant communities. The burned and mowed treatments generally increased herbaceous cover, density, and production compared with untreated controls (P < 0.05). However, neither treatment induced a response in native perennial forb cover, density, or biomass (P > 0.05). In contrast, annual forb (predominately natives) cover, density, and biomass increased with mowing and burning (P < 0.05). Vegetation generally responded similarly in burned and mowed treatments; however, the burned treatment had less sagebrush, greater herbaceous vegetation production, and more bare ground than the mowed treatment (P < 0.05). These differences should be considered when selecting treatments to decrease sagebrush.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Davies2012,
      author = {Davies, K W and Bates, J D and Nafus, A M},
      title = {Comparing Burned and Mowed Treatments in Mountain Big Sagebrush Steppe.},
      journal = {Environmental management},
      year = {2012},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/v3m5u463841q7763/},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-012-9898-2}
    }
    
    Davies, K.W., Bates, J.D. & Nafus, A.M. Vegetation Response to Mowing Dense Mountain Big Sagebrush Stands 2012 Rangeland Ecology & Management
    Vol. 65(3), pp. 268-276 
    article URL 
    Abstract: A decrease in fire frequency and past grazing practices has led to dense mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. subsp. vaseyana [Rydb.] Beetle) stands with reduced herbaceous understories. To reverse this trend, sagebrush-reducing treatments often are applied with the goal of increasing herbaceous vegetation. Mechanical mowing is a sagebrush-reducing treatment that commonly is applied; however, information detailing vegetation responses to mowing treatments generally are lacking. Specifically, information is needed to determine whether projected increases in perennial grasses and forbs are realized and how exotic annual grasses respond to mowing treatments. To answer these questions, we evaluated vegetation responses to mowing treatments in mountain big sagebrush plant communities at eight sites. Mowing was implemented in the fall of 2007 and vegetation characteristics were measured for 3 yr post-treatment. In the first growing season post-treatment, there were few vegetation differences between the mowed treatment and untreated control (P > 0.05), other than sagebrush cover being reduced from 28% to 3% with mowing (P < 0.001). By the second growing season post-treatment, perennial grass, annual forb, and total herbaceous vegetation were generally greater in the mowed than control treatment (P < 0.05). Total herbaceous vegetation production was increased 1.7-fold and 1.5-fold with mowing in the second and third growing seasons, respectively (P < 0.001). However, not all plant functional groups increased with mowing. Perennial forbs and exotic annual grasses did not respond to the mowing treatment (P > 0.05). These results suggest that the abundance of sagebrush might not be the factor limiting some herbaceous plant functional groups, or they respond slowly to sagebrush-removing disturbances. However, this study suggests that mowing can be used to increase herbaceous vegetation and decrease sagebrush in some mountain big sagebrush plant communities without promoting exotic annual grass invasion.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Davies2012a,
      author = {Davies, K. W. and Bates, J. D. and Nafus, A. M.},
      title = {Vegetation Response to Mowing Dense Mountain Big Sagebrush Stands},
      journal = {Rangeland Ecology & Management},
      publisher = {Society for Range Management},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {65},
      number = {3},
      pages = {268--276},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2111/REM-D-11-00146.1}
    }
    
    Davies, T.M., Hazelton, M.L. & Marshall, J.C. sparr: Analyzing Spatial Relative Risk Using Fixed and Adaptive Kernel Density Estimation in R 2011 Journal Of Statistical Software
    Vol. 39(1), pp. 1-14 
    article  
    Abstract: The estimation of kernel-smoothed relative risk functions is a useful approach to ex- amining the spatial variation of disease risk. Though there exist several options for per- forming kernel density estimation in statistical software packages, there have been very few contributions to date that have focused on estimation of a relative risk function per se. Use of a variable or adaptive smoothing parameter for estimation of the individual densities has been shown to provide additional benefits in estimating relative risk and specific computational tools for this approach are essentially absent. Furthermore, lit- tle attention has been given to providing methods in available software for any kind of subsequent analysis with respect to an estimated risk function. To facilitate analyses in the field, the R package sparr is introduced, providing the ability to construct both fixed and adaptive kernel-smoothed densities and risk functions, identify statistically signifi- cant fluctuations in an estimated risk function through the use of asymptotic tolerance contours, and visualize these objects in flexible and attractive ways.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Davies2011,
      author = {Davies, Tilman M and Hazelton, Martin L and Marshall, Jonathan C},
      title = {sparr: Analyzing Spatial Relative Risk Using Fixed and Adaptive Kernel Density Estimation in R},
      journal = {Journal Of Statistical Software},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {39},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1--14}
    }
    
    De Cáceres, M., Legendre, P. & Moretti, M. Improving indicator species analysis by combining groups of sites 2010 Oikos
    Vol. online 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Indicator species are species that are used as ecological indicators of community or habitat types, environmental conditions, or environmental changes. In order to determine indicator species, the characteristic to be predicted is represented in the form of a classification of the sites, which is compared to the patterns of distribution of the species found at the sites. Indicator species analysis should take into account the fact that species have different niche breadths: if a species is related to the conditions prevailing in two or more groups of sites, an indicator species analysis undertaken on individual groups of sites may fail to reveal this association. In this paper, we suggest improving indicator species analysis by considering all possible combinations of groups of sites and selecting the combination for which the species can be best used as indicator. When using a correlation index, such as the point-biserial correlation, the method yields the combination where the difference between the observed and expected abundance/frequency of the species is the largest. When an indicator value index (IndVal) is used, the method provides the set of site-groups that best matches the observed distribution pattern of the species. We illustrate the advantages of the method in three different examples. Consideration of combinations of groups of sites provides an extra flexibility to qualitatively model the habitat preferences of the species of interest. The method also allows users to cross multiple classifications of the same sites, increasing the amount of information resulting from the analysis. When applied to community types, it allows one to distinguish those species that characterize individual types from those that characterize the relationships between them. This distinction is useful to determine the number of types that maximizes the number of indicator species.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DeCaceres2010,
      author = {De Cáceres, Miquel and Legendre, Pierre and Moretti, Marco},
      title = {Improving indicator species analysis by combining groups of sites},
      journal = {Oikos},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {online},
      url = {http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/123360380/abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2010.18334.x}
    }
    
    Deffontaines, J.P., Thenail, C. & Baudry, J. Agricultural systems and landscape patterns: how can we build a relationship? 1995 Landscape and Urban Planning
    Vol. 31(1-3), pp. 3-10 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: We compare the landscape structure generated by the farming systems of two French regions. The system of production and the resulting farm functioning appears to be a major factor in landscape organisation. More emphasis should be put on farming systems studies to enhance our understanding of landscape dynamics and associated ecological processes. Author Keywords: Farming systems; Landscape ecology; Lorraine; Normandy
    BibTeX:
    @article{Deffontaines1995,
      author = {Deffontaines, J P and Thenail, C and Baudry, J},
      title = {Agricultural systems and landscape patterns: how can we build a relationship?},
      journal = {Landscape and Urban Planning},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {31},
      number = {1-3},
      pages = {3--10},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?ob=ArticleURL&udi=B6V91-404RNSN-1&user=10&rdoc=1&fmt=&orig=search&sort=d&view=c&acct=C000050221&version=1&urlVersion=0&userid=10&md5=7a50047872dc8d6a10b9eb4ac56064fc},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0169-2046(94)01031-3}
    }
    
    DeGabriel, J.L., Albon, S.D., Fielding, D.A., Riach, D.J., Westaway, S. & Irvine, R.J. The presence of sheep leads to increases in plant diversity and reductions in the impact of deer on heather 2011 Journal of Applied Ecology, pp. 1-9  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{DeGabriel2011,
      author = {DeGabriel, Jane L. and Albon, Steve D. and Fielding, Deborah A. and Riach, David J. and Westaway, Sally and Irvine, R. Justin},
      title = {The presence of sheep leads to increases in plant diversity and reductions in the impact of deer on heather},
      journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {1--9},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.02032.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.02032.x}
    }
    
    Deléglise, C., Loucougaray, G. & Alard, D. Effects of grazing exclusion on the spatial variability of subalpine plant communities: A multiscale approach 2011 Basic and Applied Ecology
    Vol. 12, pp. 609-619 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Deleglise2011,
      author = {Deléglise, Claire and Loucougaray, Grégory and Alard, Didier},
      title = {Effects of grazing exclusion on the spatial variability of subalpine plant communities: A multiscale approach},
      journal = {Basic and Applied Ecology},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {12},
      pages = {609--619},
      url = {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1439179111001022},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2011.08.006}
    }
    
    Dengler, J. & Oldeland, J. Effects of sampling protocol on the shapes of species richness curves 2010 Journal of Biogeography
    Vol. 9999(9999), pp. no-no 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Aim Scheiner (Journal of Biogeography, 2009, 36, 200520132008) criticized several issues regarding the typology and analysis of species richness curves that were brought forward by Dengler (Journal of Biogeography, 2009, 36, 7282013744). In order to test these two sets of views in greater detail, we used a simulation model of ecological communities to demonstrate the effects of different sampling schemes on the shapes of species richness curves and their extrapolation capability.Methods We simulated five random communities with 100 species on a 64 × 64 grid using random fields. Then we sampled species2013area relationships (SARs, contiguous plots) as well as species2013sampling relationships (SSRs, non-contiguous plots) from these communities, both for the full extent and the central quarter of the grid. Finally, we fitted different functions (power, quadratic power, logarithmic, Michaelis2013Menten, Lomolino) to the obtained data and assessed their goodness-of-fit (Akaike weights) and their extrapolation capability (deviation of the predicted value from the true value).Results We found that power functions gave the best fit for SARs, while for SSRs saturation functions performed better. Curves constructed from data of 322 grid cells gave reasonable extrapolations for 642 grid cells for SARs, irrespective of whether samples were gathered from the full extent or the centre only. By contrast, SSRs worked well for extrapolation only in the latter case.Main conclusions SARs and SSRs have fundamentally different curve shapes. Both sampling strategies can be used for extrapolation of species richness to a target area, but only SARs allow for extrapolation to a larger area than that sampled. These results confirm a fundamental difference between SARs and area-based SSRs and thus support their typological differentiation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dengler2010,
      author = {Dengler, Jürgen and Oldeland, Jens},
      title = {Effects of sampling protocol on the shapes of species richness curves},
      journal = {Journal of Biogeography},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {9999},
      number = {9999},
      pages = {no--no},
      url = {http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/123443460/abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2010.02322.x}
    }
    
    Detora, M. & McCarthy, R.J. Ovariohysterectomy versus ovariectomy for elective sterilization of female dogs and cats: is removal of the uterus necessary? 2011 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
    Vol. 239(11), pp. 1409-12 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Detora2011,
      author = {Detora, Michael and McCarthy, Robert J},
      title = {Ovariohysterectomy versus ovariectomy for elective sterilization of female dogs and cats: is removal of the uterus necessary?},
      journal = {Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {239},
      number = {11},
      pages = {1409--12},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22087712},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.239.11.1409}
    }
    
    Dickie, I.A., Yeates, G.W., St. John, M.G., Stevenson, B.A., Scott, J.T., Rillig, M.C., Peltzer, D.A., Orwin, K.H., Kirschbaum, M.U.F., Hunt, J.E., Burrows, L.E., Barbour, M.M. & Aislabie, J. Ecosystem service and biodiversity trade-offs in two woody successions 2011 Journal of Applied Ecology, pp. no-no  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dickie2011,
      author = {Dickie, Ian A. and Yeates, Gregor W. and St. John, Mark G. and Stevenson, Bryan A. and Scott, John T. and Rillig, Matthias C. and Peltzer, Duane A. and Orwin, Kate H. and Kirschbaum, Miko U. F. and Hunt, John E. and Burrows, Larry E. and Barbour, Margaret M. and Aislabie, Jackie},
      title = {Ecosystem service and biodiversity trade-offs in two woody successions},
      journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {no--no},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.01980.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.01980.x}
    }
    
    Didham, R.K., Kapos, V. & Ewers, R.M. Rethinking the conceptual foundations of habitat fragmentation research 2011 Oikos, pp. no-no  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The conceptual foundations of habitat fragmentation research have not kept pace with empirical advances in our understanding of species responses to landscape change, nor with theoretical advances in the wider disciplines of ecology. There is now real debate whether explicit recognition of ‘habitat fragmentation’ as an over-arching conceptual domain will stimulate or hinder further progress toward understanding and mitigating the effects of landscape change. In this paper, we critically challenge the conceptual foundations of the discipline, and attempt to derive an integrated perspective on the best way to advance mechanistic understanding of fragmentation processes. We depict the inherent assumptions underlying the discipline as a ‘conceptual phase space’ of contrasting false dichotomies in fragmentation ‘problem space’. In our opinion, the key determinant of whether ‘habitat fragmentation’ can remain a cohesive framework lies in the concept of ‘interdependence’: 1) interdependence of landscape effects on species and 2) interdependence of species responses to landscape change. If there is non-trivial interdependence among the various sub-components of habitat fragmentation, or non-trivial interdependence among species responses to landscape change, then there will be real heuristic value in ‘habitat fragmentation’ as a single conceptual domain. At present, the current paradigms entrenched in the fragmentation literature are implicitly founded on strict independence of landscape effects (e.g. the debate about the independent effects of habitat loss versus fragmentation per se) and strict independence of species responses (e.g. the individualistic species response models underpinning landscape continuum models), despite compelling evidence for interdependence in both effects and responses to fragmentation. We discuss how strong ‘interdependence’ of effects and responses challenges us to rethink long-held views, and re-cast the conceptual foundations of habitat fragmentation in terms of spatial context-dependence in the effects of multiple interacting spatial components of fragmentation, and community context-dependence in the responses of multiple interacting species to landscape change.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Didham2011,
      author = {Didham, Raphael K. and Kapos, Valerie and Ewers, Robert M.},
      title = {Rethinking the conceptual foundations of habitat fragmentation research},
      journal = {Oikos},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {no--no},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2011.20273.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2011.20273.x}
    }
    
    Dieterle, P., Engling, F.-P., Horst, H., Paul, C., Robowsky, K.-D. & Tillmann, P. Die Anwendung der Nahinfrarotspektroskopie (NIRS) bei der Untersuchung von Futtermitteln und pflanzlichen Produkten 2003 Standpunkt, pp. 8pp.  incollection  
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{Dieterle2003,
      author = {Dieterle, P and Engling, F.-P. and Horst, H and Paul, C and Robowsky, K.-D. and Tillmann, P},
      title = {Die Anwendung der Nahinfrarotspektroskopie (NIRS) bei der Untersuchung von Futtermitteln und pflanzlichen Produkten},
      booktitle = {Standpunkt},
      publisher = {Verband Deutscher Landwirtschaftlicher Untersuchungs- und Forschungsanstalten (VDLUFA). Bonn, Deutschland},
      year = {2003},
      pages = {8pp.}
    }
    
    Dikou, A., Papapanagiotou, E. & Troumbis, A. Integrating Landscape Ecology and Geoinformatics to Decipher Landscape Dynamics for Regional Planning. 2011 Environmental management, pp. 1-16-16  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: We used remote sensing and GIS in conjunction with multivariate statistical methods to: (i) quantify landscape composition (land cover types) and configuration (patch density, diversity, fractal dimension, contagion) for five coastal watersheds of Kalloni gulf, Lesvos Island, Greece, in 1945, 1960, 1971, 1990 and 2002/2003, (ii) evaluate the relative importance of physical (slope, geologic substrate, stream order) and human (road network, population density) variables on landscape composition and configuration, and (iii) characterize processes that led to land cover changes through land cover transitions between these five successive periods in time. Distributions of land cover types did not differ among the five time periods at the five watersheds studied because the largest cumulative changes between 1945 and 2002/2003 did not take place at dominant land cover types. Landscape composition related primarily to the physical attributes of the landscape. Nevertheless, increase in population density and the road network were found to increase heterogeneity of the landscape mosaic (patchiness), complexity of patch shape (fractal dimension), and patch disaggregation (contagion). Increase in road network was also found to increase landscape diversity due to the creation of new patches. The main processes involved in land cover changes were plough-land abandonment and ecological succession. Landscape dynamics during the last 50 years corroborate the ecotouristic-agrotouristic model for regional development to reverse trends in agricultural land abandonment and human population decline and when combined with hypothetical regulatory approaches could predict how this landscape could develop in the future, thus, providing a valuable tool to regional planning.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dikou2011,
      author = {Dikou, Angela and Papapanagiotou, Evangelos and Troumbis, Andreas},
      title = {Integrating Landscape Ecology and Geoinformatics to Decipher Landscape Dynamics for Regional Planning.},
      journal = {Environmental management},
      publisher = {Springer New York},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {1--16--16},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/j1mvt52716882672/},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-011-9714-4}
    }
    
    DiTomaso, J.M. Invasive Weeds in Rangelands: Species, Impacts, and Management 2000 Weed Science
    Vol. 48(2), pp. 255-265 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Rangeland and pastures comprise about 42% of the total land area of the United States. About three-quarters of all domestic livestock depend upon grazing lands for survival. Many ranges have had domestic stock grazing for more than 100 years and, as a result, the plant composition has changed greatly from the original ecosystems. Western rangelands previously dominated by perennial bunchgrasses have been converted, primarily through overgrazing, to annual grasslands that are susceptible to invasion by introduced dicots. Today there are more than 300 rangeland weeds in the United States. Some of the most problematic include Bromus tectorum, Euphorbia esula, Centaurea solstitialis, C. diffusa, C. maculosa, and a number of other Centaurea species. In total, weeds in rangeland cause an estimated loss of 2 billion annually in the United States, which is more than all other pests combined. They impact the livestock industry by lowering yield and quality of forage, interfering with grazing, poisoning animals, increasing costs of managing and producing livestock, and reducing land value. They also impact wildlife habitat and forage, deplete soil and water resources, and reduce plant animal diversity. Numerous mechanical and cultural control options have been developed to manage noxious rangeland weeds, including mowing, prescribed burning, timely grazing, and perennial grass reseeding or interseeding. In addition, several herbicides are registered for use on rangelands and most biological control programs focus on noxious rangeland weed control. Successful management of noxious weeds on rangeland will require the development of a long-term strategic plan incorporating prevention programs, education materials and activities, and economical and sustainable multi-year integrated approaches that improve degraded rangeland communities, enhance the utility of the ecosystem, and prevent reinvasion or encroachment by other noxious weed species.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DiTomaso2000,
      author = {DiTomaso, Joseph M.},
      title = {Invasive Weeds in Rangelands: Species, Impacts, and Management},
      journal = {Weed Science},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {48},
      number = {2},
      pages = {255--265},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/4046263}
    }
    
    Doremus, H., Andreen, W., Camacho, A., Farber, D., Glicksman, R., Goble, D., Karkkainen, B., Rohlf, D., Tarlock, A., Zellmer, S., Jones, S. & Huang, Y. Making Good Use of Adaptive Management. Center for Progressive Reform White Paper 1104 2011 Management, pp. 17pp.  book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Doremus2011,
      author = {Doremus, H. and Andreen, W.L. and Camacho, A. and Farber, D.A. and Glicksman, R.L. and Goble, D. and Karkkainen, B.C. and Rohlf, D. and Tarlock, A.D. and Zellmer, S.B. and Jones, S. and Huang, Y.},
      title = {Making Good Use of Adaptive Management. Center for Progressive Reform White Paper 1104},
      booktitle = {Management},
      publisher = {Center for Progressive Reform},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {17pp.}
    }
    
    Dorigo, W.A., Zurita-Milla, R., de Wit, A.J.W., Brazile, J., Singh, R. & Schaepman, M.E. A review on reflective remote sensing and data assimilation techniques for enhanced agroecosystem modeling 2007 International Journal of Applied Earth Observation
    Vol. 9, pp. 193-195 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: During the last 50 years, the management of agroecosystems has been undergoing major changes to meet the growing demand for food, timber, fibre and fuel. As a result of this intensified use, the ecological status of many agroecosystems has been severely deteriorated. Modeling the behavior of agroecosystems is, therefore, of great help since it allows the definition of management strategies that maximize (crop) production while minimizing the environmental impacts. Remote sensing can support such modeling by offering information on the spatial and temporal variation of important canopy state variables which would be very difficult to obtain otherwise. In this paper, we present an overview of different methods that can be used to derive biophysical and biochemical canopy state variables from optical remote sensing data in the VNIR-SWIR regions. The overview is based on an extensive literature review where both statistical, empirical and physically based methods are discussed. Subsequently, the prevailing techniques of assimilating remote sensing data into agroecosystem models are outlined. The increasing complexity of data assimilation methods and of models describing agroecosystem functioning has significantly increased computational demands. For this reason, we include a short section on the potential of parallel processing to deal with the complex and computationally intensive algorithms described in the preceding sections. The studied literature reveals that many valuable techniques have been developed both for the retrieval of canopy state variables from reflective remote sensing data as for assimilating the retrieved variables in agroecosystem models. However, for agroecosystem modeling and remote sensing data assimilation to be commonly employed on a global operational basis, emphasis will have to be put on bridging the mismatch between data availability and accuracy on one hand, and model and user requirements on the other. This could be achieved by integrating imagery with different spatial, temporal, spectral, and angular resolutions, and the fusion of optical data with data of different origin, such as LIDAR and radar/microwave.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dorigo2007,
      author = {Dorigo, W A and Zurita-Milla, R and de Wit, A J W and Brazile, J and Singh, R and Schaepman, M E},
      title = {A review on reflective remote sensing and data assimilation techniques for enhanced agroecosystem modeling},
      journal = {International Journal of Applied Earth Observation},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {9},
      pages = {193--195},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?ob=ArticleURL&udi=B6X2F-4KCXJND-1&user=10&rdoc=1&fmt=&orig=search&sort=d&docanchor=&view=c&acct=C000050221&version=1&urlVersion=0&userid=10&md5=588f2ad313bef8e1e34f1762d25fd34c},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2006.05.003}
    }
    
    Dorrough, J., Vesk, P. & Moll, J. Integrating ecological uncertainty and farm-scale economics when planning restoration 2008 Journal of Applied Ecology
    Vol. 45(1), pp. 288 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: 1. Many ecological management problems involve assessing competing options based on the trade-off between economic costs and short- and long-term probabilities of success. In many cases the time to success is crucial, and opportunity costs may be greater than direct costs of implementation. We analyse the problem of how to choose between options when risks of failure vary systematically. 2. Ecological uncertainty propagates through to uncertainty about economic outcomes. We used an ecological model of tree recruitment that accounted for uncertainty surrounding the effects of climate and seed fall, coupled with a farm economics model, to examine how a land manager should act when deciding between active and passive revegetation (planting seed/seedlings or relying on natural recruitment, respectively) for restoration purposes on a farm managed for livestock production. 3. The outcome of the analysis was driven by the relative sizes of up-front costs and opportunity costs, which were a function of potential productivity and the time until successful revegetation was achieved. Active revegetation was less costly than passive revegetation in high-productivity situations, because there was less risk of long periods without production and the associated opportunity costs. At low productivity, passive revegetation was less costly than active revegetation. However, because the probability of a successful outcome increased over time, passive revegetation is only likely to be preferred over medium time-frames (> 5 years) and the strategy may not be chosen by risk-averse farmers. 4. Synthesis and applications. This analysis has implications for (i) decision-making by individual land managers and regional planners and (ii) the design of policies for delivery of incentive schemes targeted at revegetation. Risk-averse individual land managers are likely to select active regeneration scenarios, particularly when costs of capital works are shared with the community. For a regional planner, the analysis aids thinking about the probable balance of financial assistance schemes for attaining regional objectives: over high-productivity areas, capital works programmes and short-term opportunity cost incentives (< 5 years) are cheaper; at low productivity, incentive schemes for medium- to long-term land retirement will be cheaper. This analysis provides a starting point for devising the mix of approaches required to achieve broad-scale revegetation targets, which would include greater investment in uncertain, long-term strategies.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dorrough2008,
      author = {Dorrough, Josh and Vesk, P.A. and Moll, Jim},
      title = {Integrating ecological uncertainty and farm-scale economics when planning restoration},
      journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
      publisher = {Blackwell Publishing Ltd},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {45},
      number = {1},
      pages = {288},
      url = {http://www.botany.unimelb.edu.au/vesk/DorroughEtAl2008.pdf},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2007.0}
    }
    
    Drake, A.G. & Klingenberg, C.P. Large-scale diversification of skull shape in domestic dogs: disparity and modularity. 2010 The American naturalist
    Vol. 175(3), pp. 289-301 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Abstract: The variation among domestic dog breeds offers a unique opportunity to study large-scale diversification by microevolutionary mechanisms. We use geometric morphometrics to quantify the diversity of skull shape in 106 breeds of domestic dog, in three wild canid species, and across the order Carnivora. The amount of shape variation among domestic dogs far exceeds that in wild species, and it is comparable to the disparity throughout the Carnivora. The greatest shape distances between dog breeds clearly surpass the maximum divergence between species in the Carnivora. Moreover, domestic dogs occupy a range of novel shapes outside the domain of wild carnivorans. The disparity among companion dogs substantially exceeds that of other classes of breeds, suggesting that relaxed functional demands facilitated diversification. Much of the diversity of dog skull shapes stems from variation between short and elongate skulls and from modularity of the face versus that of the neurocranium. These patterns of integration and modularity apply to variation among individuals and breeds, but they also apply to fluctuating asymmetry, indicating they have a shared developmental basis. These patterns of variation are also found for the wolf and across the Carnivora, suggesting that they existed before the domestication of dogs and are not a result of selective breeding.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Drake2010,
      author = {Drake, Abby Grace and Klingenberg, Christian Peter},
      title = {Large-scale diversification of skull shape in domestic dogs: disparity and modularity.},
      journal = {The American naturalist},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {175},
      number = {3},
      pages = {289--301},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20095825},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/650372}
    }
    
    Drummond, G.B. & Tom, B.D.M. Statistics, probability, significance, likelihood: words mean what we define them to mean 2011 The Journal of Physiology
    Vol. 589(16), pp. 3901-3904 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Drummond2011,
      author = {Drummond, G. B. and Tom, B. D. M.},
      title = {Statistics, probability, significance, likelihood: words mean what we define them to mean},
      journal = {The Journal of Physiology},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {589},
      number = {16},
      pages = {3901--3904},
      url = {http://jp.physoc.org},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2011.215103}
    }
    
    Drăguţ, L., Walz, U. & Blaschke, T. The Third and Fourth Dimensions of Landscape: towards Conceptual Models of Topographically Complex Landscapes 2010 Landscape Online
    Vol. 22, pp. 1-10 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Relating spatial patterns to ecological processes is one of the central goals of landscape ecology. The patch-corri- dor-matrix model and landscape metrics have been the predominant approach to describe the spatial arrangement of discrete elements (“patches”) for the last two decades. However, the widely used approach of using landscape metrics for characterizing categorical map patterns is connected with a number of problems. We aim at stimulating further developments in the field of the analysis of spatio-temporal landscape patterns by providing both a critical review of existing techniques and clarifying their pros and cons as well as demonstrating how to extent common approaches in landscape ecology (e.g. the patch-corridor-matrix model). The extension into the third dimension means adding information on the relief and height of vegetation, while the fourth dimension means the temporal, dynamic aspect of landscapes. The contribution is structured around three main topics: the third dimension of landscapes, the fourth dimension of landscapes, and spatial and temporal scales in landscape analysis. Based on the results of a symposium on this theme at the IALE conference in 2009 in Salzburg and a literature review we emphasize the need to add topographic information into evaluations of landscape structure, the appropriate con- sideration of scales; and to consider the ambiguity and even contradiction between landscape metrics.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dragut2010,
      author = {Drăguţ, Lucian and Walz, Ulrich and Blaschke, Thomas},
      title = {The Third and Fourth Dimensions of Landscape: towards Conceptual Models of Topographically Complex Landscapes},
      journal = {Landscape Online},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {22},
      pages = {1--10},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3097/LO.201022}
    }
    
    Dullinger, S., Dirnböck, T., Greimler, J. & Grabherr, G. A resampling approach for evaluating effects of pasture abandonment on subalpine plant species diversity 2003 Journal of Vegetation Science
    Vol. 14, pp. 243-252 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The decline of species-rich semi-natural calcareous grasslands is a major conservation problem throughout Europe. Maintenance of traditional animal husbandry is often recommended as an important management strategy. However, results that underpin such management recommendations were derived predominantly from lowland studies and may not be easily applicable to high mountain areas. In this study we analyse the importance of traditional low-intensity summer farming (cattle grazing) for vascular plant species diversity of a subalpine region in the northern calcareous Alps in Austria by resampling from an existing dataset on its vegetation. Results indicate a significant long term decline of plant species diversity following abandonment at the landscape scale. In contrast, within-community effects of pasture abandonment on plant species diversity are equivocal and strongly depend on the plant community. We suppose these differences to be due to diet preferences of cattle as well as to the differential importance of competition for structuring the respective communities. From our results we infer that the main mechanism by which pasture abandonment affects vascular plant species diversity, at least during the first ca. 100 yr documented here, are not local-scale competitive exclusion processes within persisting communities. Instead, post-abandonment successional community displacements that cause a landscape scale homogenization of the vegetation cover seem to be primarily responsible for a decline of species diversity. We conclude, that successful management of vascular plant species diversity in subalpine regions of the Northeastern Calcareous Alps will depend on the maintenance of large scale pasture systems with a spatially variable disturbance regime.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dullinger2003,
      author = {Dullinger, Stefan and Dirnböck, Thomas and Greimler, Josef and Grabherr, Georg},
      title = {A resampling approach for evaluating effects of pasture abandonment on subalpine plant species diversity},
      journal = {Journal of Vegetation Science },
      year = {2003},
      volume = {14},
      pages = {243--252},
      url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1654-1103.2003.tb02149.x/abstract}
    }
    
    Dumont, B., Rook, A.J., Coran, C. & Röver, K.-U. Effects of livestock breed and grazing intensity on biodiversity and production in grazing systems. 2. Diet selection 2007 Grass and Forage Science
    Vol. 62(2), pp. 159-171 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Reduction in grazing intensity and the use of traditional instead of commercial breeds have frequently been recommended to meet biodiversity and production goals in sustainable grazing systems. The impact of such practices within a range of contrasting grassland vegetation types was studied. This paper describes the effects on foraging behaviour in a study conducted over three years on mesotrophic or semi-natural grasslands in UK (steers), Germany (steers), France (heifers) and Italy (sheep). Three treatments were performed: (i) a moderate grazing intensity using a commercial breed, (ii) a more lenient grazing intensity with a commercial breed and (iii) a more lenient intensity with a traditional breed. Livestock at all sites preferentially selected bites containing legumes and forbs, and also short rather than tall vegetative patches. Grazing intensity affected not only diet consumed, largely reflecting the different availabilities of dietary components, but also some differences in diet selection. Livestock grazing the more productive mesotrophic grasslands more frequently exploited short patches of higher nutritive value, which is expected to reinforce the spatial heterogeneity of the pastures. Studies in the UK and Germany also revealed that steers showed a more pronounced selection for short patches at the lenient grazing intensity. More homogeneous grazing by livestock on the semi-natural grasslands with fine-scale heterogeneity is likely to decrease their spatial heterogeneity. There were few differences in the choices made by commercial and traditional breed livestock. North Devon steers in the UK expressed a greater selection for tall grass-forb bites than Charolais × Holstein crossbreds, whereas traditional breeds appeared slightly less selective than commercial breeds at the other three sites.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dumont2007,
      author = {Dumont, B and Rook, A J and Coran, Ch. and Röver, K.-U.},
      title = {Effects of livestock breed and grazing intensity on biodiversity and production in grazing systems. 2. Diet selection},
      journal = {Grass and Forage Science},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {62},
      number = {2},
      pages = {159--171},
      url = {http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118485895/abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2494.2007.00572.x}
    }
    
    Duru, M., Hossard, L., Martin, G. & Theau, J.P. A methodology for characterization and analysis of plant functional composition in grassland-based farms 2012 Grass and Forage Science, pp. n/a-n/a  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Duru2012,
      author = {Duru, M. and Hossard, L. and Martin, G. and Theau, J. P.},
      title = {A methodology for characterization and analysis of plant functional composition in grassland-based farms},
      journal = {Grass and Forage Science},
      year = {2012},
      pages = {n/a--n/a},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1365-2494.2012.00897.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2494.2012.00897.x}
    }
    
    Edenius, L., Ericsson, G., Kempe, G., Bergström, R. & Danell, K. The effects of changing land use and browsing on aspen abundance and regeneration: a 50-year perspective from Sweden 2010 Journal of Applied Ecology
    Vol. 48(2), pp. no-no 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Edenius2010,
      author = {Edenius, Lars and Ericsson, Göran and Kempe, Göran and Bergström, Roger and Danell, Kjell},
      title = {The effects of changing land use and browsing on aspen abundance and regeneration: a 50-year perspective from Sweden},
      journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {48},
      number = {2},
      pages = {no--no},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01923.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01923.x}
    }
    
    Egger, G., Angermann, K. & Buchgraber, K. GIS-gestützte Ertragsmodellierung zur Optimierung des Weidemanagements auf Almweiden. 2003   book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Egger2003,
      author = {Egger, Gregory and Angermann, Karoline and Buchgraber, Karl},
      title = {GIS-gestützte Ertragsmodellierung zur Optimierung des Weidemanagements auf Almweiden.},
      publisher = {Bundesanstalt für alpenländische Landwirtschaft Raumberg-Gumpenstein},
      year = {2003}
    }
    
    Egoh, B., Reyers, B., Rouget, M., Richardson, D., Lemaitre, D. & Vanjaarsveld, A. Mapping ecosystem services for planning and management 2008 Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
    Vol. 127(1-2), pp. 135-140 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Egoh2008,
      author = {Egoh, B and Reyers, B and Rouget, M and Richardson, D and Lemaitre, D and Vanjaarsveld, A},
      title = {Mapping ecosystem services for planning and management},
      journal = {Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {127},
      number = {1-2},
      pages = {135--140},
      url = {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0167880908001217},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2008.03.013}
    }
    
    Ehrlich, P. & Mooney, H. Extinction, substitution, and ecosystem services 1983 BioScience
    Vol. 33(4), pp. 248-254 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The loss of services to humanity following extinctions ranges from trivial to catastrophic, depending on the number of elements (populations, species, guilds) deleted and the degree of control each exerted in the system. Most attempts to substitute other organisms for those lost have been unsuccessful, to one degree or another, and prospects for increasing the success rate in the foreseeable future are not great. Attempts to supply the lost services by other means tend to be expensive failures in the long run. A conservative approach to the maintenance of services through minimizing anthropogenic extinctions is recommended.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ehrlich1983,
      author = {Ehrlich, P.R. and Mooney, H.A.},
      title = {Extinction, substitution, and ecosystem services},
      journal = {BioScience},
      publisher = {American Institute of Biological Sciences},
      year = {1983},
      volume = {33},
      number = {4},
      pages = {248--254},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/1309037}
    }
    
    Ehrlich, P.R. & Pringle, R.M. Where does biodiversity go from here? A grim business-as-usual forecast and a hopeful portfolio of partial solutions 2008 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
    Vol. 105, pp. 11579-11586 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The threats to the future of biodiversity are many and well known. They include habitat conversion, environmental toxification, cli- mate change, and direct exploitation of wildlife, among others. Moreover, the projected addition of 2.6 billion people by mid- century will almost certainly have a greater environmental impact than that of the last 2.6 billion. Collectively, these trends portend a grim future for biodiversity under a business-as-usual scenario. These threats and their interactions are formidable, but we review seven strategies that, if implemented soundly and scaled up dramatically, would preserve a substantial portion of global biodi- versity. These are actions to stabilize the human population and reduce its material consumption, the deployment of endowment funds and other strategies to ensure the efficacy and permanence of conservation areas, steps to make human-dominated landscapes hospitable to biodiversity, measures to account for the economic costs of habitat degradation, the ecological reclamation of de- graded lands and repatriation of extirpated species, the education and empowerment of people in the rural tropics, and the funda- mental transformation of human attitudes about nature. Like the carbon ‘‘stabilization wedges’’ outlined by Pacala and Socolow [Pacala S, Socolow R (2004) Stabilization wedges: Solving the climate problem for the next 50 years with current technologies. Science 305:968 –972] (1), the science and technologies needed to effect this vision already exist. The remaining challenges are largely social, political, and economic. Although academic conser- vation biology still has an important role to play in developing technical tools and knowledge, success at this juncture hinges more on a massive mobilization of effort to do things that have traditionally been outside the scope of the discipline.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ehrlich2008,
      author = {Ehrlich, Paul R and Pringle, Robert M},
      title = {Where does biodiversity go from here? A grim business-as-usual forecast and a hopeful portfolio of partial solutions},
      journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {105},
      pages = {11579--11586},
      doi = {͞10.1073/͞pnas.0801911105}
    }
    
    Eichberger C. & Heiselmayer P. Die Erika Kieferbestände (Erico Pinetum sylvestris BR.-BL. et al.39) bei Mandling (Salzburg und Steiermark, Österreich) 1997 Linzer biol. Beitr.
    Vol. 29(1), pp. 543 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Eichberger1997,
      author = {Eichberger C. and Heiselmayer P.},
      title = {Die Erika Kieferbestände (Erico Pinetum sylvestris BR.-BL. et al.39) bei Mandling (Salzburg und Steiermark, Österreich)},
      journal = {Linzer biol. Beitr.},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {29},
      number = {1},
      pages = {543}
    }
    
    Eigenbrod, F., Anderson, B.J., Armsworth, P.R., Heinemeyer, A., Gillings, S., Roy, D.B., Thomas, C.D. & Gaston, K.J. Representation of ecosystem services by tiered conservation strategies 2010 Conservation Letters
    Vol. 3(3), pp. 184-191 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: In human-dominated regions, protected areas are complemented by other conservation strategies (e.g., restrictive zoning, incentive payments) to maintain biodiversity and other ecosystem services. These strategies are often not mutually exclusive, with many areas covered by multiple (tiered) management strategies. However, it is not known whether tiering increases (or decreases) representation of ecosystem services. Here, we compare the representation of four ecosystem services by areas protected by both tiered and single conservation strategies (protected areas, restrictive zoning, and incentive payments to landowners) in a human-dominated region (England). Tiering always coincided with the highest levels of stored carbon, sometimes coincided with high biodiversity and agricultural production, but never coincided with high recreational value. We also show that tiering is common in England and biased towards upland areas. Future evaluations of the effectiveness of conservation strategies should consider the degree of overlap of the different strategies fully to understand which are most effective.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Eigenbrod2010,
      author = {Eigenbrod, Felix and Anderson, Barbara J. and Armsworth, Paul R. and Heinemeyer, Andreas and Gillings, Simon and Roy, David B and Thomas, Chris D and Gaston, Kevin J.},
      title = {Representation of ecosystem services by tiered conservation strategies},
      journal = {Conservation Letters},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {3},
      number = {3},
      pages = {184--191},
      url = {http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/123301658/abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-263X.2010.00102.x}
    }
    
    Eisenhardt, K.M. Building Theories from Case Study Research 1989 Academy of Management Review
    Vol. 14(4), pp. 532-550 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: This paper describes the process of inducting theory using case studies-from specifying the research questions to reaching closure. Some features of the process, such as problem definition and construct validation, are similar to hypothesis-testing research. Others, such as within-case analysis and replication logic, are unique to the inductive, case-oriented process. Overall, the process described here is highly iterative and tightly linked to data. This research approach is especially appropriate in new topic areas. The resultant theory is often novel, testable, and empirically valid. Finally, framebreaking insights, the tests of good theory (e.g., parsimony, logical coherence), and convincing grounding in the evidence are the key criteria for evaluating this type of research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Eisenhardt1989,
      author = {Eisenhardt, Kathleen M},
      title = {Building Theories from Case Study Research},
      journal = {Academy of Management Review},
      publisher = {Academy of Management},
      year = {1989},
      volume = {14},
      number = {4},
      pages = {532--550},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/258557?origin=crossref},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/258557}
    }
    
    Eisenhardt, K.M. & Graebner, M.E. Theory building from cases: Opportunities and challenges 2007 Academy of Management Journal
    Vol. 50(1), pp. 25-32 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: This article discusses the research strategy of theory building from cases, particularly multiple cases. Such a strategy involves using one or more cases to create theoretical constructs, propositions, and/or midrange theory from case-based, empirical evidence. Replication logic means that each case serves as a distinct experiment that stands on its own merits as an analytic unit. The frequent use of case studies as a research strategy has given rise to some challenges that can be mitigated by the use of very precise wording and thoughtful research design.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Eisenhardt2007,
      author = {Eisenhardt, Kathleen M and Graebner, Melissa E},
      title = {Theory building from cases: Opportunities and challenges},
      journal = {Academy of Management Journal},
      publisher = {Academy of Management},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {50},
      number = {1},
      pages = {25--32},
      url = {http://aom.pace.edu/AMJ/editorials/Eisenhart.Graebner.2007.pdf},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/20159839}
    }
    
    Eldridge, D.J., Bowker, M.A., Maestre, F.T., Roger, E., Reynolds, J.F. & Whitford, W.G. Impacts of shrub encroachment on ecosystem structure and functioning: towards a global synthesis. 2011 Ecology letters
    Vol. 14(7), pp. 709-722 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Ecology Letters (2011) Encroachment of woody plants into grasslands has generated considerable interest among ecologists. Syntheses of encroachment effects on ecosystem processes have been limited in extent and confined largely to pastoral land uses or particular geographical regions. We used univariate analyses, meta-analysis and structural equation modelling to test the propositions that (1) shrub encroachment does not necessarily lead to declines in ecosystem functions and (2) shrub traits influence the functional outcome of encroachment. Analyses of 43 ecosystem attributes from 244 case studies worldwide showed that some attributes consistently increased with encroachment (e.g. soil C, N), and others declined (e.g. grass cover, pH), but most exhibited variable responses. Traits of shrubs were associated with significant, though weak, structural and functional outcomes of encroachment. Our review revealed that encroachment had mixed effects on ecosystem structure and functioning at global scales, and that shrub traits influence the functional outcome of encroachment. Thus, a simple designation of encroachment as a process leading to functionally, structurally or contextually degraded ecosystems is not supported by a critical analysis of existing literature. Our results highlight that the commonly established link between shrub encroachment and degradation is not universal.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Eldridge2011,
      author = {Eldridge, David J and Bowker, Matthew A and Maestre, Fernando T and Roger, Erin and Reynolds, James F and Whitford, Walter G},
      title = {Impacts of shrub encroachment on ecosystem structure and functioning: towards a global synthesis.},
      journal = {Ecology letters},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {14},
      number = {7},
      pages = {709--722},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21592276},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2011.01630.x}
    }
    
    Elith, J., Leathwick, J.R. & Hastie, T. A working guide to boosted regression trees 2008 Journal of Animal Ecology
    Vol. 77(4), pp. 802-813 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: 1. Ecologists use statistical models for both explanation and prediction, and need techniques that are flexible enough to express typical features of their data, such as nonlinearities and interactions. 2. This study provides a working guide to boosted regression trees (BRT), an ensemble method for fitting statistical models that differs fundamentally from conventional techniques that aim to fit a single parsimonious model. Boosted regression trees combine the strengths of two algorithms: regression trees (models that relate a response to their predictors by recursive binary splits) and boosting (an adaptive method for combining many simple models to give improved predictive performance). The final BRT model can be understood as an additive regression model in which individual terms are simple trees, fitted in a forward, stagewise fashion. 3. Boosted regression trees incorporate important advantages of tree-based methods, handling different types of predictor variables and accommodating missing data. They have no need for prior data transformation or elimination of outliers, can fit complex nonlinear relationships, and automatically handle interaction effects between predictors. Fitting multiple trees in BRT overcomes the biggest drawback of single tree models: their relatively poor predictive performance. Although BRT models are complex, they can be summarized in ways that give powerful ecological insight, and their predictive performance is superior to most traditional modelling methods. 4. The unique features of BRT raise a number of practical issues in model fitting. We demonstrate the practicalities and advantages of using BRT through a distributional analysis of the short-finned eel (Anguilla australis Richardson), a native freshwater fish of New Zealand. We use a data set of over 13 000 sites to illustrate effects of several settings, and then fit and interpret a model using a subset of the data. We provide code and a tutorial to enable the wider use of BRT by ecologists.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Elith2008,
      author = {Elith, J and Leathwick, J R and Hastie, T},
      title = {A working guide to boosted regression trees},
      journal = {Journal of Animal Ecology},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {77},
      number = {4},
      pages = {802--813},
      url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2656.2008.01390.x/abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2656.2008.01390.x}
    }
    
    Ellenberg, H. Vegetation Mitteleuropas mit den Alpen 1996 , pp. 1095 pp  book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Ellenberg1996,
      author = {Ellenberg, Heinz},
      title = {Vegetation Mitteleuropas mit den Alpen},
      publisher = {Ulmerverlag},
      year = {1996},
      pages = {1095 pp},
      edition = {5}
    }
    
    Ellison, A.M., Barker-Plotkin, A.A., Foster, D.R. & Orwig, D.A. Experimentally testing the role of foundation species in forests: the Harvard Forest Hemlock Removal Experiment 2010 Methods in Ecology and Evolution
    Vol. 9999(9999) 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: 1. Problem statement2013 Foundation species define and structure ecological systems. In forests around the world, foundation tree species are declining due to overexploitation, pests and pathogens. Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), a foundation tree species in eastern North America, is threatened by an exotic insect, the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae). The loss of hemlock is hypothesized to result in dramatic changes in assemblages of associated species with cascading impacts on food webs and fluxes of energy and nutrients. We describe the setting, design and analytical framework of the Harvard Forest Hemlock Removal Experiment (HF-HeRE), a multi-hectare, long-term experiment that overcomes many of the major logistical and analytical challenges of studying system-wide consequences of foundation species loss. 2. Study design2013 HF-HeRE is a replicated and blocked Before-After-Control-Impact experiment that includes two hemlock removal treatments: girdling all hemlocks to simulate death by adelgid and logging all hemlocks &gt;20 cm diameter and other merchantable trees to simulate pre-emptive salvage operations. These treatments are paired with two control treatments: hemlock controls that are beginning to be infested in 2010 by the adelgid and hardwood controls that represent future conditions of most hemlock stands in eastern North America. 3. Ongoing measurements and monitoring2013 Ongoing long-term measurements to quantify the magnitude and direction of forest ecosystem change as hemlock declines include: air and soil temperature, light availability, leaf area and canopy closure; changes in species composition and abundance of the soil seed-bank, understorey vegetation, and soil-dwelling invertebrates; dynamics of coarse woody debris; soil nitrogen availability and net nitrogen mineralization; and soil carbon flux. Short-term or one-time-only measurements include initial tree ages, hemlock-decomposing fungi, wood-boring beetles and throughfall chemistry. Additional within-plot, replicated experiments include effects of ants and litter-dwelling microarthoropods on ecosystem functioning, and responses of salamanders to canopy change. 4. Future directions and collaborations2013 HF-HeRE is part of an evolving network of retrospective studies, natural experiments, large manipulations and modelling efforts focused on identifying and understanding the role of single foundation species on ecological processes and dynamics. We invite colleagues from around the world who are interested in exploring complementary questions to take advantage of the HF-HeRE research infrastructure.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ellison2010,
      author = {Ellison, Aaron M. and Barker-Plotkin, Audrey A. and Foster, David R. and Orwig, David A.},
      title = {Experimentally testing the role of foundation species in forests: the Harvard Forest Hemlock Removal Experiment},
      journal = {Methods in Ecology and Evolution},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {9999},
      number = {9999},
      url = {http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/123358644/abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2041-210X.2010.00025.x}
    }
    
    Ellison, A.M. & Dennis, B. Paths to statistical fluency for ecologists 2009 Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, pp. 090611134501096  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ellison2009,
      author = {Ellison, Aaron M and Dennis, Brian},
      title = {Paths to statistical fluency for ecologists},
      journal = {Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment},
      publisher = {Ecological Society of America},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {090611134501096},
      url = {http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/080209},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/080209}
    }
    
    Erhard, T. Feldversuchswesen 2006 , pp. 387  book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Erhard2006,
      author = {Erhard, Thomas},
      title = {Feldversuchswesen},
      publisher = {Eugen Ulmer KG},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {387}
    }
    
    European Environment Agency Landscape Fragmentation in Europe. Joint EEA-FOEN report 2011 (2)soptravi.gob.hn, pp. 87 pp.  book DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @book{EEA2011,
      author = {European Environment Agency},
      title = {Landscape Fragmentation in Europe. Joint EEA-FOEN report},
      booktitle = {soptravi.gob.hn},
      publisher = {European Environment Agency and Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN)},
      year = {2011},
      number = {2},
      pages = {87 pp.},
      edition = {EEA Report},
      url = {http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/landscape-fragmentation-in-europe},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2800/78322}
    }
    
    Evette, A., Labonne, S., Rey, F., Liebault, F., Jancke, O. & Girel, J. History of Bioengineering Techniques for Erosion Control in Rivers in Western Europe 2009 Environmental Management
    Vol. 43(6), pp. 972-984 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Abstract Living plants have been used for a very long time throughout the world in structures against soil erosion, as traces have been found dating back to the first century BC. Widely practiced in Western Europe during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, bioengineering was somewhat abandoned in the middle of the twentieth century, before seeing a resurgence in recent times. Based on an extensive bibliography, this article examines the different forms of bioengineering techniques used in the past to manage rivers and riverbanks, mainly in Europe. We compare techniques using living material according to their strength of protection against erosion. Many techniques are described, both singly and in combination, ranging from tree planting or sowing seeds on riverbanks to dams made of fascine or wattle fences. The recent appearance of new materials has led to the development of new techniques, associated with an evolution in the perception of riverbanks.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Evette2009,
      author = {Evette, Andre and Labonne, Sophie and Rey, Freddy and Liebault, Frederic and Jancke, Oliver and Girel, Jacky},
      title = {History of Bioengineering Techniques for Erosion Control in Rivers in Western Europe},
      journal = {Environmental Management},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {43},
      number = {6},
      pages = {972--984},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-009-9275-y},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-009-9275-y}
    }
    
    Evrendilek, F. Integrating Map Algebra and Statistical Modeling for Spatio- Temporal Analysis of Monthly Mean Daily Incident Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) over a Complex Terrain 2007 Sensors
    Vol. 7(12), pp. 3242-3257 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: This study aims at quantifying spatio-temporal dynamics of monthly mean dailyincident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) over a vast and complex terrain such asTurkey. The spatial interpolation method of universal kriging, and the combination ofmultiple linear regression (MLR) models and map algebra techniques were implemented togenerate surface maps of PAR with a grid resolution of 500 x 500 m as a function of fivegeographical and 14 climatic variables. Performance of the geostatistical and MLR modelswas compared using mean prediction error (MPE), root-mean-square prediction error(RMSPE), average standard prediction error (ASE), mean standardized prediction error(MSPE), root-mean-square standardized prediction error (RMSSPE), and adjustedcoefficient of determination (R2adj.). The best-fit MLR- and universal kriging-generatedmodels of monthly mean daily PAR were validated against an independent 37-year observeddataset of 35 climate stations derived from 160 stations across Turkey by the Jackknifingmethod. The spatial variability patterns of monthly mean daily incident PAR were moreaccurately reflected in the surface maps created by the MLR-based models than in thosecreated by the universal kriging method, in particular, for spring (May) and autumn(November). The MLR-based spatial interpolation algorithms of PAR described in thisstudy indicated the significance of the multifactor approach to understanding and mappingspatio-temporal dynamics of PAR for a complex terrain over meso-scales.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Evrendilek2007,
      author = {Evrendilek, Fatih},
      title = {Integrating Map Algebra and Statistical Modeling for Spatio- Temporal Analysis of Monthly Mean Daily Incident Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) over a Complex Terrain},
      journal = {Sensors},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {7},
      number = {12},
      pages = {3242--3257},
      url = {http://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/7/12/3242},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s7123242}
    }
    
    Fürst, C., Volk, M. & Makeschin, F. Squaring the Circle? Combining Models, Indicators, Experts and End-Users in Integrated Land-Use Management Support Tools. 2010 Environmental management, pp. 1-5-5  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The most important challenges faced in the field of integrated land-use management are (i) harmonizing and integrating different datasets, (ii) selecting appropriate indicators, (iii) fitting suitable models to adequate scales, and finally (iv) integrating data, indicators and models into systems that allow both a high level of participation and flexibility with the adaptation to a variety of questions and applications. The articles of this special issue "Squaring the Circle? Combining Models, Indicators, Experts and End-Users in Integrated Land-Use Management Support Tools" demonstrate the challenges that are related to this topic. The case studies present examples of such integrated systems in order to recommend best practices to support land-use management and to reveal existing shortcomings. As a conclusion, seven features of a successful applicable integrated land-use management support system are derived: (1) ability to deal with discontinuity in information and datasets, (2) contribution to solve the problem of indicator diversity, (3) structuring the decision-making process, (4) support of participation processes in generating decisions, (5) development, comparison and evaluation of land-use alternatives, (6) assessment of the efficiency and trade-offs of management options, and (7) assistance of stakeholders in group communication processes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Furst2010b,
      author = {Fürst, Christine and Volk, Martin and Makeschin, Franz},
      title = {Squaring the Circle? Combining Models, Indicators, Experts and End-Users in Integrated Land-Use Management Support Tools.},
      journal = {Environmental management},
      publisher = {Springer New York},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {1--5--5},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/434873110600w266/},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-010-9574-3}
    }
    
    Fürst, C., Volk, M., Pietzsch, K. & Makeschin, F. Pimp Your Landscape: A Tool for Qualitative Evaluation of the Effects of Regional Planning Measures on Ecosystem Services. 2010 Environmental management, pp. 1-16-16  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The article presents the platform "Pimp your landscape" (PYL), which aims firstly at the support of planners by simulating alternative land-use scenarios and by an evaluation of benefits or risks for regionally important ecosystem services. Second, PYL supports an integration of information on environmental and landscape conditions into impact assessment. Third, PYL supports the integration of impacts of planning measures on ecosystem services. PYL is a modified 2-D cellular automaton with GIS features. The cells have the major attribute "land-use type" and can be supplemented with additional information, such as specifics regarding geology, topography and climate. The GIS features support the delineation of non-cellular infrastructural elements, such as roads or water bodies. An evaluation matrix represents the core element of the system. In this matrix, values in a relative scale from 0 (lowest value) to 100 (highest value) are assigned to the land-use types and infrastructural elements depending on their effect on ecosystem services. The option to configure rules for describing the impact of environmental attributes and proximity effects on cell values and land-use transition probabilities is of particular importance. User interface and usage of the platform are demonstrated by an application case. Constraints and limits of the recent version are discussed, including the need to consider in the evaluation, landscape-structure aspects such as patch size, fragmentation and spatial connectivity. Regarding the further development, it is planned to include the impact of land management practices to support climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies in regional planning.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Furst2010a,
      author = {Fürst, Christine and Volk, Martin and Pietzsch, Katrin and Makeschin, Franz},
      title = {Pimp Your Landscape: A Tool for Qualitative Evaluation of the Effects of Regional Planning Measures on Ecosystem Services.},
      journal = {Environmental management},
      publisher = {Springer New York},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {1--16--16},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/u6p3gh4540185222/},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-010-9570-7}
    }
    
    Fagan, K.C., Pywell, R.F., Bullock, J.M. & Marrs, R.H. Do restored calcareous grasslands on former arable fields resemble ancient targets? The effect of time, methods and environment on outcomes 2008 Journal of Applied Ecology
    Vol. 45(4), pp. 1293-1303 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fagan2008,
      author = {Fagan, Kate C. and Pywell, Richard F. and Bullock, James M. and Marrs, Rob H.},
      title = {Do restored calcareous grasslands on former arable fields resemble ancient targets? The effect of time, methods and environment on outcomes},
      journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {45},
      number = {4},
      pages = {1293--1303},
      url = {http://blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2008.01492.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2008.01492.x}
    }
    
    Fahrig, L., Baudry, J., Brotons, L., Burel, F.G., Crist, T.O., Fuller, R.J., Sirami, C., Siriwardena, G.M. & Martin, J. Functional landscape heterogeneity and animal biodiversity in agricultural landscapes Ecology Letters  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fahrig,
      author = {Fahrig, Lenore and Baudry, Jacques and Brotons, Llus and Burel, Françoise G. and Crist, Thomas O. and Fuller, Robert J. and Sirami, Clelia and Siriwardena, Gavin M. and Martin, Jean‐Louis},
      title = {Functional landscape heterogeneity and animal biodiversity in agricultural landscapes},
      journal = {Ecology Letters},
      url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2010.01559.x/full},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2010.01559.x}
    }
    
    Failing, L., Gregory, R. & Higgins, P. Science, Uncertainty, and Values in Ecological Restoration: A Case Study in Structured Decision-Making and Adaptive Management 2012 Restoration Ecology, pp. n/a-n/a  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Failing2012a,
      author = {Failing, Lee and Gregory, Robin and Higgins, Paul},
      title = {Science, Uncertainty, and Values in Ecological Restoration: A Case Study in Structured Decision-Making and Adaptive Management},
      journal = {Restoration Ecology},
      year = {2012},
      pages = {n/a--n/a},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1526-100X.2012.00919.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-100X.2012.00919.x}
    }
    
    Faragó, T., Pongrácz, P., Range, F., Virányi, Z. & Miklósi, ‘The bone is mine’: affective and referential aspects of dog growls 2010 Animal Behaviour
    Vol. 79(4), pp. 917-925 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Farago2010,
      author = {Faragó, Tamás and Pongrácz, Péter and Range, Friederike and Virányi, Zsófia and Miklósi, Ádám},
      title = {‘The bone is mine’: affective and referential aspects of dog growls},
      journal = {Animal Behaviour},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {79},
      number = {4},
      pages = {917--925},
      url = {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0003347210000102},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2010.01.005}
    }
    
    Farber, S.C., Costanza, R. & Wilson, M.A. Economic and ecological concepts for valuing ecosystem services 2002 Ecological Economics
    Vol. 41(3), pp. 375-392 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Farber2002,
      author = {Farber, Stephen C and Costanza, Robert and Wilson, Matthew A},
      title = {Economic and ecological concepts for valuing ecosystem services},
      journal = {Ecological Economics},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {41},
      number = {3},
      pages = {375--392},
      url = {http://econpapers.repec.org/RePEc:eee:ecolec:v:41:y:2002:i:3:p:375-392}
    }
    
    Farmer, C.J.Q. & Stewart Fotheringham, A. Network-based functional regions 2011 Environment and Planning A
    Vol. 43(11), pp. 2723-2741 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: For administration efficiency most countries subdivide their national territory into administrative regions. These regions are used to delineate areas which are internally well connected and relatively cohesive, especially compared with the links between regions. Hence, many countries seek to delineate local labour markets (LLMs): geographical regions where the majority of the local population seeks employment and from which the majority of local employers recruit labour. LLM boundaries are often based on functional regions, which represent the aggregate commuting patterns of the local population. A number of regionalisation procedures for objectivity delineating functional regions have been suggested, though many of these procedures require the use of ad hoc parameters to control the size and number of regions. Recently, a range of network-based alternatives have been developed in the literature. One of the most successful such methods is based on the concept of modularity: the extent to which there are dense connections within functional regions, but only sparse connections between functional regions. In this paper we maximise the modularity of a network of commuting flows to produce a regionalisation that exhibits less interaction than expected between regions. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this type of regionalisation procedure on a simulated geographical network, as well as using commuting data for the Republic of Ireland. We suggest that this new method has specific advantages over existing regionalisation procedures, particularly in the context of disaggregate commuting patterns of socioeconomic subgroups.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Farmer2011,
      author = {Farmer, C. J. Q. and Stewart Fotheringham, A.},
      title = {Network-based functional regions},
      journal = {Environment and Planning A},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {43},
      number = {11},
      pages = {2723--2741},
      url = {http://www.envplan.com/abstract.cgi?id=a44136},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a44136}
    }
    
    Feng, Z., Liu, R., DeAngelis, D.L., Bryant, J.P., Kielland, K., II, F.S.C. & Swihart, R.K. Plant Toxicity, Adaptive Herbivory, and Plant Community Dynamics 2009 Ecosystems
    Vol. 12(4), pp. 534-547 
    article URL 
    Abstract: We model effects of interspecific plant competition, herbivory, and a plant's toxic defenses against herbivores on vegetation dynamics. The model predicts that, when a generalist herbivore feeds in the absence of plant toxins, adaptive foraging generally increases the probability of coexistence of plant species populations, because the herbivore switches more of its effort to whichever plant species is more common and accessible. In contrast, toxin-determined selective herbivory can drive plant succession toward dominance by the more toxic species, as previously documented in boreal forests and prairies. When the toxin concentrations in different plant species are similar, but species have different toxins with nonadditive effects, herbivores tend to diversify foraging efforts to avoid high intakes of any one toxin. This diversification leads the herbivore to focus more feeding on the less common plant species. Thus, uncommon plants may experience depensatory mortality from herbivory, reducing local species diversity. The depensatory effect of herbivory may inhibit the invasion of other plant species that are more palatable or have different toxins. These predictions were tested and confirmed in the Alaskan boreal forest
    BibTeX:
    @article{Feng2009,
      author = {Feng, Zhilan and Liu, Rongsong and DeAngelis, Donald L and Bryant, John P and Kielland, Knut and II, F Stuart Chapin and Swihart, Robert K},
      title = {Plant Toxicity, Adaptive Herbivory, and Plant Community Dynamics},
      journal = {Ecosystems},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {12},
      number = {4},
      pages = {534--547},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10021-009-9240-x}
    }
    
    Feoli, E., Ganis, P., Ortolan, I., Sitoni, D. & Zerihun, W. Measuring the effects of human impact on vegetation by integrating phytosociology and remote sensing in a fuzzy set approach 2003 Journal of Vegetation Science
    Vol. 14(5), pp. 751-760 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Feoli2003,
      author = {Feoli, Enrico and Ganis, Paola and Ortolan, Irene and Sitoni, Daniel and Zerihun, Woldu},
      title = {Measuring the effects of human impact on vegetation by integrating phytosociology and remote sensing in a fuzzy set approach},
      journal = {Journal of Vegetation Science},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {14},
      number = {5},
      pages = {751--760},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1654-1103.2003.tb02207.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-1103.2003.tb02207.x}
    }
    
    Ferrari, I. & Ferrarini, A. From Ecosystem Ecology to Landscape Ecology: a Progression Calling for a Well-founded Research and Appropriate Disillusions 2008 Landscape Online
    Vol. 6, pp. 1-12 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: In this paper, 1) a delineation of main theoretical, methodological and applicative issues of landscape ecology, 2) a comparison between landscape and ecosystem ecology, 3) a critical overview of actual limits of landscape ecology, are depicted. We conclude that: a) from a theoretical viewpoint, ecosystem and landscape ecology differ since they deal with ecological topics having very different spatial and temporal scales, b) from a practical standpoint, they deal with dissimilar purposes emerging both from unlike research scales and different approaches, as the interest of landscape ecology is mainly focused on the whole ecological mosaic rather than on single components, in this view assuming an “horizontal” ecological perspective, c) transdisciplinarity is still a work in progress in landscape ecology, d) several research purposes in landscape ecology are far from being reached, e) a bridge lacks between the “horizontal” perspective adopted from landscape ecology and the “vertical” approach distinctive of ecosystem ecology, therefore, they actually behave as detached disciplines. However, in our vision, landscape ecology contains the seeds for becoming a self-contained scientific discipline as well as the interface among the distinct sectors of environmental research and planning.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ferrari2008,
      author = {Ferrari, I and Ferrarini, A},
      title = {From Ecosystem Ecology to Landscape Ecology: a Progression Calling for a Well-founded Research and Appropriate Disillusions},
      journal = {Landscape Online},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {6},
      pages = {1--12},
      url = {http://www.landscapeonline.de/archive/2008/6/},
      doi = {DOI: 10.3097/LO.200806}
    }
    
    Filippi-Codaccioni, O., Devictor, V., Bas, Y. & Julliard, R. Toward more concern for specialisation and less for species diversity in conserving farmland biodiversity 2010 Biological Conservation
    Vol. in Press(6), pp. 1-8 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: In order to face the large and worrying biodiversity decline in agricultural landscapes, important policy instruments like agri-environmental schemes (AES) have been implemented. Studies that have examined the ecological effects of AES are now numerous and generally use indicators of biodiversity such as spe- cies richness and diversity as well as species abundance. Yet, it has been shown that simple metrics such as species richness or abundance may give misleading messages about biodiversity status and fate. More- over, those indicators cannot detect another important source of biodiversity loss, biotic homogenisation. In this context, taking into account to a wider extent ecological difference among species would be more relevant, as well as focusing on the species specialisation which is known to be linked to higher species vulnerability. A bibliographic review investigating the criteria generally used to assess the success of AES showed that 55% of studies used species richness and/or abundance exclusively without any consider- ation of specialisation or other ecological traits in their evaluation of AES effectiveness. Based on data from the French breeding bird survey and studies at regional scale in France on farmland birds, we show that: (i) species richness and specialisation are generally negatively correlated in agricultural areas, (ii) habitat heterogeneity does not benefit specialist species, and (iii) monitoring of species diversity should be coupled with the monitoring of specialist species to improve conservation strategies in farming sys- tems. Overall, this study emphasizes the need to account for both community richness and composition when assessing AES or similar conservation planning.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Filippi-Codaccioni2010,
      author = {Filippi-Codaccioni, Ondine and Devictor, Vincent and Bas, Yves and Julliard, Romain},
      title = {Toward more concern for specialisation and less for species diversity in conserving farmland biodiversity},
      journal = {Biological Conservation},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {in Press},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1--8},
      url = {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0006320710001205},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2010.03.031}
    }
    
    Fisher, R.A. On the Mathematical Foundations of Theoretical Statistics 1922 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A
    Vol. 222, pp. 309-368 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fisher1922,
      author = {Fisher, R A},
      title = {On the Mathematical Foundations of Theoretical Statistics},
      journal = {Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A},
      year = {1922},
      volume = {222},
      pages = {309--368},
      url = {http://rsta.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/222/594-604/309.full.pdf+html},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsta.1922.0009}
    }
    
    Flather, C.H. Fitting species–accumulation functions and assessing regional land use impacts on avian diversity 1996 Journal of Biogeography
    Vol. 23(2), pp. 155-168 
    article URL 
    Abstract: As one samples species from a particular assemblage, the initial rapid rate with which new species are encountered declines with increasing effort. Nine candidate models to characterize species-accumulation functions were compared in a search for a model that consistently fit geographically extensive avian survey data from a wide range of environmental' conditions. Landscape-specific species-accumulation curves generated under a bootstrap resampling plan were best described by a generalized Weibull cumulative distribution function. Traditional species-area models of cumulative species richness as a function of accumulated sample had notable functional bias. The Weibull model fitted species-accumulation data equally well among sixty-six forested landscapes in the eastern D.S. Landscapes with a greater proportion of agricultural and urban land uses accumulated species more slowly than landscapes which retained a greater proportion of natural habitats (r= -0.64, P
    BibTeX:
    @article{Flather1996,
      author = {Flather, Curtis H},
      title = {Fitting species–accumulation functions and assessing regional land use impacts on avian diversity},
      journal = {Journal of Biogeography},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {23},
      number = {2},
      pages = {155--168},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/2845808}
    }
    
    Fleischer, A. & Tsur, Y. Measuring the recreational value of agricultural landscape 2000 European Review of Agriculture Economics
    Vol. 27(3), pp. 385-398 
    article URL 
    Abstract: In addition to food and fibre, agricultural land provides public amenities in the form of wildlife habitat, protection of natural resources, open spaces, aesthetic scenery and cultural preservation. Most previous studies have used contingent valuation methods to measure the value of these services. We use an alternative procedure, which provides a value of the agricultural landscape per se, as measured against a specific alternative, and is based on whether agricultural landscape had an influence on visitation decisions. Our procedure involves a travel cost model estimated by count-data regression techniques using (truncated) samples of visitors. An application to two regions in Israel reveals a substantial value for agricultural landscape, as compared with the traditional returns to farming.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fleischer2000,
      author = {Fleischer, A and Tsur, Y},
      title = {Measuring the recreational value of agricultural landscape},
      journal = {European Review of Agriculture Economics},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {27},
      number = {3},
      pages = {385--398},
      url = {http://erae.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/27/3/385}
    }
    
    Fleury, P. Forage management in dairy farms: A methodological approach 1996 Agricultural Systems
    Vol. 52(2-3), pp. 199-212 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The concepts of forage functioning andfield function were developed to analyse grassland utilization within the overall management of farms. This approach enabled us to identify functional relations between the main farm components: fields with their agronomic characteristics, field pattern structure, and the whole farm viewed from the angle of forage production management and utilization by the herd. Presentation of the concepts and method is followed by an assessment of method validity tested on two types of farm operation in the French Northern Alps. The conceptual model provides a synthetic representation which explains field utilization within the general production objective of the farm. We chose a formalization process that keeps close to the farmer's practices and their justification of them. The resulting diagnosis may help better adjust decisions to the diversity of situations through dialogue between the farmer and the farm adviser.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fleury1996,
      author = {Fleury, P},
      title = {Forage management in dairy farms: A methodological approach},
      journal = {Agricultural Systems},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {52},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {199--212},
      url = {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/0308521X9600008X},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0308-521X(96)00008-X}
    }
    
    Flombaum, P. & Sala, O.E. Higher effect of plant species diversity on productivity in natural than artificial ecosystems 2008 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
    Vol. 105(16), pp. 6087- 6090 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Current and expected changes in biodiversity have motivated major experiments, which reported a positive relationship between plant species diversity and primary production. As a first step in addressing this relationship, these manipulative experiments controlled as many potential confounding covariables as possible and assembled artificial ecosystems for the purpose of the experiments. As a new step in this endeavor, we asked how plant species richness relates to productivity in a natural ecosystem. Here, we report on an experiment conducted in a natural ecosystem in the Patagonian steppe, in which we assessed the biodiversity effect on primary production. Using a plant species diversity gradient generated by removing species while maintaining constant biomass, we found that aboveground net primary production increased with the number of plant species. We also found that the biodiversity effect was larger in natural than in artificial ecosystems. This result supports previous findings and also suggests that the effect of biodiversity in natural ecosystems may be much larger than currently thought.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Flombaum2008,
      author = {Flombaum, Pedro and Sala, Osvaldo E},
      title = {Higher effect of plant species diversity on productivity in natural than artificial ecosystems},
      journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {105},
      number = {16},
      pages = {6087-- 6090},
      url = {http://www.pnas.org/content/105/16/6087.abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0704801105}
    }
    
    Foody, G. Status of land cover classification accuracy assessment 2002 Remote sensing of environment
    Vol. 80(1), pp. 185-201 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The production of thematic maps, such as those depicting land cover, using an image classification is one of the most common applications of remote sensing. Considerable research has been directed at the various components of the mapping process, including the assessment of accuracy. This paper briefly reviews the background and methods of classification accuracy assessment that are commonly used and recommended in the research literature. It is, however, evident that the research community does not universally adopt the approaches that are often recommended to it, perhaps a reflection of the problems associated with accuracy assessment, and typically fails to achieve the accuracy targets commonly specified. The community often tends to use, unquestioningly, techniques based on the confusion matrix for which the correct application and interpretation requires the satisfaction of often untenable assumptions (e.g., perfect coregistration of data sets) and the provision of rarely conveyed information (e.g., sampling design for ground data acquisition). Eight broad problem areas that currently limit the ability to appropriately assess, document, and use the accuracy of thematic maps derived from remote sensing are explored. The implications of these problems are that it is unlikely that a single standardized method of accuracy assessment and reporting can be identified, but some possible directions for future research that may facilitate accuracy assessment are highlighted.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Foody2002,
      author = {Foody, G.M.},
      title = {Status of land cover classification accuracy assessment},
      journal = {Remote sensing of environment},
      publisher = {Elsevier},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {80},
      number = {1},
      pages = {185--201},
      url = {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0034425701002954}
    }
    
    Foody, G., Mathur, A., Sanchezhernandez, C. & Boyd, D. Training set size requirements for the classification of a specific class 2006 Remote Sensing of Environment
    Vol. 104(1), pp. 1-14 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The design of the training stage of a supervised classification should account for the properties of the classifier to be used. Consideration of the way the classifier operates may enable the training stage to be designed in a manner which ensures that the aim of the classification is satisfied with the use of a small, inexpensive, training set. It may, therefore, be possible to reduce the training set size requirements from that generally expected with the use of standard heuristics. Substantial reductions in training set size may be possible if interest is focused on a single class. This is illustrated for mapping cotton in north-western India by support vector machine type classifiers. Four approaches to reducing training set size were used: intelligent selection of the most informative training samples, selective class exclusion, acceptance of imprecise descriptions for spectrally distinct classes and the adoption of a one-class classifier. All four approaches were able to reduce the training set size required considerably below that suggested by conventional widely used heuristics without significant impact on the accuracy with which the class of interest was classified. For example, reductions in training set size of ca. 90$% from that suggested by a conventional heuristic are reported with the accuracy of cotton classification remaining nearly constant at ca. 95$% and ca. 97$% from the user's and producer's perspectives respectively.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Foody2006,
      author = {Foody, G and Mathur, A and Sanchezhernandez, C and Boyd, D},
      title = {Training set size requirements for the classification of a specific class},
      journal = {Remote Sensing of Environment},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {104},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1--14},
      url = {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0034425706001234},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2006.03.004}
    }
    
    Fortin, M.-J., Olson, R.J., Ferson, S., Iverson, L., Hunsaker, C., Edwards, G., Levine, D., Butera, K. & Klemas, V. Issues related to the detection of boundaries 2000 Landscape Ecology
    Vol. 15(5), pp. 453-466 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Ecotones are inherent features of landscapes, transitional zones, and play more than one functional role in ecosystem dynamics. The delineation of ecotones and environmental boundaries is therefore an important step in land-use management planning. The delineation of ecotones depends on the phenomenon of interest and the statistical methods used as well as the associated spatial and temporal resolution of the data available. In the context of delineating wetland and riparian ecosystems, various data types (field data, remotely sensed data) can be used to delineate ecotones. Methodological issues related to their detection need to be addressed, however, so that their management and monitoring can yield useful information about their dynamics and functional roles in ecosystems. The aim of this paper is to review boundary detection methods. Because the most appropriate methods to detect and characterize boundaries depend of the spatial resolution and the measurement type of the data, a wide range of approaches are presented: GIS, remote sensing and statistical ones.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fortin2000,
      author = {Fortin, M.-J. and Olson, R J and Ferson, S and Iverson, L and Hunsaker, C and Edwards, G and Levine, D and Butera, K and Klemas, V},
      title = {Issues related to the detection of boundaries},
      journal = {Landscape Ecology},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {15},
      number = {5},
      pages = {453--466},
      url = {http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/klu/land/2000/00000015/00000005/00252999}
    }
    
    Fowlkes, E. & Mallows, C. A method for comparing two hierarchical clusterings 1983 Journal of the American Statistical Association
    Vol. 78(383), pp. 553-569 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fowlkes1983,
      author = {Fowlkes, EB and Mallows, CL},
      title = {A method for comparing two hierarchical clusterings},
      journal = {Journal of the American Statistical Association},
      publisher = {American Statistical Association},
      year = {1983},
      volume = {78},
      number = {383},
      pages = {553--569},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/2288117}
    }
    
    Fox, J. & Petchey, O.L. Pubcreds: Fixing the Peer Review Process by “Privatizing” the Reviewer Commons 2010 Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America
    Vol. 91(3), pp. 325-333 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fox2010,
      author = {Fox, Jeremy and Petchey, Owen L.},
      title = {Pubcreds: Fixing the Peer Review Process by “Privatizing” the Reviewer Commons},
      journal = {Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America},
      publisher = {The Ecological Society of America},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {91},
      number = {3},
      pages = {325--333},
      url = {http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/0012-9623-91.3.325},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/0012-9623-91.3.325}
    }
    
    Fox, J.W. The intermediate disturbance hypothesis should be abandoned 2012 Trends in Ecology & Evolution
    Vol. null(null) 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fox2012,
      author = {Fox, Jeremy W.},
      title = {The intermediate disturbance hypothesis should be abandoned},
      journal = {Trends in Ecology & Evolution},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {null},
      number = {null},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2012.08.014},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2012.08.014}
    }
    
    Franco, M. & Harper, J.L. Competition and the Formation of Spatial Pattern in Spacing Gradients: An Example Using Kochia Scoparia 1988 Journal of Ecology
    Vol. 76(4), pp. 959 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Franco1988,
      author = {Franco, Miguel and Harper, John L.},
      title = {Competition and the Formation of Spatial Pattern in Spacing Gradients: An Example Using Kochia Scoparia},
      journal = {Journal of Ecology},
      year = {1988},
      volume = {76},
      number = {4},
      pages = {959},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/2260626?origin=crossref},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2260626}
    }
    
    Freckleton, R.P., Watkinson, A.R. & Rees, M. Measuring the importance of competition in plant communities 2009 Journal of Ecology
    Vol. 97(3), pp. 379-384 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Plant ecologists have developed numerous ways to measure competition and to rank the effects of competition relative to other factors. According to one line of logic, there is an important distinction between competitive intensity (broadly, the absolute, proximate effects on individuals) and the importance of competition (loosely, the relative effects on ecological or evolutionary processes). It has been argued recently that there is a great deal of confusion in the literature regarding these concepts. We agree and suggest that this arose because of loose logic in the initial formulation, and that this has been perpetuated and exacerbated in recent critiques. Using a simple example, we argue that recent analyses have generated new problems because of a failure to measure importance in terms of individual fitness (defined in an evolutionary sense) or per capita rates of population change. Only when calculated in this way can importance be measured relative to all other processes in the life cycle. It is not possible to directly measure the importance of competition from short-term experiments that last less than one generation, using data from artificial conditions, or using data from glasshouse experiments. Too often researchers use the term 'importance' without stating clearly what this is measured with respect to. We highlight, for example, that importance could be measured for population growth rate, community composition or community invasibility and that the appropriate measure would differ in each case. Synthesis. We ask whether a single index of importance is really useful in plant ecology. The concept focuses on index-based measures of competition using experimental data, narrowly concentrating on comparing two theories of plant competition. In the rest of the ecological world, researchers are using model-based analyses of field data and increasingly sophisticated fitting techniques to dissect out the various processes determining the dynamics of single and interacting populations and making a great deal of progress. It is obviously very useful to disentangle the effects of competition at different stages in the life cycle and to determine how these vary along environmental gradients. However, the measure of competition and the measure of importance should be tailored to the question being addressed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Freckleton2009,
      author = {Freckleton, Robert P and Watkinson, Andrew R and Rees, Mark},
      title = {Measuring the importance of competition in plant communities},
      journal = {Journal of Ecology},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {97},
      number = {3},
      pages = {379--384},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2009.01497.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2009.01497.x}
    }
    
    Frischie, S.L. & Rowe, H.I. Replicating Life Cycle of Early-Maturing Species in the Timing of Restoration Seeding Improves Establishment and Community Diversity 2011 Restoration Ecology, pp. 1-10  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Tallgrass prairie is among the most endangered ecosystems in North America. High-diversity restorations protect remnant habitat and expand native communities. Excluding land acquisition, the most expensive step in restoration is procuring seed. Given this cost, managers want to maximize seedling establishment. Native species that flower and ripen early in the growing season are included in a diverse seeding mix but as a group they have not successfully established. For early-maturing species, the practice of storing seeds in a cold room from harvest until sowing in the dormant season effectively eliminates exposure to the summer conditions seeds would naturally have in the wild. In this study, we compared the effect of summer sowing timing and winter sowing timing on establishment in field conditions. In August 2004 and December 2004, we broadcast a seed mix of seven early-maturing species: Antennaria plantaginifolia (L.) Richardson. (Pussy toes), Arabis lyrata L. (Sand cress), Carex swanii (Fernald) Mack. (Downy green sedge), Hymenopappus scabiosaeus L'Hér. (Old plainsman), Lupinus perennis L. ssp. perennis var. occidentalis S. Watson. (Wild lupine), Phlox bifida Beck. (Sand phlox) and Hesperostipa spartea (Trin.) Barkworth. (Porcupine grass). We collected data on establishment and reproductive success at 12 time points from June 2005 until October 2008. Species established one growing season sooner when planted at the summer sowing time, and diversity in the summer sowing plots was higher after 4 years. Quicker establishment may have benefits such as providing early competition from weeds that may outweigh additional effort required to ensure timely planting.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Frischie2011,
      author = {Frischie, Stephanie L. and Rowe, Helen I.},
      title = {Replicating Life Cycle of Early-Maturing Species in the Timing of Restoration Seeding Improves Establishment and Community Diversity},
      journal = {Restoration Ecology},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {1--10},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1526-100X.2010.00770.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-100X.2010.00770.x}
    }
    
    Fritch, R.A., Sheridan, H., Finn, J.A., Kirwan, L. & HUallacháin, D. Methods of enhancing botanical diversity within field margins of intensively managed grassland: a 7-year field experiment 2011 Journal of Applied Ecology, pp. no-no  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fritch2011,
      author = {Fritch, Rochelle A. and Sheridan, Helen and Finn, John A. and Kirwan, Laura and HUallacháin, Daire Ó},
      title = {Methods of enhancing botanical diversity within field margins of intensively managed grassland: a 7-year field experiment},
      journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {no--no},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01951.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01951.x}
    }
    
    Frost, R.A. & Launchbaugh, K.L. Prescription Grazing for Rangeland Weed Management: A New Look at an Old Tool 2003 Rangelands
    Vol. 25(6), pp. 43-47 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Frost2003,
      author = {Frost, Rachel A and Launchbaugh, Karen L},
      title = {Prescription Grazing for Rangeland Weed Management: A New Look at an Old Tool},
      journal = {Rangelands},
      publisher = {Allen Press and Society for Range Management},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {25},
      number = {6},
      pages = {43--47},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/4001839}
    }
    
    Fujita, Y., Robroek, B.J.M., de Ruiter, P.C., Heil, G.W. & Wassen, M.J. Increased N affects P uptake of eight grassland species: the role of root surface phosphatase activity 2010 Oikos
    Vol. 9999(9999) 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Increased N deposition may change species composition in grassland communities by shifting them to P limitation. Interspecific differences in P uptake traits might be a crucial yet poorly understood factor in determining the N effects. To test the effects of increased N supply (relative to P), we conducted two greenhouse fertilization experiments with eight species from two functional groups (grasses, herbs), including those common in P and N limited grasslands. We investigated plant growth and P uptake from two P sources, orthophosphate and not-readily available P (bound-P), under different N supply levels. Furthermore, to test if the N effects on P uptake was due to N availability alone or altered N:P ratio, we examined several uptake traits (root-surface phosphatase activity, specific root length (SRL), root mass ratio (RMR)) under varying N:P supply ratios. Only a few species (M. caerulea, A. capillaris, S. pratensis) could take up a similar amount of P from bound-P to that from orthophosphate. These species had neither higher SRL, RMR, phosphatase activity per unit root (Paseroot), nor higher total phosphatase activity (Pasetot: Paseroot times root mass), but higher relative phosphatase activity (Paserel: Pasetot divided by biomass) than other species. The species common from P-limited grasslands had high Paserel. P uptake from bound-P was positively correlated with Pasetot for grasses. High N supply stimulated phosphatase activity but decreased RMR and SRL, resulting in no increase in P uptake from bound-P. Paseroot was influenced by N:P supply ratio, rather than by only N or P level, whereas SRL and RMR was not dominantly influenced by N:P ratio. We conclude that increased N stimulates phosphatase activity via N:P stoichiometry effects, which potentially increases plant P uptake in a species-specific way. N deposition, therefore, may alter plant community structure not only by enhancing productivity, but also by favouring species with traits that enable them to persist better under P limited conditions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fujita2010,
      author = {Fujita, Yuki and Robroek, Bjorn J. M. and de Ruiter, Peter C. and Heil, Gerrit W. and Wassen, Martin J.},
      title = {Increased N affects P uptake of eight grassland species: the role of root surface phosphatase activity},
      journal = {Oikos},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {9999},
      number = {9999},
      url = {http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/123360383/abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2010.18427.x}
    }
    
    Fukami, T. & Nakajima, M. Community assembly: alternative stable states or alternative transient states? 2011 Ecology Letters, pp. no-no  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fukami2011,
      author = {Fukami, Tadashi and Nakajima, Mifuyu},
      title = {Community assembly: alternative stable states or alternative transient states?},
      journal = {Ecology Letters},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {no--no},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2011.01663.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2011.01663.x}
    }
    
    Fuller, G.D. Review: Raunkiaer's Ecological Papers 1935 Journal of Ecology
    Vol. 16(1), pp. 111-113 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fuller1935,
      author = {Fuller, George D},
      title = {Review: Raunkiaer's Ecological Papers},
      journal = {Journal of Ecology},
      year = {1935},
      volume = {16},
      number = {1},
      pages = {111--113},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/1932864}
    }
    
    Gácsi, M., Györi, B., Gyoöri, B., Virányi, Z., Kubinyi, E., Range, F., Belényi, B. & Miklósi, A. Explaining dog wolf differences in utilizing human pointing gestures: selection for synergistic shifts in the development of some social skills. 2009 PloS one
    Vol. 4(8), pp. e6584 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The comparison of human related communication skills of socialized canids may help to understand the evolution and the epigenesis of gesture comprehension in humans. To reconcile previously contradicting views on the origin of dogs' outstanding performance in utilizing human gestures, we suggest that dog-wolf differences should be studied in a more complex way.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gacsi2009,
      author = {Gácsi, Márta and Györi, Borbála and Gyoöri, Borbála and Virányi, Zsófia and Kubinyi, Enikö and Range, Friederike and Belényi, Beatrix and Miklósi, Adám},
      title = {Explaining dog wolf differences in utilizing human pointing gestures: selection for synergistic shifts in the development of some social skills.},
      journal = {PloS one},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {4},
      number = {8},
      pages = {e6584},
      url = {http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2719091&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006584}
    }
    
    Gómez-Aparicio, L. The role of plant interactions in the restoration of degraded ecosystems: a meta-analysis across life-forms and ecosystems 2009 Journal of Ecology
    Vol. 97(6), pp. 1202-1214 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gomez-Aparicio2009,
      author = {Gómez-Aparicio, Lorena},
      title = {The role of plant interactions in the restoration of degraded ecosystems: a meta-analysis across life-forms and ecosystems},
      journal = {Journal of Ecology},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {97},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1202--1214},
      url = {http://blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2009.01573.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2009.01573.x}
    }
    
    Gómez-Baggethun, E., de Groot, R., Lomas, P.L. & Montes, C. The history of ecosystem services in economic theory and practice: From early notions to markets and payment schemes 2010 Ecological Economics
    Vol. 69(6), pp. 1209-1218 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: This paper reviews the historic development of the conceptualization of ecosystem services and examines critical landmarks in economic theory and practice with regard to the incorporation of ecosystem services into markets and payment schemes. The review presented here suggests that the trend towards monetization and commodification of ecosystem services is partly the result of a slow move from the original economic conception of nature's benefits as use values in Classical economics to their conceptualization in terms of exchange values in Neoclassical economics. The theory and practice of current ecosystem services science are examined in the light of this historical development. From this review, we conclude that the focus on monetary valuation and payment schemes has contributed to attract political support for conservation, but also to commodify a growing number of ecosystem services and to reproduce the Neoclassical economics paradigm and the market logic to tackle environmental problems.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gomez-Baggethun2010,
      author = {Gómez-Baggethun, Erik and de Groot, Rudolf and Lomas, Pedro L. and Montes, Carlos},
      title = {The history of ecosystem services in economic theory and practice: From early notions to markets and payment schemes},
      journal = {Ecological Economics},
      publisher = {Elsevier B.V.},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {69},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1209--1218},
      url = {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S092180090900456X},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.11.007}
    }
    
    Gabriel, D., Sait, S.M., Hodgson, J.A., Schmutz, U., Kunin, W.E. & Benton, T.G. Scale matters: the impact of organic farming on biodiversity at different spatial scales 2010 Ecology Letters
    Vol. online, pp. 1-12 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: There is increasing recognition that ecosystems and their services need to be managed in the face of environmental change. However, there is little consensus as to the optimum scale for management. This is particularly acute in the agricultural environment given the level of public investment in agri-environment schemes (AES). Using a novel multiscale hierarchical sampling design, we assess the effect of land use at multiple spatial scales (from location-within-field to regions) on farmland biodiversity. We show that on-farm biodiversity components depend on farming practices (organic vs. conventional) at farm and landscape scales, but this strongly interacts with fine- and coarse-scale variables. Different taxa respond to agricultural practice at different spatial scales and often at multiple spatial scales. Hence, AES need to target multiple spatial scales to maximize effectiveness. Novel policy levers may be needed to encourage multiple land managers within a landscape to adopt schemes that create landscape-level benefits.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gabriel2010,
      author = {Gabriel, Doreen and Sait, Steven M. and Hodgson, Jenny A. and Schmutz, Ulrich and Kunin, William E. and Benton, Tim G.},
      title = {Scale matters: the impact of organic farming on biodiversity at different spatial scales},
      journal = {Ecology Letters},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {online},
      pages = {1--12},
      url = {http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/123417154/abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2010.01481.x}
    }
    
    Gal, G. & Anderson, W. A novel approach to detecting a regime shift in a lake ecosystem 2009 Methods in Ecology and Evolution
    Vol. 9999(9999) 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: 1. Certain classes of change in the characteristics of an ecosystem, labelled regime shifts, have been observed in marine and freshwater ecosystems world-wide. Few tools, however, have been offered to detect and identify regime shifts in time-series data. 2. We use a novel approach based on tools taken from the world of statistics, and econometrics to examine the occurrence of a regime shift in the predatory zooplankton population of Lake Kinneret, Israel. The tools are a free-knot spline mean function estimation method and a Markov-switching vector autoregression model. 3. Our approach detected, with high probability, the occurrence of a regime shift in the zooplankton population in the early to mid-1990s. This was in-line with expectations based on similar events observed in the lake. 4. The suggested approach is a step forward from existing approaches in that it does not require any pre-determent of threshold values but rather relies on a hidden underlying stochastic process that yields probabilities of regime shifts. Thus, it can therefore be applied without introducing any prior biases into the analysis. The approach is, therefore, an objective method in detecting the likely occurrence of a regime shift.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gal2009,
      author = {Gal, Gideon and Anderson, William},
      title = {A novel approach to detecting a regime shift in a lake ecosystem},
      journal = {Methods in Ecology and Evolution},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {9999},
      number = {9999},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2041-210X.2009.00006.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2041-210X.2009.00006.x}
    }
    
    Gallant, A.L., Loveland, T.R., Sohl, T.L. & Napton, D.E. Using an Ecoregion Framework to Analyze Land-Cover and Land-Use Dynamics 2004 Environmental Management, pp. --  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The United States has a highly varied landscape because of wide-ranging differences in combinations of climatic, geologic, edaphic, hydrologic, vegetative, and human management (land use) factors. Land uses are dynamic, with the types and rates of change dependent on a host of variables, including land accessibility, economic considerations, and the internal increase and movement of the human population. There is a convergence of evidence that ecoregions are very useful for organizing, interpreting, and reporting information about land-use dynamics. Ecoregion boundaries correspond well with patterns of land cover, urban settlement, agricultural variables, and resource-based industries. We implemented an ecoregion framework to document trends in contemporary land-cover and land-use dynamics over the conterminous United States from 1973 to 2000. Examples of results from six eastern ecoregions show that the relative abundance, grain of pattern, and human alteration of land-cover types organize well by ecoregion and that these characteristics of change, themselves, change through time.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gallant2004,
      author = {Gallant, Alisa L. and Loveland, Thomas R. and Sohl, Terry L. and Napton, Darrell E.},
      title = {Using an Ecoregion Framework to Analyze Land-Cover and Land-Use Dynamics},
      journal = {Environmental Management},
      publisher = {Springer New York},
      year = {2004},
      pages = {----},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/2hp7u5qxc6gg9yuw/},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-003-0145-8}
    }
    
    Gao, T., Qiu, L., Hammer, M. r. & Gunnarsson, A. The Importance of Temporal and Spatial Vegetation Structure Information in Biotope Mapping Schemes: A Case Study in Helsingborg, Sweden. 2011 Environmental management, pp. 1-14  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Temporal and spatial vegetation structure has impact on biodiversity qualities. Yet, current schemes of biotope mapping do only to a limited extend incorporate these factors in the mapping. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the application of a modified biotope mapping scheme that includes temporal and spatial vegetation structure. A refined scheme was developed based on a biotope classification, and applied to a green structure system in Helsingborg city in southern Sweden. It includes four parameters of vegetation structure: continuity of forest cover, age of dominant trees, horizontal structure, and vertical structure. The major green structure sites were determined by interpretation of panchromatic aerial photographs assisted with a field survey. A set of biotope maps was constructed on the basis of each level of modified classification. An evaluation of the scheme included two aspects in particular: comparison of species richness between long-continuity and short-continuity forests based on identification of woodland continuity using ancient woodland indicators (AWI) species and related historical documents, and spatial distribution of animals in the green space in relation to vegetation structure. The results indicate that (1) the relationship between forest continuity: according to verification of historical documents, the richness of AWI species was higher in long-continuity forests; Simpson's diversity was significantly different between long- and short-continuity forests; the total species richness and Shannon's diversity were much higher in long-continuity forests shown a very significant difference. (2) The spatial vegetation structure and age of stands influence the richness and abundance of the avian fauna and rabbits, and distance to the nearest tree and shrub was a strong determinant of presence for these animal groups. It is concluded that continuity of forest cover, age of dominant trees, horizontal and vertical structures of vegetation should now be included in urban biotope classifications.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gao2011,
      author = {Gao, Tian and Qiu, Ling and Hammer, Må rten and Gunnarsson, Allan},
      title = {The Importance of Temporal and Spatial Vegetation Structure Information in Biotope Mapping Schemes: A Case Study in Helsingborg, Sweden.},
      journal = {Environmental management},
      publisher = {Springer New York},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {1--14},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/j8426456137q7614/},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-011-9795-0}
    }
    
    Garfield, J. How Students Learn Statistics 1995 International Statistical Review / Revue Internationale de Statistique
    Vol. 63(1), pp. 25 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Garfield1995,
      author = {Garfield, Joan},
      title = {How Students Learn Statistics},
      journal = {International Statistical Review / Revue Internationale de Statistique},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {63},
      number = {1},
      pages = {25},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/1403775?origin=crossref},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1403775}
    }
    
    Garnier, E., Lavorel, S., Ansquer, P., Castro, H., Cruz, P., Dolezal, J., Eriksson, O., Fortunel, C., Freitas, H., Golodets, C., Grigulis, K., Jouany, C., Kazakou, E., Kigel, J., Kleyer, M., Lehsten, V., Leps, J., Meier, T., Pakeman, R., Papadimitriou, M., Papanastasis, V.P., Quested, H., Quétier, F., Robson, M., Roumet, C., Rusch, G., Skarpe, C., Sternberg, M., Theau, J.-P., Thébault, A., Vile, D. & Zarovali, M.P. Assessing the effects of land-use change on plant traits, communities and ecosystem functioning in grasslands: a standardized methodology and lessons from an application to 11 European sites. 2007 Annals of botany
    Vol. 99(5), pp. 967-85 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Background and aims: A standardized methodology to assess the impacts of land-use changes on vegetation and ecosystem functioning is presented. It assumes that species traits are central to these impacts, and is designed to be applicable in different historical, climatic contexts and local settings. Preliminary results are presented to show its applicability. Methods: Eleven sites, representative of various types of land-use changes occurring in marginal agro-ecosystems across Europe and Israel, were selected. Climatic data were obtained at the site level; soil data, disturbance and nutrition indices were described at the plot level within sites. Sixteen traits describing plant stature, leaf characteristics and reproductive phase were recorded on the most abundant species of each treatment. These data were combined with species abundance to calculate trait values weighed by the abundance of species in the communities. The ecosystem properties selected were components of above-ground net primary productivity and decomposition of litter. Key Results: The wide variety of land-use systems that characterize marginal landscapes across Europe was reflected by the different disturbance indices, and were also reflected in soil and/or nutrient availability gradients. The trait toolkit allowed us to describe adequately the functional response of vegetation to land-use changes, but we suggest that some traits (vegetative plant height, stem dry matter content) should be omitted in studies involving mainly herbaceous species. Using the example of the relationship between leaf dry matter content and above-ground dead material, we demonstrate how the data collected may be used to analyse direct effects of climate and land use on ecosystem properties vs. indirect effects via changes in plant traits. CONCLUSIONS: This work shows the applicability of a set of protocols that can be widely applied to assess the impacts of global change drivers on species, communities and ecosystems.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Garnier2007,
      author = {Garnier, Eric and Lavorel, Sandra and Ansquer, Pauline and Castro, Helena and Cruz, Pablo and Dolezal, Jiri and Eriksson, Ove and Fortunel, Claire and Freitas, Helena and Golodets, Carly and Grigulis, Karl and Jouany, Claire and Kazakou, Elena and Kigel, Jaime and Kleyer, Michael and Lehsten, Veiko and Leps, Jan and Meier, Tonia and Pakeman, Robin and Papadimitriou, Maria and Papanastasis, Vasilios P and Quested, Helen and Quétier, Fabien and Robson, Matt and Roumet, Catherine and Rusch, Graciela and Skarpe, Christina and Sternberg, Marcelo and Theau, Jean-Pierre and Thébault, Aurélie and Vile, Denis and Zarovali, Maria P},
      title = {Assessing the effects of land-use change on plant traits, communities and ecosystem functioning in grasslands: a standardized methodology and lessons from an application to 11 European sites.},
      journal = {Annals of botany},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {99},
      number = {5},
      pages = {967--85},
      url = {http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2802906&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17085470},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcl215}
    }
    
    Garnier, E. & Navas, M.-L. A trait-based approach to comparative functional plant ecology: concepts, methods and applications for agroecology. A review 2011
    Vol. 32(2)Agronomy for Sustainable Development, pp. 365-399 
    book DOI URL 
    Abstract: Comparative functional ecology seeks to under- stand why and how ecological systems and their compo- nents operate differently across environments. Although traditionally used in (semi)-natural situations, its concepts and methods could certainly apply to address key issues in the large variety of agricultural systems encountered across the world. In this review, we present major advances in comparative plant functional ecology that were made possible over the last two decades by the rapid development of a trait-based approach to plant functioning and prospects to apply it in agricultural situations. The strength of this approach is that it enables us to assess the interactions between organisms and their environment simultaneously on a large number of species, a prerequisite to address questions relative to species distribution, community assembly and ecosystem functioning. The trait concept will be first defined, before presenting a conceptual framework to understand the effects of environmental factors on plant community structure and ecosystem properties via plant traits. We will then argue that leading dimensions of variation among species can be captured by some selected traits and show that a combination of three easily measured traits—specific leaf area (the ratio of leaf area to leaf dry mass), plant height and seed mass—enables us to assess how different species use their resources, interact with neighbours and disperse in time and space. The use of traits to address central questions in community ecology will be reviewed next. It will be shown that traits allow us to (1) understand how plant species are sorted according to the nature of environmental gradients, (2) evaluate the relative importance of habitat filtering and limiting similarity in the process of community assembly and (3) quantify two main components of community functional structure, namely, community-weighted means of traits and community functional divergence. The relative impacts of these two components on ecosystem properties will then be discussed in the case of several components of primary productivity, litter decomposition, soil water content and carbon seques- tration. There is strong support for the biomass ratio hypothesis, which states that the extent to which the traits of a species affect those ecosystem properties depends on the abundance of this species in the community. Assessing the role of functional divergence among species on ecosystem properties will require major methodological breakthroughs, both in terms of metrics and statistical procedures to be used. In agricultural situations, we show that trait-based approaches have been successfully devel- oped to assess the impacts of management practices on (1) the agronomic value of grasslands and (2) the functional composition and structure of crop weed communities and how these could affect the functioning of the crop. Applications in forestry are still poorly developed, espe- cially in temperate regions where the number of species in managed forest remains relatively low. The last decades of research have led to the constitution of large data sets of plant traits, which remain poorly compatible and accessible. Recent advances in the field of ecoinformatics suggest that major progress could be achieved in this area by using improved metadata standards and advanc- ing trait domain ontologies. Finally, concluding remarks, unanswered questions and directions for research using the functional approach to biodiversity made possible by the use of traits will be discussed in the contexts of ecological and agronomical systems. The latter indeed cover a wide range of environmental conditions and biological diversity, and the prospect for reducing environmental impacts in highly productive, low- diversity systems will certainly imply improving our skills for the management of more diverse systems prone to a trait-based approach as reviewed here.
    BibTeX:
    @book{Garnier2011,
      author = {Garnier, Eric and Navas, Marie-Laure},
      title = {A trait-based approach to comparative functional plant ecology: concepts, methods and applications for agroecology. A review},
      booktitle = {Agronomy for Sustainable Development},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {32},
      number = {2},
      pages = {365--399},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/index/10.1007/s13593-011-0036-y},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13593-011-0036-y}
    }
    
    Garrido, E., Bennett, A.E., Fornoni, J. & Strauss, S.Y. Variation in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonization modifies the expression of tolerance to above-ground defoliation 2009 Journal of Ecology
    Vol. 98(1), pp. 43-49 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: 1. Plant association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) has been considered a factor increasing plant tolerance to herbivory. However, this positive effect could decrease with colonization density if the benefit : cost ratio of the AMF–plant association changes. We measured plant performance and tolerance to defoliation across a gradient of commercial AMF (Glomus sp.) inoculum concentration. 2. Six genetic families of Datura stramonium were grown under greenhouse conditions and subjected to five increasing levels of AMF inoculum concentration and to defoliation treatments, i.e. the presence/absence of 50% artificial damage, following a full-factorial design. 3. AMF colonization increased linearly with inoculum concentration while foliar area, root mass, flowering phenology and seed production expressed nonlinear functions. Plant genetic variation in the benefit function of AMF colonization was also detected. We show a negative interaction between AMF concentration and plant tolerance to defoliation. 4. Synthesis. The negative correlation between plant tolerance and AMF concentration suggests that defoliation can reduce AMF benefits and that natural variations in AMF can limit the evolution of optimum levels of tolerance. Moreover, genetic variation in the shape of the reaction norms to AMF in the presence/absence of defoliation suggests that plants may evolve in response to variation in densities of AMF and herbivores.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Garrido2009,
      author = {Garrido, Etzel and Bennett, Alison E and Fornoni, Juan and Strauss, Sharon Y},
      title = {Variation in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonization modifies the expression of tolerance to above-ground defoliation},
      journal = {Journal of Ecology},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {98},
      number = {1},
      pages = {43--49},
      url = {http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/122608013/abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2009.01586.x}
    }
    
    Garrigues, S., Allard, D. & Baret, F. Modeling temporal changes in surface spatial heterogeneity over an agricultural site 2008 Remote Sensing of Environment
    Vol. 112(2), pp. 588-602 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: High temporal frequency remote sensing observations are required to monitor vegetation functioning. These observations are currently provided by moderate resolution sensor (with pixel size ranging from 250 m to 10 km). However, the intra-pixel spatial heterogeneity which may be important at moderate resolution, induces a scaling bias on non-linear estimation processes of land surface variable. A possible strategy to correct this scaling bias consists in using variogram model of high spatial resolution data (e.g. SPOT/HRV 20 m) as a proxy for the spatial heterogeneity within moderate resolution pixel. However, ways have to be found to get prior knowledge of this intra-pixel spatial heterogeneity metric without systematic concurrent high spatial resolution images. This paper aims at proposing a spatio-temporal model of the variogram of high spatial resolution data, which enables us to retrieve the spatial heterogeneity within moderate spatial resolution pixel using a temporal sampling of few high spatial resolution scenes. It capitalizes on variogram modeling of a time series of high spatial resolution NDVI images to quantify and model the temporal changes in landscape spatial heterogeneity over a particular crop site (Fundulea, Romania). We first demonstrate that important temporal variations in surface spatial heterogeneity observed over an agricultural site mainly result from the shift in seasonal trajectories between crop classes (here winter versus summer crops). The mean length scale as measured by the variogram integral range is mainly influenced by the gathering of fields with similar NDVI values. The scene overall spatial variability and the spatial heterogeneity within moderate resolution pixels, as quantified by the variogram sill and the dispersion variance, respectively, increase with the difference in NDVI between winter and summer crops. The influence of surface spatial heterogeneity on the description of land surface processes is thus critical when the phenological variability between crop classes is maximum, suggesting that the number of high spatial resolution scenes should increase at these periods of the seasonal cycle. Then, based on these observations, we build a model describing the temporal course of surface spatial heterogeneity, i.e. the temporal trajectory of the variogram of high spatial resolution NDVI image, as a function of crop seasonality. Once calibrated from a temporal sampling of few high spatial resolution scenes, this model proves to be powerful to predict the variogram at a date at which the high spatial resolution scene is not available and thus to retrieve the spatial heterogeneity within moderate resolution pixels through the seasonal cycle within a mean relative uncertainty of 20
    BibTeX:
    @article{Garrigues2008,
      author = {Garrigues, S and Allard, D and Baret, F},
      title = {Modeling temporal changes in surface spatial heterogeneity over an agricultural site},
      journal = {Remote Sensing of Environment},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {112},
      number = {2},
      pages = {588--602},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?ob=ArticleURL&udi=B6V6V-4PC4F7P-1&user=10&rdoc=1&fmt=&orig=search&sort=d&docanchor=&view=c&searchStrId=1159643475&rerunOrigin=google&acct=C000050221&version=1&urlVersion=0&userid=10&md5=cfd6efcb8428152e9e5abaf7cda8410c},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2007.05.014}
    }
    
    Garrison, A., Miller, A., Roxburgh, S.H. & Shea, K. More bang for the land manager's buck: disturbance autocorrelation can be used to achieve management objectives at no additional cost 2012 Journal of Applied Ecology, pp. 1-8  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: 1. Ecologists have long studied the effects of disturbance on species diversity. More recently, researchers have become interested in understanding how the various aspects of disturbance interact to influence community diversity. While the effects of temporal autocorrelation have also received some attention, the potential for manipulating disturbance autocorrelation to achieve management goals has not been theoretically explored. 2. We consider the interactions between temporal autocorrelation of disturbance occurrence and disturbance intensity at varying disturbance frequencies. Using an annual plant model, we show that when intensity and frequency are kept constant, changing the temporal autocorrelation of disturbance occurrence can also affect competitive outcomes. Additionally, we show that when species coexist, the degree of autocorrelation can affect which species reaches higher densities. 3. We describe several examples (including prescribed burning, grazing and mowing) that outline how manipulation of temporal autocorrelation may be used to achieve conservation and eradication goals at no additional cost. 4. Synthesis and applications. Our results provide important insights into, and have potential application to, land management and conservation. While changing the intensity and frequency of human-induced disturbances can be costly, adjusting the temporal autocorrelation of disturbance occurrence may be considered a ‘no-cost manipulation’. In instances where a land manager lacks the funds or resources to manipulate other aspects of disturbance, such as intensity and frequency, changing the temporal autocorrelation may provide an effective, economical alternative.
    BibTeX:
    @article{AndrewGarrison1AdamMiller1,
      author = {Garrison, Andrew and Miller, Adam and Roxburgh, Stephen H. and Shea, Katriona},
      title = {More bang for the land manager's buck: disturbance autocorrelation can be used to achieve management objectives at no additional cost},
      journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
      year = {2012},
      pages = {1--8},
      url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02187.x/full},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02187.x}
    }
    
    Gavier-Pizarro, G., Radeloff, V., Stewart, S., Huebner, C. & Keuler, N. Housing is positively associated with invasive exotic plant species richness in New England, USA 2010 Ecological Applications, pp. 100120072922086  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gavier-Pizarro2010,
      author = {Gavier-Pizarro, Gregorio and Radeloff, Volker and Stewart, Susan and Huebner, Cynthia and Keuler, Nicholas},
      title = {Housing is positively associated with invasive exotic plant species richness in New England, USA},
      journal = {Ecological Applications},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {100120072922086},
      url = {http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/09-2168},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/09-2168}
    }
    
    Geenty, K.G. Body energy changes and metabolisable energy requirements in growing and adult sheep at pasture 1985 Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production
    Vol. 45, pp. 129-132 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Metabolisable energy (ME) intake and body compositional and energy changes were measured in grazing lambs weaned at 4 or 12 weeks of age and in light or heavy ewes offered 3 herbage allowances during early lactation. Body energy change (MJ/kg) from 4 to 12 weeks of age varied markedly between early weaned (7.4) and suckled lambs (13.4) because of different rates of body fat deposition but was similar for both groups (16.4) from 12 to 24 weeks of age. Average efficiency of utilisation of ME for growth was 0.38 and maintenance energy requirement 0.691 MJ ME/kg W0.75/d. The ME intakes of lambs were considerably higher than those estimated using MAFF (1975) and ARC (1980) data, particularly between 4 and 12 weeks of age. The energy content of body weight loss (MJ/kg) was greater in light (60) than in heavy ewes (37) because of a higher proportion of fat in weight loss in light ewes. Absolute body energy loss (MJ/d) was lower in light (6.3) than in heavy ewes (7.9), but ME intake (MJ/d) and milk energy production (MJ/d) were similar for each class of ewe.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Geenty1985,
      author = {Geenty, K. G.},
      title = {Body energy changes and metabolisable energy requirements in growing and adult sheep at pasture},
      journal = {Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production},
      year = {1985},
      volume = {45},
      pages = {129--132},
      url = {http://www.sciquest.org.nz/node/39959}
    }
    
    Genries, A., Morin, X., Chauchard, S. & Carcaillet, C. The function of surface fires in the dynamics and structure of a formerly grazed old subalpine forest 2009 Journal of Ecology
    Vol. 97(4), pp. 728-741 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Changes in the frequency and intensity of disturbances are expected to occur during the coming decades as a consequence of climatic changes. Mountain forests are sensitive to climate variability, disturbances and changes in human activities; this is particularly true for subalpine forests located close to the limits of tree-growth. Here we test the role of surface fires on the structure and the dynamics of a subalpine forest compared to a control stand not affected by fire events for at least two centuries. The fire events are deduced from fire scars, the age-structure from tree-ring counting, regeneration from sapling and seedling counts, necromass from the volume of woody debris, and the understorey structure from shrub and herb cover, height and biomass. Land-use history is assessed from livestock and human inventories. Four surface fires occurred during the last 200 years in the burned stand. Tree density is greater in the burned stand, and, even 50 years after the last fire, burning could still be having a positive effect on regeneration density. Land-use history, mainly grazing by cattle and sheep, explains the modern forest structure through its promotion of Larix decidua. The understorey composition is the same within the two stands, suggesting a rapid recovery of dwarf shrubs (Rhododendron ferrugineum and Vaccinium myrtillus) after the latest fire, which coincided with the final change in land-use. The exception is V. vitis-idaea cover, which is higher in the control stand. The removal of livestock in the 1940s indirectly triggered a decline in L. decidua regeneration, which was formerly promoted by grazing and trampling. Conversely, Pinus cembra seedlings have begun to establish during the last 70 years. Synthesis. Expansion of forests dominated by P. cembra is expected during the 21st century, unless current global warming leads to a significant and lethal increase in fire frequency, that is, a reduction of fire-return intervals, which would reduce the number of sexually mature trees. The reintroduction of grazing could maintain the mixed subalpine forests, whereas surface fires would alter the woody debris load, promoting greater regeneration of L. decidua and P. cembra.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Genries2009,
      author = {Genries, Aurélie and Morin, Xavier and Chauchard, Sandrine and Carcaillet, Christopher},
      title = {The function of surface fires in the dynamics and structure of a formerly grazed old subalpine forest},
      journal = {Journal of Ecology},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {97},
      number = {4},
      pages = {728--741},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2009.01518.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2009.01518.x}
    }
    
    Gibbons, D.W., Wilson, J.D. & Green, R.E. Using conservation science to solve conservation problems 2011 Journal of Applied Ecology
    Vol. 48(3), pp. 505-508 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gibbons2011,
      author = {Gibbons, David W. and Wilson, Jeremy D. and Green, Rhys E.},
      title = {Using conservation science to solve conservation problems},
      journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {48},
      number = {3},
      pages = {505--508},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.01997.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.01997.x}
    }
    
    Gibbons, J.M., Nicholson, E., Milner-Gulland, E.J. & Jones, J.P.G. Should payments for biodiversity conservation be based on action or results? 2011 Journal of Applied Ecology, pp. no-no  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gibbons2011b,
      author = {Gibbons, James M. and Nicholson, Emily and Milner-Gulland, E. J. and Jones, Julia P. G.},
      title = {Should payments for biodiversity conservation be based on action or results?},
      journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {no--no},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.02022.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.02022.x}
    }
    
    Gitay, H. & Agnew, A. Plant Community Structure, Connectance, Niche Limitation and Species Guilds within a Dune Slack Grassland 1989 Vegetatio(83), pp. 241-248  article URL 
    Abstract: Species phytomass in 40 mm 40 mm quadrats was used to examine community structure in four homogeneous areas of vegetation in sand dune slacks. There were from 9 to 16 common species in the samples, and most parameters of community structure were found to relate consistently to species number. We used covariance between all species at increasing dimensions of aggregations of quadrats to suggest that 'sociological interaction' between species existed at scales of around 200 mm diameter. Generalised variance was of no help in this enquiry. We show that a 'connectance' estimation arrived at from these parameters is, although a real feature of the analysis, apparently unrelated to connectance as understood in the food web literature. There is strong evidence that guild structure, sociological interaction and niche limitation increase with increasing number of species present, so that the most diverse assemblage can be said to have a definite community structure.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gitay1989,
      author = {Gitay, Habiba and Agnew, A.D.Q.},
      title = {Plant Community Structure, Connectance, Niche Limitation and Species Guilds within a Dune Slack Grassland},
      journal = {Vegetatio},
      year = {1989},
      number = {83},
      pages = {241--248},
      url = {http://www.mendeley.com/research/plant-community-structure-connectance-niche-limitation-species-guilds-within-dune-slack-grassland/}
    }
    
    Glavac, V. Vegetationsökologie. Grundfragen, Aufgaben, Methoden 1996 , pp. 358pp.  book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Glavac1996,
      author = {Glavac, V},
      title = {Vegetationsökologie. Grundfragen, Aufgaben, Methoden},
      publisher = {Gustav Fischer Verlag},
      year = {1996},
      pages = {358pp.}
    }
    
    Gleason, H. The significance of Raunkiaer's law of frequency 1929 Ecology
    Vol. 10(4), pp. 406-408 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gleason1929,
      author = {Gleason, HA},
      title = {The significance of Raunkiaer's law of frequency},
      journal = {Ecology},
      year = {1929},
      volume = {10},
      number = {4},
      pages = {406--408},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/1931149}
    }
    
    Glover, J.D. Harvested perennial grasslands: Ecological models for farming's perennial future 2010 Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
    Vol. 137(1-2), pp. 1-2 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Glover2010a,
      author = {Glover, Jerry D.},
      title = {Harvested perennial grasslands: Ecological models for farming's perennial future},
      journal = {Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {137},
      number = {1-2},
      pages = {1--2},
      url = {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0167880910000307},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2010.01.014}
    }
    
    Glover, J.D., Culman, S.W., DuPont, S.T., Broussard, W., Young, L., Mangan, M.E., Mai, J.G., Crews, T.E., DeHaan, L.R. & Buckley, D.H. Harvested perennial grasslands provide ecological benchmarks for agricultural sustainability 2010 Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
    Vol. 137(1-2), pp. 3-12 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Perennial vegetation can provide multiple ecosystem services essential for sustainable productionmore effectively than production systems based on annual crops. However, the ability of annually harvested, unfertilized perennial systems to sustain long-term yields while also maintaining ecosystem services has not been widely studied. Here we compare the impacts of harvested perennial grass and annual crop fields on ecosystem functioning in KS, USA. Despite the lack of mineral fertilizer applications, the aboveground harvests of perennial fields yielded similar levels of N compared to those of conventional high-input wheat (Triticum aestivum) fields and at only 8% of the in-field energy costs. Their 75-yr cumulative N yield per ha was approximately 23% greater than that from the region’s wheat fields. In terms of aboveground food webs, perennial fields harboured greater numbers and/or diversity of insect pollinators, herbivores and detritivores. Belowground, perennial grass fields maintained 43 Mg ha1 more soil carbon and 4Mg ha1more soil nitrogen than annual crop fields in the surface 1m. Soil food webs in perennial fields, as indicated by nematode communities, exhibited greater food web complexity and stability than did those in annual crop fields. In surrounding watersheds, increased annual cropland was correlated with higher riverine nitrate-nitrogen levels. Given their benefits, harvested perennial grasslands provide valuable ecological benchmarks for agricultural sustainability.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Glover2010b,
      author = {Glover, Jerry D. and Culman, Steve W. and DuPont, S. Tianna and Broussard, Whitney and Young, Lauren and Mangan, Margaret E. and Mai, John G. and Crews, Timothy E. and DeHaan, Lee R. and Buckley, Daniel H.},
      title = {Harvested perennial grasslands provide ecological benchmarks for agricultural sustainability},
      journal = {Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {137},
      number = {1-2},
      pages = {3--12},
      url = {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0167880909003326},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2009.11.001}
    }
    
    Goldstein, B.E. The Weakness of Tight Ties: Why Scientists Almost Destroyed the Coachella Valley Multispecies Habitat Conservation Plan in Order to Save it 2010 Environmental Management  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Two groups of biologists were responsible for an unprecedented delay in completing a endangered species habitat conservation plan in the Coachella Valley of southern California. While antagonism grew as each group relentlessly promoted their perspective on whether to add a few areas to the habitat preserve, their inability to resolve their differences was not simply a matter of mistrust or poor facilitation. I analyze how these biologists practiced science in a way that supported specific institutional and ecological relationships that in turn provided a setting in which each group’s biological expertise was meaningful, credible, and useful. This tight coupling between scientific practice and society meant that something was more important to these scientists than finishing the plan. For both factions of biologists, ensuring the survival of native species in the valley rested on their ability to catalyze institutional relationships that were compatible with their scientific practice. Understanding this co-production of science and the social order is a first step toward effectively incorporating different experts in negotiation and implementation of technically complex collaborative agreements.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Goldstein2010,
      author = {Goldstein, Bruce Evan},
      title = {The Weakness of Tight Ties: Why Scientists Almost Destroyed the Coachella Valley Multispecies Habitat Conservation Plan in Order to Save it},
      journal = {Environmental Management},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/b17g41m300r6m3g8},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-010-9522-2}
    }
    
    Golluscio, R., Austin, A., Martinez, G.G., Gonzalez-Polo, M., Sala, O. & Jackson, R. Sheep Grazing Decreases Organic Carbon and Nitrogen Pools in the Patagonian Steppe: Combination of Direct and Indirect Effects 2009 Ecosystems
    Vol. 12(4), pp. 686-697 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Abstract We explored the net effects of grazing on soil C and N pools in a Patagonian shrub-grass steppe (temperate South America). Net effects result from the combination of direct impacts of grazing on biogeochemical characteristics of microsites with indirect effects on relative cover of vegetated and unvegetated microsites. Within five independent areas, we sampled surface soils in sites subjected to three grazing intensities: (1) ungrazed sites inside grazing exclosures, (2) moderately grazed sites adjacent to them, and (3) intensely grazed sites within the same paddock. Grazing significantly reduced soil C and N pools, although this pattern was clearest in intensely grazed sites. This net effect was due to the combination of a direct reduction of soil N content in bare soil patches, and indirect effects mediated by the increase of the cover of bare soil microsites, with lower C and N content than either grass or shrub microsites. This increase in bare soil cover was accompanied by a reduction in cover of preferred grass species and standing dead material. Finally, stable isotope signatures varied significantly among grazed and ungrazed sites, with 15N and 13C significantly depleted in intensely grazed sites, suggesting reduced mineralization with increased grazing intensity. In the Patagonian steppe, grazing appears to exert a negative effect on soil C and N cycles; sound management practices must incorporate the importance of species shifts within life form, and the critical role of standing dead material in maintaining soil C and N stocks and biogeochemical processes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Golluscio2009,
      author = {Golluscio, Rodolfo and Austin, Amy and Martinez, Guillermo Garci­a and Gonzalez-Polo, Marina and Sala, Osvaldo and Jackson, Robert},
      title = {Sheep Grazing Decreases Organic Carbon and Nitrogen Pools in the Patagonian Steppe: Combination of Direct and Indirect Effects},
      journal = {Ecosystems},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {12},
      number = {4},
      pages = {686--697},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10021-009-9252-6},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10021-009-9252-6}
    }
    
    González, I., Déjean, S., Martin, P.G.P. & Baccini, A. CCA: An R Package to Extend Canonical Correlation Analysis 2008 Journal of Statistical Software
    Vol. 23(12), pp. 1-14 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Canonical correlations analysis (CCA) is an exploratory statistical method to high- light correlations between two data sets acquired on the same experimental units. The cancor() function in R (R Development Core Team 2007) performs the core of computations but further work was required to provide the user with additional tools to facilitate the interpretation of the results. We implemented an R package, CCA, freely available from the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN, http://CRAN.R-project.org/), to develop numerical and graphical outputs and to enable the user to handle missing values. The CCA package also includes a regularized version of CCA to deal with data sets with more variables than units. Illustrations are given through the analysis of a data set coming from a nutrigenomic study in the mouse.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gonzalez2008,
      author = {González, Ignacio and Déjean, Sébastien and Martin, Pascal G. P. and Baccini, Alain},
      title = {CCA: An R Package to Extend Canonical Correlation Analysis},
      journal = {Journal of Statistical Software},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {23},
      number = {12},
      pages = {1--14},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wics.10}
    }
    
    Gordon, I. Browsing and grazing ruminants: are they different beasts? 2003 Forest Ecology and Management
    Vol. 181(1-2), pp. 13-21 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Ruminant species are classified into three main feeding categories: those which feed mainly on browse material (browsers); those which feed mainly on grass (grazers); and those which feed on a mixture of the two plant types (mixed or intermediate feeders). Much literature has accumulated on the morphological and physiological adaptations, which have evolved in the different ruminant feeding categories to efficiently extract the nutrients from the diet consumed. These include adaptations of the mouth and the digestive system. Recently, there has been a number of re-analyses of the data which show that there is little substantive evidence for differences in morphology and physiology between the feeding categories, once differences in body mass and phylogenetic relationships have been taken into account. However, the hypotheses linking food, form and function should not be dismissed out-of-hand until better quality experimental hypothesis testing has been conducted. In the past, the feeding behaviour required to glean nutrients from browse and grass has not received much attention. However, experimental studies do appear to demonstrate that browsers and grazers differ in their foraging behaviour. For example, the functional responses of browsers tend to be relatively flat, whereas those of grazers appear to be asymptotic. These differences in the interaction between ruminants from the different feeding categories and their food resource are likely to lead to differences in resource exploitation and impacts on vegetation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gordon2003,
      author = {Gordon, I},
      title = {Browsing and grazing ruminants: are they different beasts?},
      journal = {Forest Ecology and Management},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {181},
      number = {1-2},
      pages = {13--21},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(03)00124-5},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(03)00124-5}
    }
    
    Gormley, W.T. From Science to Policy in Early Childhood Education 2011 Science
    Vol. 333(6045), pp. 978-981 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: This paper examines the relationship between scientific research and public policy. After explaining why the simple conversion of research into public law is unlikely, several factors are identified that can promote the use of research by public officials. Examples of use and non-use are cited from early childhood education, where empirical evidence on program effects is relatively strong. Some specific suggestions are offered for improving the connection between science and public policy.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gormley2011,
      author = {Gormley, W. T.},
      title = {From Science to Policy in Early Childhood Education},
      journal = {Science},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {333},
      number = {6045},
      pages = {978--981},
      url = {http://www.sciencemag.org/content/333/6045/978.abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1206150}
    }
    
    Goslee, S.C. Behavior of Vegetation Sampling Methods in the Presence of Spatial Autocorrelation 2006 Plant Ecology
    Vol. 187(2), pp. 203-212 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Spatial autocorrelation in vegetation has been discussed extensively, but little is yet known about how standard plant sampling methods perform when confronted with varying levels of patchiness. Simulated species maps with a range of total abundance and spatial autocorrelation (patchiness) were sampled using four methods: strip transect, randomly located quadrats, the non-nested multiscale modified Whittaker plot and the nested multiscale North Carolina Vegetation Survey (NCVS) plot. Cover and frequency estimates varied widely within and between methods, especially in the presence of high patchiness and for species with moderate abundances. Transect sampling showed the highest variability, returning estimates of 19–94% cover for a species with an actual cover of 50 Transect and random methods were likely to miss rare species entirely unless large numbers of quadrats were sampled. NCVS plots produced the most accurate cover estimates because they sampled the largest area. Total species richness calculated using semilog species-area curves was overestimated by transect and random sampling. Both multiscale methods, the modified Whittaker and the NCVS plots, overestimated species richness when patchiness was low, and underestimated it when patchiness was high. There was no clear distinction between the nested NCVS or the non-nested modified Whittaker plot for any of the measures assessed. For all sampling methods, cover and especially frequency estimates were highly variable, and depended on both the level of autocorrelation and the sampling method used. The spatial structure of the vegetation must be considered when choosing field sampling protocols or comparing results between studies that used different methods.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Goslee2006,
      author = {Goslee, Sarah C.},
      title = {Behavior of Vegetation Sampling Methods in the Presence of Spatial Autocorrelation},
      journal = {Plant Ecology},
      publisher = {Springer Netherlands},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {187},
      number = {2},
      pages = {203--212},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/41j7458076p27318/},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11258-005-3495-x}
    }
    
    Gotelli, N.J. Null model analysis of species co-occurence patterns 2000 Ecology
    Vol. 81(9), pp. 2606-2621 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The analysis of presence–absence matrices with “null model” randomization tests has been a major source of controversy in community ecology for over two decades. In this paper, I systematically compare the performance of nine null model algorithms and four co-occurrence indices with respect to Type I and Type II errors. The nine algorithms differ in whether rows and columns are treated as fixed sums, equiprobable, or proportional. The three models that maintain fixed row sums are invulnerable to Type I errors (false positives). One of these three is a modified version of the original algorithm of E. F. Connor and D. Simberloff. Of the four co-occurrence indices, the number of checkerboard combinations and the number of species combinations may be prone to Type II errors (false negatives), and may not reveal significant patterns in noisy data sets. L. Stone and A. Robert's checkerboard score has good power for detecting species pairs that do not co-occur together frequently, whereas D. Schluter's V ratio r...
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gotelli2000,
      author = {Gotelli, Nicholas J.},
      title = {Null model analysis of species co-occurence patterns},
      journal = {Ecology},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {81},
      number = {9},
      pages = {2606--2621},
      url = {http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/0012-9658(2000)081[2606:NMAOSC]2.0.CO;2},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2000)081[2606:NMAOSC]2.0.CO;2}
    }
    
    Gotelli, N.J. & Colwell, R.K. Quantifying biodiversity: procedures and pitfalls in the measurement and comparison of species richness 2001 Ecology Letters
    Vol. 4(4), pp. 379-391 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gotelli2001,
      author = {Gotelli, Nicholas J. and Colwell, Robert K.},
      title = {Quantifying biodiversity: procedures and pitfalls in the measurement and comparison of species richness},
      journal = {Ecology Letters},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {4},
      number = {4},
      pages = {379--391},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1046/j.1461-0248.2001.00230.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1461-0248.2001.00230.x}
    }
    
    Gotelli, N.J. & Ulrich, W. Statistical challenges in null model analysis 2011 Oikos
    Vol. 121(2), pp. no-no 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gotelli2011,
      author = {Gotelli, Nicholas J. and Ulrich, Werner},
      title = {Statistical challenges in null model analysis},
      journal = {Oikos},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {121},
      number = {2},
      pages = {no--no},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2011.20301.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2011.20301.x}
    }
    
    Gough, M.C. & Rushton, S.P. The application of GIS-modelling to mustelid landscape ecology 2000 Mammal Review
    Vol. 30(3-4), pp. 197-216 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Landscapes are mosaics of habitat patches. The composition, configuration and connectivity of these elements changes in space and time as a result of 'natural' and human disturbance. Landscapes provide the ecological template for the life history and behavioural processes that determine animal spacing patterns. An understanding of the effects of landscape dynamics on mammal distributions is therefore vital if populations are to be managed effectively. Members of the Mustelidae present a considerable practical and theoretical challenge because of the great range of morphological, behavioural and ecological variation within the family. Habitat use data have been gathered only for a small number of Mustelidae species and most studies have been conducted with few individuals at small spatial scales and over relatively short time spans. Consequently, our knowledge of the landscape ecology of mustelids is very limited. Modelling can provide a strong conceptual framework for investigating mustelid-habitat relationships. We review the potential of different modelling approaches for analysing the influence of landscape dynamics on the distributions of mustelids.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gough2000,
      author = {Gough, Mary C and Rushton, Stephen P},
      title = {The application of GIS-modelling to mustelid landscape ecology},
      journal = {Mammal Review},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {30},
      number = {3-4},
      pages = {197--216},
      url = {http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/120798802/abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2907.2000.00067.x}
    }
    
    Gould, W.A. & Walker, M.D. Plant communities and landscape diversity along a Canadian Arctic river 1999 Journal of Vegetation Science
    Vol. 10(4), pp. 537-548 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: We analysed the structure and diversity of the vegetation along an Arctic river to determine the relationship between species richness and plant community structure. We examined whether variation in species richness along the corridor is structured as (1) an increase in the number of communities due to increasing landscape heterogeneity, (2) an increase in the floristic distinctiveness ($-diversity) of communities, or (3) an increase in within-community richness ($-diversity) as species-poor communities are replaced by species-rich communities.
    We described 24 community types and analysed the relationship between site vascular species richness ($-diversity) and $-diversity, $-diversity, site environmental heterogeneity, and the number of distinct plant communities. We also measured diversity patterns of vascular, bryophyte, and lichen species within communities and examined their relationship to community-level estimates of environmental factors.
    We found that an increase in site species richness correlated with an increase in the number of communities (r2 = 0.323, P = 0.0173) and $-diversity (r2 = 0.388, P = 0.0075), rather than an increase in the $-diversity of individual communities. Moisture and pH controlled most of the differences in composition between communities. Measures of species richness and correlations with moisture and pH within communities differed among vascular, bryophyte, and lichen species. Bryophyte richness was positively correlated with moisture (r2 = 0.862, P = 0.0010) and lichen richness was negatively correlated with moisture (r2 = 0.809, P = 0.0031). Vascular plants had a peak in richness at pH 6.5 (r2 = 0.214, P < 0.0001).
    We conclude that site variation in vascular richness in this region is controlled by landscape heterogeneity, and structured as variation in the number and distinctiveness of recognizable plant communities.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gould1999,
      author = {Gould, William A. and Walker, Marilyn D.},
      title = {Plant communities and landscape diversity along a Canadian Arctic river},
      journal = {Journal of Vegetation Science},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {10},
      number = {4},
      pages = {537--548},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.2307/3237188},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3237188}
    }
    
    Gowdy, J., Hall, C., Klitgaard, K. & Krall, L. Essay: What Every Conservation Biologist Should Know about Economic Theory 2010 Conservation Biology
    Vol. 24(6), pp. no-no 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The last century has seen the ascendance of a core economic model, which we will refer to as Walrasian economics. This model is driven by the psychological assumptions that humans act only in a self-referential and narrowly rational way and that production can be described as a self-contained circular flow between firms and households. These assumptions have critical implications for the way economics is used to inform conservation biology. Yet the Walrasian model is inconsistent with a large body of empirical evidence about actual human behavior, and it violates a number of basic physical laws. Research in behavioral science and neuroscience shows that humans are uniquely social animals and not self-centered rational economic beings. Economic production is subject to physical laws including the laws of thermodynamics and mass balance. In addition, some contemporary economic theory, spurred by exciting new research in human behavior and a wealth of data about the negative global impact of the human economy on natural systems, is moving toward a world view that places consumption and production squarely in its behavioral and biophysical context. We argue that abandoning the straightjacket of the Walrasian core is essential to further progress in understanding the complex, coupled interactions between the human economy and the natural world. We call for a new framework for economic theory and policy that is consistent with observed human behavior, recognizes the complex and frequently irreversible interaction between human and natural systems, and directly confronts the cumulative negative effects of the human economy on the Earth's life support systems. Biophysical economics and ecological economics are two emerging economic frameworks in this movement.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gowdy2010,
      author = {Gowdy, John and Hall, Charles and Klitgaard, Kent and Krall, Lisi},
      title = {Essay: What Every Conservation Biologist Should Know about Economic Theory},
      journal = {Conservation Biology},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {24},
      number = {6},
      pages = {no--no},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20825448},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01563.x}
    }
    
    Grabherr, G. On community structure in high alpine grasslands 1989 Vegetatio
    Vol. 83, pp. 223-227 
    article  
    Abstract: Previously published data on production biology, energy use efficiency, nutrient availability and vulnerability were reinterpreted for the explanation of community processing and structure in high altitude grasslands of the Alps. The final goal of the approach was to present a characterization of these plant communities in generalized terms. The keystone-concept was applied, and the alpine grasslands then defined as plant communities with one or a few keystone species. Associated species show a varying degree of interdependence from these keystones. They form guilds exploiting resources not needed by the latter. As many of these species belong to these groups, and alpine grasslands are commonly species rich, a high functional redundancy is typical for these communities.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Grabherr1989,
      author = {Grabherr, Georg},
      title = {On community structure in high alpine grasslands},
      journal = {Vegetatio},
      year = {1989},
      volume = {83},
      pages = {223--227}
    }
    
    Granek, E.F., Polasky, S., Kappel, C.V., Reed, D.J., Stoms, D.M., Koch, E.W., Kennedy, C.J., Cramer, L.A., Hacker, S.D., Barbier, E.B., Aswani, S., Ruckelshaus, M., Perillo, G.M.E., Silliman, B.R., Muthiga, N., Bael, D. & Wolanski, E. Ecosystem services as a common language for coastal ecosystem-based management. 2010 Conservation Biology
    Vol. 24(1), pp. 207-16 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Ecosystem-based management is logistically and politically challenging because ecosystems are inherently complex and management decisions affect a multitude of groups. Coastal ecosystems, which lie at the interface between marine and terrestrial ecosystems and provide an array of ecosystem services to different groups, aptly illustrate these challenges. Successful ecosystem-based management of coastal ecosystems requires incorporating scientific information and the knowledge and views of interested parties into the decision-making process. Estimating the provision of ecosystem services under alternative management schemes offers a systematic way to incorporate biogeophysical and socioeconomic information and the views of individuals and groups in the policy and management process. Employing ecosystem services as a common language to improve the process of ecosystem-based management presents both benefits and difficulties. Benefits include a transparent method for assessing trade-offs associated with management alternatives, a common set of facts and common currency on which to base negotiations, and improved communication among groups with competing interests or differing worldviews. Yet challenges to this approach remain, including predicting how human interventions will affect ecosystems, how such changes will affect the provision of ecosystem services, and how changes in service provision will affect the welfare of different groups in society. In a case study from Puget Sound, Washington, we illustrate the potential of applying ecosystem services as a common language for ecosystem-based management.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Granek2010,
      author = {Granek, Elise F and Polasky, Stephen and Kappel, Carrie V and Reed, Denise J and Stoms, David M and Koch, Evamaria W and Kennedy, Chris J and Cramer, Lori A and Hacker, Sally D and Barbier, Edward B and Aswani, Shankar and Ruckelshaus, Mary and Perillo, Gerardo M E and Silliman, Brian R and Muthiga, Nyawira and Bael, David and Wolanski, Eric},
      title = {Ecosystem services as a common language for coastal ecosystem-based management.},
      journal = {Conservation Biology},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {24},
      number = {1},
      pages = {207--16},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19906066},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01355.x}
    }
    
    Grant, A.S., Nelson, C.R., Switalski, T.A. & Rinehart, S.M. Restoration of Native Plant Communities after Road Decommissioning in the Rocky Mountains: Effect of Seed-Mix Composition on Vegetative Establishment 2011 Restoration Ecology
    Vol. 19(201), pp. 160-169 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Grant2010,
      author = {Grant, Ashley S. and Nelson, Cara R. and Switalski, Thomas Adam and Rinehart, Susan M.},
      title = {Restoration of Native Plant Communities after Road Decommissioning in the Rocky Mountains: Effect of Seed-Mix Composition on Vegetative Establishment},
      journal = {Restoration Ecology},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {19},
      number = {201},
      pages = {160--169},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1526-100X.2010.00736.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-100X.2010.00736.x}
    }
    
    Grau, O., Ninot, J.M., Blanco-Moreno, J.M., van Logtestijn, R.S.P., Cornelissen, J.H.C. & Callaghan, T.V. Shrub-tree interactions and environmental changes drive treeline dynamics in the Subarctic 2012 Oikos, pp. no-no  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Grau2012,
      author = {Grau, Oriol and Ninot, Josep M. and Blanco-Moreno, José M. and van Logtestijn, Richard S. P. and Cornelissen, Johannes H. C. and Callaghan, Terry V.},
      title = {Shrub-tree interactions and environmental changes drive treeline dynamics in the Subarctic},
      journal = {Oikos},
      year = {2012},
      pages = {no--no},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2011.20032.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2011.20032.x}
    }
    
    Gray, M.M., Sutter, N.B., Ostrander, E. a. & Wayne, R.K. The IGF1 small dog haplotype is derived from Middle Eastern grey wolves. 2010 BMC biology
    Vol. 8, pp. 16 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: A selective sweep containing the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) gene is associated with size variation in domestic dogs. Intron 2 of IGF1 contains a SINE element and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) found in all small dog breeds that is almost entirely absent from large breeds. In this study, we surveyed a large sample of grey wolf populations to better understand the ancestral pattern of variation at IGF1 with a particular focus on the distribution of the small dog haplotype and its relationship to the origin of the dog.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gray2010,
      author = {Gray, Melissa M and Sutter, Nathan B and Ostrander, Elaine a and Wayne, Robert K},
      title = {The IGF1 small dog haplotype is derived from Middle Eastern grey wolves.},
      journal = {BMC biology},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {8},
      pages = {16},
      url = {http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2837629&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1741-7007-8-16}
    }
    
    Green, D.M. & Kauffman, J.B. Succession and Livestock Grazing in a Northeastern Oregon Riparian Ecosystem 1995 Journal of Range Management
    Vol. 48(4), pp. 307-313 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Comparisons of vegetation dynamics of riparian plant communities under livestock use and exclusions over a 10 year period were quantified in a Northeastern Oregon riparian zone. We measured species frequency, richness, diversity, evenness, and livestock utilization in 8 plant communities. Livestock grazed the study area from late August until mid September at a rate of 1.3 to 1.8 ha/AUM. Utilization varied from < 70% in dry meadows to < 3% in cheatgrass dominated stands. Ungrazed dry and moist meadow communities had significantly lower (P ≤0.1) species richness and diversity when compared to grazed counterparts. In the most heavily grazed communities, ruderal and competitive ruderal species were favored by grazing disturbance. In exclosures of the same communities, competitive or competitive stress tolerant species were favored. Both height and density of woody riparian species were significantly greater in ungrazed gravel bar communities. Our results indicate that influences of herbivory on species diversity and eveness varies from 1 community to another and basing management recommendation on 1 component ignores the inherent complexity of riparian ecosystems.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Green1995,
      author = {Green, Douglas M and Kauffman, J Boone},
      title = {Succession and Livestock Grazing in a Northeastern Oregon Riparian Ecosystem},
      journal = {Journal of Range Management},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {48},
      number = {4},
      pages = {307--313},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/4002482},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/4002482}
    }
    
    Green, O.O. & Garmestani, A.S. Adaptive Management to Protect Biodiversity: Best Available Science and the Endangered Species Act 2012 Diversity
    Vol. 4(2), pp. 164-178 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Although flawed, the most powerful tool for protecting biodiversity in the United States is the Endangered Species Act, which requires the use of the best available science to ensure that endangered and threatened species are not put in jeopardy of extinction. Unfortunately, the best available science mandate is virtually meaningless and imposes no additional scientific rigor in agency decision making beyond what is normally required of administrative procedures. In this paper, we propose to define best available science in a way that shifts from a way of using science to a way of doing science, and a sound method of doing science for wildlife management and climate change is via the principles of adaptive management [1]. Adaptive management, as a means of data accumulation and continuous learning, can fulfill and give teeth to the best available science mandate while increasing the adaptive capacity of wildlife management agencies to protect biodiversity in an unpredictably dynamic environment.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Green2012,
      author = {Green, Olivia Odom and Garmestani, Ahjond S.},
      title = {Adaptive Management to Protect Biodiversity: Best Available Science and the Endangered Species Act},
      journal = {Diversity},
      publisher = {Molecular Diversity Preservation International},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {4},
      number = {2},
      pages = {164--178},
      url = {http://www.mdpi.com/1424-2818/4/2/164/htm},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/d4020164}
    }
    
    Greimel, M., Handler, F., Stadler, M. & Blumauer, E. Methode zur Ermittlung des einzelbetrieblichen und gesamtösterreichischen Arbeitszeitbedarfes in der Landwirtschaft 2003 Die Bodenkultur
    Vol. 54(2), pp. 143-152 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Greimel2003,
      author = {Greimel, Martin and Handler, F. and Stadler, M. and Blumauer, E.},
      title = {Methode zur Ermittlung des einzelbetrieblichen und gesamtösterreichischen Arbeitszeitbedarfes in der Landwirtschaft},
      journal = {Die Bodenkultur},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {54},
      number = {2},
      pages = {143--152}
    }
    
    Grime, J.P. Benefits of plant diversity to ecosystems: immediate, filter and founder effects 1998 Journal of Ecology
    Vol. 86(6), pp. 902-910 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Grime1998,
      author = {Grime, J. P.},
      title = {Benefits of plant diversity to ecosystems: immediate, filter and founder effects},
      journal = {Journal of Ecology},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {86},
      number = {6},
      pages = {902--910},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1046/j.1365-2745.1998.00306.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2745.1998.00306.x}
    }
    
    Grman, E., Lau, J.A., Schoolmaster, D.R. & Gross, K.L. Mechanisms contributing to stability in ecosystem function depend on the environmental context 2010 Ecology Letters, pp. no-no  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Grman2010,
      author = {Grman, Emily and Lau, Jennifer A. and Schoolmaster, Donald R. and Gross, Katherine L.},
      title = {Mechanisms contributing to stability in ecosystem function depend on the environmental context},
      journal = {Ecology Letters},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {no--no},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2010.01533.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2010.01533.x}
    }
    
    Groffman, P.M., Baron, J.S., Blett, T., Gold, A.J., Goodman, I., Gunderson, L.H., Levinson, B.M., Palmer, M.A., Paerl, H.W., Peterson, G.D., Poff, N.L., Rejeski, D.W., Reynolds, J.F., Turner, M.G., Weathers, K.C. & Wiens, J. Ecological Thresholds: The Key to Successful Environmental Management or an Important Concept with No Practical Application? 2006 Ecosystems
    Vol. 9(1), pp. 1-13 
    article URL 
    Abstract: An ecological threshold is the point at which there is an abrupt change in an ecosystem quality, property or phenomenon, or where small changes in an environmental driver produce large responses in the ecosystem. Analysis of thresholds is complicated by nonlinear dynamics and by multiple factor controls that operate at diverse spatial and temporal scales. These complexities have challenged the use and utility of threshold concepts in environmental management despite great concern about preventing dramatic state changes in valued ecosystems, the need for determining critical pollutant loads and the ubiquity of other threshold-based environmental problems. In this paper we define the scope of the thresholds concept in ecological science and discuss methods for identifying and investigating thresholds using a variety of examples from terrestrial and aquatic environments, at ecosystem, landscape and regional scales. We end with a discussion of key research needs in this area.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Groffman2006,
      author = {Groffman, Peter M. and Baron, Jill S. and Blett, Tamara and Gold, Arthur J. and Goodman, Iris and Gunderson, Lance H. and Levinson, Barbara M. and Palmer, Margaret A. and Paerl, Hans W. and Peterson, Garry D. and Poff, N. LeRoy and Rejeski, David W. and Reynolds, James F. and Turner, Monica G. and Weathers, Kathleen C. and Wiens, John},
      title = {Ecological Thresholds: The Key to Successful Environmental Management or an Important Concept with No Practical Application?},
      journal = {Ecosystems},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {9},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1--13},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/x852m742p6128686/}
    }
    
    Groot, J.C.J. & Rossing, W.A.H. Model-aided learning for adaptive management of natural resources: an evolutionary design perspective 2011 Methods in Ecology and Evolution, pp. no-no  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Groot2011,
      author = {Groot, Jeroen C. J. and Rossing, Walter A. H.},
      title = {Model-aided learning for adaptive management of natural resources: an evolutionary design perspective},
      journal = {Methods in Ecology and Evolution},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {no--no},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.2041-210X.2011.00114.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2041-210X.2011.00114.x}
    }
    
    de Groot, R.S., Wilson, M.A. & Boumans, R.M.J. A typology for the classification, description and valuation of ecosystem functions, goods and services 2002 Ecological Economics
    Vol. 41(3), pp. 393-408 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Groot2002,
      author = {de Groot, Rudolf S and Wilson, Matthew A and Boumans, Roelof M J},
      title = {A typology for the classification, description and valuation of ecosystem functions, goods and services},
      journal = {Ecological Economics},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {41},
      number = {3},
      pages = {393--408},
      url = {http://econpapers.repec.org/RePEc:eee:ecolec:v:41:y:2002:i:3:p:393-408}
    }
    
    Grorud-Colvert, K., Lester, S.E., Airamé, S., Neeley, E. & Gaines, S.D. Marine Reserves Special Feature: Communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences. 2010 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, pp. 0914292107-  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: As human impacts cause ecosystem-wide changes in the oceans, the need to protect and restore marine resources has led to increasing calls for and establishment of marine reserves. Scientific information about marine reserves has multiplied over the last decade, providing useful knowledge about this tool for resource users, managers, policy makers, and the general public. This information must be conveyed to nonscientists in a nontechnical, credible, and neutral format, but most scientists are not trained to communicate in this style or to develop effective strategies for sharing their scientific knowledge. Here, we present a case study from California, in which communicating scientific information during the process to establish marine reserves in the Channel Islands and along the California mainland coast expanded into an international communication effort. We discuss how to develop a strategy for communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences and highlight the influence that effective science communication can have in discussions about marine management.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Grorud-Colvert2010,
      author = {Grorud-Colvert, Kirsten and Lester, Sarah E and Airamé, Satie and Neeley, Elizabeth and Gaines, Steven D},
      title = {Marine Reserves Special Feature: Communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences.},
      journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {0914292107--},
      url = {http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/0914292107v1},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0914292107}
    }
    
    Gross, L. PLoS Biology: A Dog's Eye View of Morphological Diversity 2010 PLoS Biology
    Vol. 8(8), pp. e1000452 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gross2010,
      author = {Gross, Liza},
      title = {PLoS Biology: A Dog's Eye View of Morphological Diversity},
      journal = {PLoS Biology},
      publisher = {Public Library of Science},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {8},
      number = {8},
      pages = {e1000452},
      url = {http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000452},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000452}
    }
    
    Gross, N., Bloor, J.M.G., Louault, F., Maire, V. & Soussana, J.-F. Effects of land-use change on productivity depend on small-scale plant species diversity 2009 Basic and Applied Ecology
    Vol. 10(8), pp. 687-696 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gross2009,
      author = {Gross, Nicolas and Bloor, Juliette M. G. and Louault, Frédérique and Maire, Vincent and Soussana, Jean-Francois},
      title = {Effects of land-use change on productivity depend on small-scale plant species diversity},
      journal = {Basic and Applied Ecology},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {10},
      number = {8},
      pages = {687--696},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?ob=ArticleURL&udi=B7GVS-4XM6NK0-3&user=10&coverDate=12/31/2009&rdoc=2&fmt=high&orig=browse&srch=doc-info(toc2043820099998999911571297FLAdisplayVolume)&cdi=20438&sort=d&docanchor=&ct=13&acct=C000050221&version=1&urlVersion=0&userid=10&md5=1cf79264168312ec92c65654422d94b4},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2009.09.001}
    }
    
    Gruber, L., Guggenberger, T., Steinwidder, A., Schauer, A., Häusler, J., Steinwender, R. & Sobotik, M. Ertrag und Futterqualität von Almfutter des Höhenprofils Johnsbach in Abhängigkeit von den Standortfaktoren 1998 Tagungsband zum Alpenländisches Expertenforum ``Zeitgemäß e Almbewirtschaftung sowie Bewertung von Almflächen und Waldweiden''  inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Gruber1998,
      author = {Gruber, Leonhard and Guggenberger, Thomas and Steinwidder, Andreas and Schauer, Anton and Häusler, Johann and Steinwender, R. and Sobotik, Monika},
      title = {Ertrag und Futterqualität von Almfutter des Höhenprofils Johnsbach in Abhängigkeit von den Standortfaktoren},
      booktitle = {Tagungsband zum Alpenländisches Expertenforum ``Zeitgemäß e Almbewirtschaftung sowie Bewertung von Almflächen und Waldweiden''},
      publisher = {BAL Gumpenstein},
      year = {1998}
    }
    
    Gruber, L. & Steinwidder, A. Einfluß der Fütterung auf die Stickstoff- und Phosphorausscheidung landwirtschaftlicher Nutztiere- Modellkalkulation auf Basis einer Literaturübersicht 1996 Die Bodenkultur
    Vol. 47(4), pp. 255-277 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gruber1996,
      author = {Gruber, L. and Steinwidder, Andreas},
      title = {Einfluß der Fütterung auf die Stickstoff- und Phosphorausscheidung landwirtschaftlicher Nutztiere- Modellkalkulation auf Basis einer Literaturübersicht},
      journal = {Die Bodenkultur},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {47},
      number = {4},
      pages = {255--277}
    }
    
    Gruber, L., Steinwidder, A., Guggenberger, T., Schauer, A., Häusler, J., Steinwender, R. & Steiner, B. Einfluss der Grünlandbewirtschaftung auf Ertrag, Futterwert, Milcherzeugung und Nährstoffausscheidung 2000 27. Viehwirtschaftliche Fachtagung, 6.-8. Juni, pp. 41-88  inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Gruber2000,
      author = {Gruber, L. and Steinwidder, Andreas and Guggenberger, Thomas and Schauer, A. and Häusler, J. and Steinwender, R. and Steiner, B.},
      title = {Einfluss der Grünlandbewirtschaftung auf Ertrag, Futterwert, Milcherzeugung und Nährstoffausscheidung},
      booktitle = {27. Viehwirtschaftliche Fachtagung, 6.-8. Juni},
      publisher = {Bundesanstalt für alpenländische Landwirtschaft Gumpenstein},
      year = {2000},
      pages = {41--88}
    }
    
    Guerrero, A.M., Knight, A.T., Grantham, H.S., Cowling, R.M. & Wilson, K.A. Predicting willingness-to-sell and its utility for assessing conservation opportunity for expanding protected area networks 2010 Conservation Letters
    Vol. 9999(9999), pp. no-no 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Translating maps of priority areas for conservation into activities which actually secure these places is a complex process, overwhelmingly influenced by human and social factors. Spatial conservation prioritizations often assume that land is available for acquisition. Using data gathered through interviews, we predicted land managers willingness-to-sell their land. We included this information in spatial prioritization analyses that aimed to identify areas that achieve conservation objectives while maximizing the probability that land will be available for acquisition. As anticipated, our solutions were more likely of being available for acquisition compared to solutions that did not include the willingness-to-sell data. Our results illustrate the trade-off between designing so-called "optimal" networks of protected areas, and the realities of translating these maps into on-ground action. We demonstrate how an important aspect of the social context in which conservation is embedded and defines conservation opportunities can be explicitly accounted for in the development of conservation plans.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Guerrero2010,
      author = {Guerrero, Angela M. and Knight, Andrew T. and Grantham, Hedley S. and Cowling, Richard M. and Wilson, Kerrie A.},
      title = {Predicting willingness-to-sell and its utility for assessing conservation opportunity for expanding protected area networks},
      journal = {Conservation Letters},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {9999},
      number = {9999},
      pages = {no--no},
      url = {http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/123344657/abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-263X.2010.00116.x}
    }
    
    Guggenberger, T. Automatisierte Abschätzung des notwendigen Tierbesatzes zur Vermeidung klimabedingter Sukzession alpiner Weideflächen 2008 , pp. 103pp.School: Paris Lodron Universität Salzburg  phdthesis  
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Guggenberger2008b,
      author = {Guggenberger, Thomas},
      title = {Automatisierte Abschätzung des notwendigen Tierbesatzes zur Vermeidung klimabedingter Sukzession alpiner Weideflächen},
      school = {Paris Lodron Universität Salzburg},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {103pp.}
    }
    
    Guggenberger, T. & Blaschka, A. Satellitengestützte Almbewertung - Potenziale und Risiken alpiner Weideflächen 2009 Angewandte Geoinformatik 2009. Beiträge zum 21. AGIT-Symposium Salzburg, pp. 526-535  inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Guggenberger2009b,
      author = {Guggenberger, Thomas and Blaschka, Albin},
      title = {Satellitengestützte Almbewertung - Potenziale und Risiken alpiner Weideflächen},
      booktitle = {Angewandte Geoinformatik 2009. Beiträge zum 21. AGIT-Symposium Salzburg},
      publisher = {Wichmann Verlag},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {526--535}
    }
    
    Guggenberger, T. & Blaschka, A. Vom Satellitenbild zur Weideintensität 2009 Der Alm- und Bergbauer
    Vol. 12 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Guggenberger2009a,
      author = {Guggenberger, Thomas and Blaschka, Albin},
      title = {Vom Satellitenbild zur Weideintensität},
      journal = {Der Alm- und Bergbauer},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {12}
    }
    
    Guggenberger, T., Blaschka, A., Ringdorfer, F. & Graiss, W. Vom Satellitenbild zur Weideintensität - Eine groß räumige Analyse des Weidepotenzials auf Almen 2008 Klimaerwärmung im Alpenraum: Auswirkungen und zukünftige Konzepte zur Bewirtschaftung des Almbereiches (Klima - Pflanzen - Wald - Almwirtschaft - Jagd - Tourismus). Tagung 4. und 5. September 2008, LFZ Raumberg-Gumpenstein, Irdning, Österreich, pp. 21-30  inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Guggenberger2008a,
      author = {Guggenberger, Thomas and Blaschka, Albin and Ringdorfer, Ferdinand and Graiss, Wilhelm},
      title = {Vom Satellitenbild zur Weideintensität - Eine groß räumige Analyse des Weidepotenzials auf Almen},
      booktitle = {Klimaerwärmung im Alpenraum: Auswirkungen und zukünftige Konzepte zur Bewirtschaftung des Almbereiches (Klima - Pflanzen - Wald - Almwirtschaft - Jagd - Tourismus). Tagung 4. und 5. September 2008, LFZ Raumberg-Gumpenstein, Irdning, Österreich},
      publisher = {LFZ Raumberg-Gumpenstein},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {21--30}
    }
    
    Gumpelmayer Franka Die Vegetation und ihre Gliederung in den Leoganger Steinbergen 1967 , pp. 109School: Leopold Franzens Universität Innsbruck  phdthesis  
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Gumpelmayer1967,
      author = {Gumpelmayer Franka},
      title = {Die Vegetation und ihre Gliederung in den Leoganger Steinbergen},
      school = {Leopold Franzens Universität Innsbruck},
      year = {1967},
      pages = {109}
    }
    
    Gusmeroli, F., Della Marianna, G., Fava, F., Monteiro, A., Bocchi, S. & Parolo, G. Effects of ecological, landscape and management factors on plant species composition, biodiversity and forage value in Alpine meadows 2012 Grass and Forage Science, pp. n/a-n/a  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gusmeroli2012,
      author = {Gusmeroli, F. and Della Marianna, G. and Fava, F. and Monteiro, A. and Bocchi, S. and Parolo, G.},
      title = {Effects of ecological, landscape and management factors on plant species composition, biodiversity and forage value in Alpine meadows},
      journal = {Grass and Forage Science},
      year = {2012},
      pages = {n/a--n/a},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/gfs.12007},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gfs.12007}
    }
    
    Härdtle, W., von Oheimb, G., Gerke, A.-K., Niemeyer, M., Niemeyer, T., Assmann, T., Drees, C., Matern, A. & Meyer, H. Shifts in N and P Budgets of Heathland Ecosystems: Effects of Management and Atmospheric Inputs 2009 Ecosystems
    Vol. 12(2), pp. 298-310 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Abstract In the present study we analyzed the combined effects of management (grazing, mowing, prescribed burning, sod-cutting) and atmospheric deposition on N and P budgets of heathland ecosystems (Lüneburger Heide nature reserve; N Germany). We hypothesize that management measures such as grazing and mowing can accelerate a deposition-induced imbalance of N and P pools as a result of a disproportionally high output of P. We analyzed management and deposition affected input-output flows of N and P and related them to changes in the nutritional status of Calluna vulgaris 5 years after treatment application. We found that grazing and mowing caused the highest net loss of P due to high P concentrations in the aboveground biomass. In contrast, prescribed burning only slightly affected P pools, as P remained in the system due to ash deposition. Management-mediated effects on N and P pools were mirrored in the nutritional status of Calluna vulgaris: at the grazed and mown sites, the P content of current seasons shoots significantly decreased within 5 years after treatments, whereas the N content remained unchanged. We conclude that grazing and mowing can accelerate declining availability of P and, thus, accelerate a deposition-induced shift from N- to P-limited plant growth in the medium term. In the face of ongoing atmospheric N loads management schemes need to combine high- and low-intensity measures to maintain both a diverse structure and balanced nutrient budgets in the long term.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Haerdtle2009,
      author = {Härdtle, Werner and von Oheimb, Goddert and Gerke, Anna-Katharina and Niemeyer, Marion and Niemeyer, Thomas and Assmann, Thorsten and Drees, Claudia and Matern, Andrea and Meyer, Hartmut},
      title = {Shifts in N and P Budgets of Heathland Ecosystems: Effects of Management and Atmospheric Inputs},
      journal = {Ecosystems},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {12},
      number = {2},
      pages = {298--310},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10021-008-9223-3},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10021-008-9223-3}
    }
    
    Hölzel, N., Buisson, E. & Dutoit, T. Species introduction - a major topic in vegetation restoration 2012 Applied Vegetation Science
    Vol. 15(2), pp. 161-165 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Holzel2012a,
      author = {Hölzel, Norbert and Buisson, Elise and Dutoit, Thierry},
      title = {Species introduction - a major topic in vegetation restoration},
      journal = {Applied Vegetation Science},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {15},
      number = {2},
      pages = {161--165},
      url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1654-109X.2012.01189.x/full http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1654-109X.2012.01189.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-109X.2012.01189.x}
    }
    
    Hülber, K., Ertl, S., Gottfried, M., Reiter, K. & Grabherr, G. Gourmets or gourmands? Diet selection by large ungulates in high-alpine plant communities and possible impacts on plant propagation 2005 Basic and Applied Ecology
    Vol. 6(1), pp. 1-10 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Huelber2005,
      author = {Hülber, Karl and Ertl, Siegrun and Gottfried, Michael and Reiter, Karl and Grabherr, Georg},
      title = {Gourmets or gourmands? Diet selection by large ungulates in high-alpine plant communities and possible impacts on plant propagation},
      journal = {Basic and Applied Ecology},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {6},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1--10},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/gfoe/article/pii/S1439179104000842},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2004.09.010}
    }
    
    Haber, W. Energy, food, and land - The ecological traps of humankind 2007 Environmental Science and Pollution Research - International
    Vol. 14(6), pp. 359-365 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Humans’ superiority over all other organisms on earth rests on five main foundations: command of fire requiring fuel; controlled production of food and other biotic substances; utilization of metals and other non-living materials for construction and appliances; technically determined, urban-oriented living standard; economically and culturally regulated societal organization. The young discipline of ecology has revealed that the progress of civilization and technology attained, and being further pursued by humankind, and generally taken for granted and permanent, is leading into ecological traps. This metaphor circumscribes ecological situations where finite resources are being exhausted or rendered non-utilizable without a realistic prospect of restitution. Energy, food and land are the principal, closely interrelated traps; but the absolutely decisive resource in question is land whose increasing scarcity is totally underrated. Land is needed for fulfilling growing food demands, for producing renewable energy in the post-fossil and post-nuclear era, for maintaining other ecosystem services, for urban-industrial uses, transport, material extraction, refuse deposition, but also for leisure, recreation, and nature conservation. All these needs compete for land, food and non-food biomass production moreover for good soils that are scarcer than ever. We are preoccupied with fighting climate change and loss of biodiversity; but these are minor problems we could adapt to, albeit painfully, and their solution will fail if we are caught in the interrelated traps of energy, food, and land scarcity. Land and soils, finite and irreproducible resources, are the key issues we have to devote our work to, based on careful ecological information, planning and design for proper uses and purposes. The article concludes with a short reflection on economy and competition as general driving forces, and on the role and reputation of today’s ecology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Haber2007,
      author = {Haber, Wolfgang},
      title = {Energy, food, and land - The ecological traps of humankind},
      journal = {Environmental Science and Pollution Research - International},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {14},
      number = {6},
      pages = {359--365},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/t5m2653uum7112l0},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1065/espr2007.09.449}
    }
    
    Haddad, N.M., Crutsinger, G.M., Gross, K., Haarstad, J. & Tilman, D. Plant diversity and the stability of foodwebs. 2011 Ecology letters
    Vol. 14(1), pp. 42-6 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Insect outbreaks in forest and agriculture monocultures led Charles Elton to propose, a half-century ago, that higher plant diversity stabilized animal foodweb dynamics in natural ecosystems. We tested this hypothesis by studying arthropod community dynamics in a long-term experimental manipulation of grassland plant species diversity. Over the course of a decade, we found that higher plant diversity increased the stability (i.e. lowered year-to-year variability) of a diverse (>700 species) arthropod community across trophic levels. As the number of plant species increased, the stability of both herbivore and predator species richness and of total herbivore abundance increased. The underlying mechanisms driving these diversity-stability relationships were plant diversity, via effects on primary productivity and plant community stability, and portfolio effects. Taken together, our results show that higher plant diversity provides more temporally consistent food and habitat resources to arthropod foodwebs. Consequently, actively managing for high plant diversity may have stronger than expected benefits for increasing animal diversity and controlling pest outbreaks.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Haddad2011,
      author = {Haddad, Nick M and Crutsinger, Gregory M and Gross, Kevin and Haarstad, John and Tilman, David},
      title = {Plant diversity and the stability of foodwebs.},
      journal = {Ecology letters},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {14},
      number = {1},
      pages = {42--6},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21070559},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2010.01548.x}
    }
    
    Hagn, A. Vegetationskundliche Untersuchungen im Waldgrenzökoton im Gebiet der Schladminger Tauern 2008 School: Paris Lodron Universität Salzburg  mastersthesis  
    BibTeX:
    @mastersthesis{Hagn2008,
      author = {Hagn, Andrea},
      title = {Vegetationskundliche Untersuchungen im Waldgrenzökoton im Gebiet der Schladminger Tauern},
      school = {Paris Lodron Universität Salzburg},
      year = {2008}
    }
    
    Hagn, A. & Peer, T. Baumstudien im Waldgrenzökoton der Schladminger Tauern, ein Beitrag zur aktuellen Klimadiskussion 2010 Mitteilungen des naturwissenschaftlichen Vereines für Steiermark
    Vol. 140, pp. 23-37 
    article  
    Abstract: Im Waldgrenzökoton der Schladminger Tauern wurden an Hand von fünf Höhentransekten die Verteilung und die Struktur der Baumarten Picea abies, Larix decidua und Pinus cembra dokumentiert und auf Indizien für die Hypothese eines erwärmungsbedingten Ansteigens von Wald- und Baumgrenzen geprüft. Durch GPS-Kartierung und exakte morphometrische Messungen der Bäume konnte gezeigt werden, dass (i) vorwiegend Bäume in einem Alter von unter 50 Jahren im Waldgrenzökoton vorkommen, (ii) die Verdichtung der Populationen vor allem an den Zwergstrauch-dominierten Hängen stattfindet, und (iii) die Bäume an ihrer oberen Verbreitungsgrenze mechanisch stark geschädigt sind und daher eine vertikale Verschiebung des Waldgrenzökotons derzeit nicht zu erwarten ist.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hagn2010,
      author = {Hagn, Andrea and Peer, Thomas},
      title = {Baumstudien im Waldgrenzökoton der Schladminger Tauern, ein Beitrag zur aktuellen Klimadiskussion},
      journal = {Mitteilungen des naturwissenschaftlichen Vereines für Steiermark},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {140},
      pages = {23--37}
    }
    
    Haiger, A. Naturgemäß e Milchrinderzucht. Zuchtziel zwischen ökonomischen Wünschen und ökologischen Grenzen 2004 Aurora Magazin, pp. 1-8  article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Haiger2004,
      author = {Haiger, Alfred},
      title = {Naturgemäß e Milchrinderzucht. Zuchtziel zwischen ökonomischen Wünschen und ökologischen Grenzen},
      journal = {Aurora Magazin},
      year = {2004},
      pages = {1--8}
    }
    
    Haiger, A. Naturgemäß e Milchrinderzucht 2002 Rinderzucht im Bio-Landbau, pp. 13-17  inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Haiger2002,
      author = {Haiger, Alfred},
      title = {Naturgemäß e Milchrinderzucht},
      booktitle = {Rinderzucht im Bio-Landbau},
      year = {2002},
      pages = {13--17}
    }
    
    Hale, M., Coffey, L., Bartlett, A. & Ahrens, C. Sheep: Sustainable and Organic Production 2010 ATTRA - National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service, pp. 24pp.  article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hale2010,
      author = {Hale, Margo and Coffey, Linda and Bartlett, Ann and Ahrens, Chelsey},
      title = {Sheep: Sustainable and Organic Production},
      journal = {ATTRA - National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {24pp.},
      url = {www.attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/sheep.html}
    }
    
    Hanson, H. & Ball, W. An application of Raunkiaer's law of frequence to grazing studies 1928 Ecology
    Vol. 9(4), pp. 467-473 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hanson1928,
      author = {Hanson, HC and Ball, WS},
      title = {An application of Raunkiaer's law of frequence to grazing studies},
      journal = {Ecology},
      year = {1928},
      volume = {9},
      number = {4},
      pages = {467--473},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/1929414}
    }
    
    Harcourt, A.H., Parks, S.A. & Woodroffe, R. Human density as an influence on species/area relationships: double jeopardy for small African reserves? 2001 Biodiversity and Conservation
    Vol. 10(6), pp. 1011-1026 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Small reserves are especially likely to lose species. Is that because the reserves are small, or because small reserves are located in especially adverse landscapes? It seems that the question has rarely, if ever, been asked. Data on reserve size and location in Africa, and calculations of local (within 50 km) mean human densities from available census records per province per country were the database here used to answer the question. IUCN grade I and II reserves in Africa are located across the range of human densities per country, including in regions of higher than average density. Furthermore reserve size correlates with local human density, such that small reserves are indeed significantly more likely than are large reserves to be located in regions of high human density (n = 169; P < 0.0001). However, while local human density correlates significantly with human-caused mortality of carnivores (the only taxon for which we had data), it does not correlate with detected extinctions in reserves in east Africa (the only region with available data). Rather, area of reserve is the main predictor. Nevertheless, abundant other evidence of the adverse effects of high human density on persistence of species and wilderness indicates that we need to take as a warning the findings reported here that small reserves occur in regions of high human density, and that human density correlates with human-caused mortality. They indicate that small reserves might face the double jeopardy of both their small size, and also their situation in especially hostile surroundings. In effect, small reserves are more isolated in more adverse habitat than current analyses in conservation biology, landscape ecology, or metapopulation analysis usually indicate.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Harcourt2001,
      author = {Harcourt, A H and Parks, S A and Woodroffe, R},
      title = {Human density as an influence on species/area relationships: double jeopardy for small African reserves?},
      journal = {Biodiversity and Conservation},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {10},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1011--1026},
      url = {http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/klu/bioc/2001/00000010/00000006/00277680}
    }
    
    Hardin, G. The Tragedy of the Commons. 1968 Science
    Vol. 162(3859), pp. 1243-1248 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The population problem has no technical solution; it requires a fundamental extension in morality.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hardin1968,
      author = {Hardin, Garrett},
      title = {The Tragedy of the Commons.},
      journal = {Science},
      year = {1968},
      volume = {162},
      number = {3859},
      pages = {1243--1248},
      url = {http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/162/3859/1243},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.162.3859.1243}
    }
    
    Harker, K.N., Baron, V.S., Chanasyk, D.S., Naeth, M.A. & Stevenson, F.C. Grazing intensity effects on weed populations in annual and perennial pasture systems 2000 Weed Science
    Vol. 48(2), pp. 231-238 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Few studies report animal grazing effects on weed populations. A study was con- ducted to assess weed populations in annual and perennial forage grasses grazed at various intensities by cattle over a 4-yr period. The perennial forages were Bromus inermis and Bromus riparius, and the annual forages were winter Triticosecale and a mixture of Hordeum vulgare and winter Triticosecale. With few exceptions, results from the two annual pastures could be adequately described as a group, as could the results from the two perennial pastures. The two most prevalent weed species were Capsella bursa-pastoris and Taraxacum officinale; other species encountered over the course of the study were analyzed as a group. Tillage (seedbed preparation) in the annual system supported a proliferation of annual weeds in the spring. In the pe- rennial pasture system, a lack of tillage and spring MCPA allowed T. officinale to increase as the study progressed, especially at the highest grazing intensity. In the perennial pastures, each unit increase in grazing intensity led to 51 more C. bursa- pastoris m2 and 4 more T. officinale m2. At lower levels of grazing intensity, C. bursa-pastoris and other species were most abundant in the annual pastures. Weed population shifts in response to grazing pressure in the annual pasture systems were restricted because of annual tillage and MCPA. Therefore, pasture managers may subject annual pastures to heavy grazing pressure with less negative weed population consequences than perennial pastures where herbicides are not applied.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Harker2000,
      author = {Harker, K. N. and Baron, V. S. and Chanasyk, D. S. and Naeth, M. A. and Stevenson, F. C.},
      title = {Grazing intensity effects on weed populations in annual and perennial pasture systems},
      journal = {Weed Science},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {48},
      number = {2},
      pages = {231--238},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1614/0043-1745(2000)048}
    }
    
    Harmoney, K.R. & Jaeger, J.R. Animal and Vegetation Response to Modified Intensive–Early Stocking on Shortgrass Rangeland 2011 Rangeland Ecology & Management
    Vol. 64(6), pp. 619-624 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: A comparison of animal gains and vegetation trends was made from 2002–2008 between a continuous season-long stocking (SLS) system and a modified intensive–early stocking system (IES) with late-season grazing (IES 1.6× + 1; 1.6 times the number of animals of the SLS system from May 1 to July 15, and 1 times the number of animals of SLS from July 15 to October 1) on shortgrass native rangeland of western Kansas. The continuous season-long stocked system placed animals at a density of 1.37 ha · steer−1 from May through October, or 2.63 animal unit months (AUM) · ha−1, whereas the intensive–early stocked system with late-season grazing (3.33 AUM · ha−1) stocked pastures at 0.85 ha · steer−1 from May through the middle of July, and then stocked pastures at 1.37 ha · steer−1 for the remainder of the grazing season by removing the heaviest animals mid-July each yr. Average daily gains (0.78 vs. 0.70 kg · d−1, P  =  0.039) and total animal gain (58 vs. 52 kg, P  =  0.042) were different between the continuous season-long stocked and the intensive–early stocked animals during the first half of the grazing season. No difference was found between average daily gain (0.61 vs. 0.62 kg · d−1, P  =  0.726) and total animal gain (48 vs. 49 kg, P  =  0.711) for the continuous season-long stocked and intensive–early stocked with late-season grazing animals during the last half of the season. Total individual animal gain (106 vs. 101 kg, P  =  0.154) and average daily gain (0.70 vs. 0.66 kg · d−1, P  =  0.152) was not different between the continuous season-long stocked and the intensive–early stocked system animals that were on pasture the entire grazing season. Total beef gain on a land-area basis (96 vs. 77 kg · ha−1, P  =  0.008) was greater for the modified intensive–early stocked system with late-season grazing with greater animal densities. Changes in residual biomass and most key vegetation components at the end of the grazing season were not different between the two systems.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Harmoney2011,
      author = {Harmoney, Keith R. and Jaeger, John R.},
      title = {Animal and Vegetation Response to Modified Intensive–Early Stocking on Shortgrass Rangeland},
      journal = {Rangeland Ecology & Management},
      publisher = {Society for Range Management},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {64},
      number = {6},
      pages = {619--624},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2111/REM-D-10-00149.1},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2111/REM-D-10-00149.1}
    }
    
    Harris, J. Soil microbial communities and restoration ecology: facilitators or followers? 2009 Science
    Vol. 325(5940), pp. 573-4 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Microorganisms have critical roles in the functioning of soil in nutrient cycling, structural formation, and plant interactions, both positive and negative. These roles are important in reestablishing function and biodiversity in ecosystem restoration. Measurement of the community indicates the status of the system in relation to restoration targets and the effectiveness of management interventions, and manipulation of the community shows promise in the enhancement of the rate of recovery of degraded systems.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Harris2009,
      author = {Harris, Jim},
      title = {Soil microbial communities and restoration ecology: facilitators or followers?},
      journal = {Science},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {325},
      number = {5940},
      pages = {573--4},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19644111},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1172975}
    }
    
    Hart, K., Baldock, D., Weingarten, P., Povellato, A., Vanni, F., Pirzio-Biroli, C. & Boyes, A. What tools for the european agricultural policy to encourage the provision of public goods? 2011
    Vol. 1(11)Chemistry & biodiversity, pp. 113pp. 
    book URL 
    Abstract: Agriculture plays an important role in the provision of a wide range of public goods in Europe, particularly regarding the environment and rural vitality. Appropriate policies are required to secure adequate provision in future. The Common Agricultural Policy potentially has a key role. This report examines some of the issues involved in reorienting the CAP for this purpose and proposes how it could be modified to contribute to the provision of public goods more effectively in the future.
    BibTeX:
    @book{Hart2011,
      author = {Hart, Kaley and Baldock, David and Weingarten, Peter and Povellato, Andrea and Vanni, Francesco and Pirzio-Biroli, Corrado and Boyes, Alison},
      title = {What tools for the european agricultural policy to encourage the provision of public goods?},
      booktitle = {Chemistry & biodiversity},
      publisher = {European Parliament: Policy Department B: Structural and Cohesion Policies},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {1},
      number = {11},
      pages = {113pp.},
      edition = {IP/B/AGRI/},
      url = {http://www.europarl.europa.eu/committees/en/studiesdownload.html?languageDocument=EN&file=41388}
    }
    
    Hartig, F., Dyke, J., Hickler, T., Higgins, S.I., O’Hara, R.B., Scheiter, S. & Huth, A. Connecting dynamic vegetation models to data - an inverse perspective 2012 Journal of Biogeography, pp. 1-13  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Dynamic vegetation models provide process-based explanations of the dynamics and the distribution of plant ecosystems. They offer significant advantages over static, correlative modelling approaches, particularly for ecosystems that are outside their equilibrium due to global change or climate change. A persistent problem, however, is their parameterization. Parameters and processes of dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) are traditionally determined independently of the model, while model outputs are compared to empirical data for validation and informal model comparison only. But field data for such independent esti- mates of parameters and processes are often difficult to obtain, and the desire to include better descriptions of processes such as biotic interactions, dispersal, phenotypic plasticity and evolution in future vegetation models aggravates lim- itations related to the current parameterization paradigm. In this paper, we discuss the use of Bayesian methods to bridge this gap. We explain how Bayesian methods allow direct estimates of parameters and processes, encoded in prior distributions, to be combined with inverse estimates, encoded in likelihood functions. The combination of direct and inverse estimation of parameters and processes allows a much wider range of vegetation data to be used simultaneously, including vegetation inventories, species traits, species distributions, remote sensing, eddy flux measurements and palaeorecords. The possible reduction of uncertainty regarding structure, parameters and predictions of DVMs may not only foster scientific progress, but will also increase the relevance of these models for policy advice.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hartig2012,
      author = {Hartig, Florian and Dyke, James and Hickler, Thomas and Higgins, Steven I. and O’Hara, Robert B. and Scheiter, Simon and Huth, Andreas},
      title = {Connecting dynamic vegetation models to data - an inverse perspective},
      journal = {Journal of Biogeography},
      year = {2012},
      pages = {1--13},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2012.02745.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2012.02745.x}
    }
    
    Hartl, H., Stern, R. & Seger, M. Karte der aktuelen Vegetation von Kärnten 2001 , pp. 80  book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Hartl2001,
      author = {Hartl, Helmut and Stern, Roland and Seger, Martin},
      title = {Karte der aktuelen Vegetation von Kärnten},
      publisher = {Naturwissenschaftlicher Verein für Kärnten},
      year = {2001},
      pages = {80},
      edition = {1}
    }
    
    Hassett, E.M., Stehman, S.V. & Wickham, J.D. Estimating landscape pattern metrics from a sample of land cover 2011 Landscape Ecology, pp. 1-17  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Although landscape pattern metrics can be computed directly from wall-to-wall land-cover maps, statistical sampling offers a practical alternative when complete coverage land-cover information is unavailable. Partitioning a region into spatial units and then selecting a subset (sample) of these units introduces artificial patch edge and patch truncation effects that may lead to biased sample-based estimators of landscape pattern metrics. The bias and variance of sample-based estimators of status and change in landscape pattern metrics were evaluated for four 120-km × 120-km test regions with land cover provided by the 1992 and 2001 National Land-Cover Data of the United States. Bias was generally small for both the estimators of status and estimators of change in landscape pattern, but exceptions to this favorable result exist and it is advisable to assess bias for the specific metrics and region of interest in any given application. A 10-km × 10-km sample block generally yielded larger biases but smaller variances for the estimators relative to a 20-km × 20-km sample block. Stratified random sampling improved precision of the estimators relative to simple random sampling. The methodology developed to determine properties of sample-based estimators can be readily extended to evaluate other landscape pattern metrics, regions, and sample block sizes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hasset2011,
      author = {Hassett, Elizabeth M. and Stehman, Stephen V. and Wickham, James D.},
      title = {Estimating landscape pattern metrics from a sample of land cover},
      journal = {Landscape Ecology},
      publisher = {Springer Netherlands},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {1--17},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/k33211m363t45153/},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10980-011-9657-4}
    }
    
    Hatna, E. & Bakker, M. Abandonment and Expansion of Arable Land in Europe 2011 Ecosystems, pp. 1-12-12  misc DOI URL 
    Abstract: Abandonment of arable land is often assumed to happen mostly in marginal areas where the conditions for arable cultivation are relatively unfavorable, whereas arable expansion is expected to occur mostly in areas with favorable conditions. This assumption, used in many land-use change forecasts, was never properly tested, mainly because the relatively short period of full-coverage land-use inventories did not allow a systematic analysis of the phenomena. With the recent release of CORINE 2006 this has changed. In this article, we explore the typical locations of abandonment and expansion of arable land in Europe during the period 1990–2006 by means of logistic regressions. More specifically, we test whether or not locations of abandonment and expansion can be inferred from the location characteristics of arable land in 1990. If the above assumption holds, this should be the case. We demonstrate that although arable expansion indeed happens in locations that resemble the bulk of arable land in 1990 (the presumably favorable locations), arable abandonment does not necessarily happen in locations that resemble the bulk of uncultivated land (that is, the presumably unfavorable locations). In other words, the assumption does not hold. Particularly, areas close to the road network were found to be associated with both high abandonment rates and high expansion rates, which suggest that abandonment is not limited to areas that are marginal in terms of agricultural production.
    BibTeX:
    @misc{Hatna2011,
      author = {Hatna, Erez and Bakker, Martha},
      title = {Abandonment and Expansion of Arable Land in Europe},
      booktitle = {Ecosystems},
      publisher = {Springer New York},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {1--12--12},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/c748268757242694/},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10021-011-9441-y}
    }
    
    Havstad, K. Sheep grazing as a range improvement tool 1994 Sheep Research Journal
    Vol. 10(1), pp. 72-78 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Havstad1994,
      author = {Havstad, K.M},
      title = {Sheep grazing as a range improvement tool},
      journal = {Sheep Research Journal},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {10},
      number = {1},
      pages = {72--78}
    }
    
    Hedberg, P. & Kotowski, W. New nature by sowing? The current state of species introduction in grassland restoration, and the road ahead 2010 Journal for Nature Conservation
    Vol. 18(4), pp. 304-308 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Semi-natural grasslands are some of the most threatened habitats on the planet, due to the abandonment of small-scale farming and its replacement with intensive agriculture. The fragmented landscape of today has created dispersal limitation that makes improbable the natural dispersal of target species into the remaining patches of grassland. This paper reviews the current status of species introduction into semi-natural grasslands, and summarises the results of published literature in this field. Our review shows that restoration through species introduction is an effective method of establishing dispersal limited species. However, the field of species introduction in restoration ecology has yet to make use of the value that Functional Diversity can add to restoration. No single study in our search has followed up species introduction by measuring any of the currently available indices of functional diversity. This approach is necessary to gain knowledge on what traits are likely to be sorted out in species introduction cases in various environments.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hedberg2010,
      author = {Hedberg, Petter and Kotowski, Wiktor},
      title = {New nature by sowing? The current state of species introduction in grassland restoration, and the road ahead},
      journal = {Journal for Nature Conservation},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {18},
      number = {4},
      pages = {304--308},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnc.2010.01.003},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnc.2010.01.003}
    }
    
    Hedlund, K., Santa Regina, I., Van Der Putten, W.H., Leps, J., Diaz, T., Korthals, G.W., Lavorel, S., Brown, V.K., Gormsen, D., Mortimer, S.R., Rodriguez Barrueco, C., Roy, J., Smilauer, P., Smilauerova, M. & Van Dijk, C. Plant species diversity, plant biomass and responses of the soil community on abandoned land across Europe: idiosyncracy or above-belowground time lags 2003 Oikos
    Vol. 103(1), pp. 45-58 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: We examined the relationship between plant species diversity, productivity and the development of the soil community during early secondary succession on former arable land across Europe. We tested the hypothesis that increasing the initial plant species diversity enhances the biomass production and consequently stimulates soil microbial biomass and abundance of soil invertebrates. We performed five identical field experiments on abandoned arable land in five European countries (CZ, NL, SE, SP and UK) which allowed us to test our hypothesis in a range of climate, soil and other environmental factors that varied between the experimental sites. The initial plant diversity was altered by sowing seed mixtures of mid-successional grassland species with two or five grass species, one or five legumes and one or five forbs. The results of low and high sown diversity treatments were compared with plots that were naturally colonized by species present in the seed bank. In three out of the five field sites, there was no correlation between plant species number and plant biomass production, one site had a positive and the other a negative relation. Treatments with a high diversity seed mixture had a higher biomass than the naturally colonized plots. However, there was no significant difference between high and low sown diversity plots at four out of five sites. The three-year study did not give any evidence of a general bottom-up effect from increased plant biomass on biomass of bacteria, saprophytic fungi or abundance of microarthropods. The biomass of arbuscular mycorrhizal was negatively related to plant biomass. The abundance of nematodes increased after abandonment and was related to plant biomass at four sites. Our results support the hypothesis that plant species diversity may have idiosyncratic effects on soil communities, even though studies on a longer term could reveal time lags in the response to changes in composition and biomass production of plant communities.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hedlund2003,
      author = {Hedlund, K. and Santa Regina, I. and Van Der Putten, W. H. and Leps, J. and Diaz, T. and Korthals, G. W. and Lavorel, Sandra and Brown, V. K. and Gormsen, D. and Mortimer, S. R. and Rodriguez Barrueco, C. and Roy, J. and Smilauer, P. and Smilauerova, M. and Van Dijk, C.},
      title = {Plant species diversity, plant biomass and responses of the soil community on abandoned land across Europe: idiosyncracy or above-belowground time lags},
      journal = {Oikos},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {103},
      number = {1},
      pages = {45--58},
      url = {http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/links/doi/10.1034/j.1600-0706.2003.12511.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0706.2003.12511.x}
    }
    
    Heinl, T., Heck, T., Kürschner, T., Kaule, G., Lämmle, M. & Rainer, F. Aufbau eines Informationssystems für die Umweltplanung im Übersichtsmaß stab 1:200 000 für das Land Baden-Württemberg 2003 Natur und Landschaft
    Vol. 78(1), pp. 1-9 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Heinl2003,
      author = {Heinl, Thomas and Heck, Thomas and Kürschner, Thomas and Kaule, Giselher and Lämmle, Marcus and Rainer, Friedrich},
      title = {Aufbau eines Informationssystems für die Umweltplanung im Übersichtsmaß stab 1:200 000 für das Land Baden-Württemberg},
      journal = {Natur und Landschaft},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {78},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1--9}
    }
    
    Heip, C. & Engels, P. Comparing species diversity and evenness indices 1974 Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK
    Vol. 54, pp. 559-563 
    article URL 
    Abstract: In a low diversity brackish water habitat the diversity of the copepod community is best measured with the Shannon-Wiener information function and its evenness by an index proposed by the first author (eH -1)/(8 -1). This was shown by comparing the statistical behaviour of the more important diversity and evenness indices currently used.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Heip1974,
      author = {Heip, C. and Engels, P},
      title = {Comparing species diversity and evenness indices},
      journal = {Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK},
      year = {1974},
      volume = {54},
      pages = {559--563},
      url = {http://journals.cambridge.org/abstractS0025315400022748}
    }
    
    Hellström, K., Huhta, A., Rautio, P., Tuomi, J., Oksanen, J. & Laine, K. Use of sheep grazing in the restoration of semi-natural meadows in northern Finland 2003 Applied Vegetation Science
    Vol. 6(1), pp. 45-52 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The biodiversity of species-rich semi-natural mead- ows is declining across Europe due to ceased management. In this study we aimed to find out how successfully the local species richness of an overgrown semi-natural mesic meadow could be restored by sheep grazing after a long period of abandonment. The cover of vascular plant species in grazed plots and ungrazed exclosures was studied for five years and the responses of different functional plant groups were fol- lowed (herbs vs grasses, tall vs short species, species differing in flowering time, species representing different Grime’s CSR strategies and species indicative of rich vs poor soil). Grazing increased species number by nearly 30 On grazed plots the litter cover practically disappeared, favouring small herbs such as Rhinanthus minor, Ranunculus acris, Trifolium pratense and the grass Agrostis capillaris. Grazing decreased the cover of the late flowering tall herb Epilobium angustifolium but had no effect on the abundance of the early flowering tall herbs Anthriscus sylvestris or Geranium sylvaticum. We sug- gest that to succeed in restoration it is useful to determine the responses of different functional plant groups to grazing. Grassland managers need this information to optimize the methods and timing of management used in restoration. Addi- tional management practices, such as mowing, may be needed in mesic meadows to decrease the dominance of tall species. The availability of propagules seemed to restrict further in- crease of species richness in our study area.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hellstrom2003,
      author = {Hellström, Kalle and Huhta, A.P. and Rautio, Pasi and Tuomi, Juha and Oksanen, Jari and Laine, Kari},
      title = {Use of sheep grazing in the restoration of semi-natural meadows in northern Finland},
      journal = {Applied Vegetation Science},
      publisher = {Opulus Press},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {6},
      number = {1},
      pages = {45--52},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/1479055}
    }
    
    Helming, K. & Pérez-Soba, M. Landscape Scenarios and Multifunctionality: Making Land Use Impact Assessment Operational 2011 Ecology and Society
    Vol. 16(1), pp. 1-8 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Ex ante impact assessment can help in structuring the analysis of human-environment interactions thereby supporting land use decision making for sustainable development. The contributions to this special feature focus on some of the challenges of making land use impact assessment operational for policy making. A total of nine papers deal with the needs and uses of assessment tools for policy making at the European level, with the value-based influence in scenario development, and with ex ante impact assessment studies in different contexts, spatial systems, and for different purposes and user groups. The concept of landscape multifunctionality was implicitly or explicitly employed as an integrating entity between socioeconomic and biogeophysical features of a spatial system. Three major aspects were revealed that could improve the relevance of the policy of land use impact assessment: the involvement of decision makers early on in the design of the impact assessment study; the integration of quantitative analysis with participatory valuation methods; and the robust and transparent design of the analytical methods.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Helming2011,
      author = {Helming, Katharina and Pérez-Soba, Marta},
      title = {Landscape Scenarios and Multifunctionality: Making Land Use Impact Assessment Operational},
      journal = {Ecology and Society},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {16},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1--8},
      url = {http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/articles/4042.html}
    }
    
    Helsen, K., Hermy, M. & Honnay, O. Trait but not species convergence during plant community assembly in restored semi-natural grasslands 2012 Oikos, pp. no-no  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Helsen2012,
      author = {Helsen, Kenny and Hermy, Martin and Honnay, Olivier},
      title = {Trait but not species convergence during plant community assembly in restored semi-natural grasslands},
      journal = {Oikos},
      year = {2012},
      pages = {no--no},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2012.20499.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2012.20499.x}
    }
    
    Henderson, P.A. & Magurran, A.E. Linking species abundance distributions in numerical abundance and biomass through simple assumptions about community structure. 2010 Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
    Vol. 277(1687), pp. 1561-70 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Species abundance distributions (SADs) are widely used as a tool for summarizing ecological communities but may have different shapes, depending on the currency used to measure species importance. We develop a simple plotting method that links SADs in the alternative currencies of numerical abundance and biomass and is underpinned by testable predictions about how organisms occupy physical space. When log numerical abundance is plotted against log biomass, the species lie within an approximately triangular region. Simple energetic and sampling constraints explain the triangular form. The dispersion of species within this triangle is the key to understanding why SADs of numerical abundance and biomass can differ. Given regular or random species dispersion, we can predict the shape of the SAD for both currencies under a variety of sampling regimes. We argue that this dispersion pattern will lie between regular and random for the following reasons. First, regular dispersion patterns will result if communities are comprised groups of organisms that use different components of the physical space (e.g. open water, the sea bed surface or rock crevices in a marine fish assemblage), and if the abundance of species in each of these spatial guilds is linked to the way individuals of varying size use the habitat. Second, temporal variation in abundance and sampling error will tend to randomize this regular pattern. Data from two intensively studied marine ecosystems offer empirical support for these predictions. Our approach also has application in environmental monitoring and the recognition of anthropogenic disturbance, which may change the shape of the triangular region by, for example, the loss of large body size top predators that occur at low abundance.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Henderson2010,
      author = {Henderson, Peter A and Magurran, Anne E},
      title = {Linking species abundance distributions in numerical abundance and biomass through simple assumptions about community structure.},
      journal = {Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {277},
      number = {1687},
      pages = {1561--70},
      url = {http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/cgi/content/abstract/277/1687/1561},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2009.2189}
    }
    
    Hendriks, A. Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Being with Regard to the Application of Biology and Medicine: Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine 1997 European Journal of Health Law
    Vol. 4(1), pp. 89-100 
    article DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hendriks1997,
      author = {Hendriks, A},
      title = {Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Being with Regard to the Application of Biology and Medicine: Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine},
      journal = {European Journal of Health Law},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {4},
      number = {1},
      pages = {89--100},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/15718099720521896}
    }
    
    Hendry, A.P., Lohmann, L.G., Conti, E., Cracraft, J., Crandall, K.A., Faith, D.P., Häuser, C., Joly, C.A., Kogure, K., Larigauderie, A., Magallón, S., Moritz, C., Tillier, S., Zardoya, R., Prieur-Richard, A.-H., Walther, B.A., Yahara, T. & Donoghue, M.J. Evolutionary Biology in Biodiversity Science, Conservation, and Policy: a Call To Action. 2010 Evolution, pp. 1-12  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Evolutionary biologists have long endeavored to document how many species exist on Earth, to understand the processes by which biodiversity waxes and wanes, to document and interpret spatial patterns of biodiversity, and to infer evolutionary relationships. Despite the great potential of this knowledge to improve biodiversity science, conservation, and policy, evolutionary biologists have generally devoted limited attention to these broader implications. Likewise, many workers in biodiversity science have underappreciated the fundamental relevance of evolutionary biology. The aim of this article is to summarize and illustrate some ways in which evolutionary biology is directly relevant. We do so in the context of four broad areas: (1) discovering and documenting biodiversity, (2) understanding the causes of diversification, (3) evaluating evolutionary responses to human disturbances, and (4) implications for ecological communities, ecosystems, and humans. We also introduce bioGENESIS, a new project within DIVERSITAS launched to explore the potential practical contributions of evolutionary biology. In addition to fostering the integration of evolutionary thinking into biodiversity science, bioGENESIS provides practical recommendations to policy makers for incorporating evolutionary perspectives into biodiversity agendas and conservation. We solicit your involvement in developing innovative ways of using evolutionary biology to better comprehend and stem the loss of biodiversity.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hendry2010,
      author = {Hendry, Andrew P and Lohmann, Lúcia G and Conti, Elena and Cracraft, Joel and Crandall, Keith A and Faith, Daniel P and Häuser, Christoph and Joly, Carlos A and Kogure, Kazuhiro and Larigauderie, Anne and Magallón, Susana and Moritz, Craig and Tillier, Simon and Zardoya, Rafael and Prieur-Richard, Anne-Hélène and Walther, Bruno A and Yahara, Tetsukazu and Donoghue, Michael J},
      title = {Evolutionary Biology in Biodiversity Science, Conservation, and Policy: a Call To Action.},
      journal = {Evolution},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {1--12},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20067518},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1558-5646.2010.00947.x}
    }
    
    Hengl, T. A Practical Guide to Geostatistical Mapping 2009 Chemistry & ldots, pp. 290pp.  book URL 
    Abstract: Geostatistical mapping can be defined as analytical production of maps by using field observations, auxiliary information and a computer program that calculates values at locations of interest. The purpose of this guide is to assist you in producing quality maps by using fully-operational open source software packages. It will first introduce you to the basic principles of geostatistical mapping and regression-kriging, as the key prediction , and — technique, then it will guide you through software tools — R which will be used to prepare the data, run analysis and make final layouts. Geostatistical mapping is further illustrated using seven diverse case studies: interpolation of soil parameters, heavy metal concentrations, global soil organic carbon, species density distribution, distribution of landforms, density of DEM-derived streams, and spatio-temporal interpolation of land surface temperatures. Unlike similar books from the “use ” series, or purely GIS user manuals, this book specifically aims to bridge the gap between statistical and geographical computing. Materials presented in this book have been used for the five–day advanced training course “GEOSTAT: spatio-temporal data analysis with R+SAGA+Google Earth”, that is periodically organized by the author and collaborators. Visit the book’s homepage to obtain a copy of the data sets and scripts used in the exercises. +gstat/geoR SAGA GIS Google Earth R
    BibTeX:
    @book{Hengl2009,
      author = {Hengl, Tomislav},
      title = {A Practical Guide to Geostatistical Mapping},
      booktitle = {Chemistry & ldots},
      publisher = {University of Amsterdam},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {290pp.},
      edition = {Creative C},
      url = {http://spatial-analyst.net/book}
    }
    
    Herberich, E., Sikorski, J. & Hothorn, T. A robust procedure for comparing multiple means under heteroscedasticity in unbalanced designs. 2010 PloS one
    Vol. 5(3), pp. 1-8 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Investigating differences between means of more than two groups or experimental conditions is a routine research question addressed in biology. In order to assess differences statistically, multiple comparison procedures are applied. The most prominent procedures of this type, the Dunnett and Tukey-Kramer test, control the probability of reporting at least one false positive result when the data are normally distributed and when the sample sizes and variances do not differ between groups. All three assumptions are non-realistic in biological research and any violation leads to an increased number of reported false positive results. Based on a general statistical framework for simultaneous inference and robust covariance estimators we propose a new statistical multiple comparison procedure for assessing multiple means. In contrast to the Dunnett or Tukey-Kramer tests, no assumptions regarding the distribution, sample sizes or variance homogeneity are necessary. The performance of the new procedure is assessed by means of its familywise error rate and power under different distributions. The practical merits are demonstrated by a reanalysis of fatty acid phenotypes of the bacterium Bacillus simplex from the "Evolution Canyons" I and II in Israel. The simulation results show that even under severely varying variances, the procedure controls the number of false positive findings very well. Thus, the here presented procedure works well under biologically realistic scenarios of unbalanced group sizes, non-normality and heteroscedasticity.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Herberich2010,
      author = {Herberich, Esther and Sikorski, Johannes and Hothorn, Torsten},
      title = {A robust procedure for comparing multiple means under heteroscedasticity in unbalanced designs.},
      journal = {PloS one},
      publisher = {Public Library of Science},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {5},
      number = {3},
      pages = {1--8},
      url = {http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2847912&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009788},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009788}
    }
    
    Hermann, A., Schleifer, S. & Wrbka, T. The Concept of Ecosystem Services Regarding Landscape Research: A Review 2011 Living Reviews in Landscape Research
    Vol. 5(1), pp. 1-37 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hermann2011,
      author = {Hermann, Anna and Schleifer, Sabine and Wrbka, Thomas},
      title = {The Concept of Ecosystem Services Regarding Landscape Research: A Review},
      journal = {Living Reviews in Landscape Research},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {5},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1--37},
      url = {http://www.livingreviews.org/lrlr-2011-1}
    }
    
    Herrando-Pérez, S., Delean, S., Brook, B.W. & Bradshaw, C.J. a. Density dependence: an ecological Tower of Babel 2012 Oecologia
    Vol. 170(3), pp. 585-603 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The concept of density dependence represents the effect of changing population size on demographic rates and captures the demographic role of social and trophic mechanisms (e.g. competition, cooperation, parasitism or predation). Ecologists have coined more than 60 terms to denote different statistical and semantic properties of this concept, resulting in a formidable lexicon of synonymies and polysemies. We have examined the vocabulary of density dependence used in the modern ecological literature from the foundational lexicon developed by Smith, Allee, Haldane, Neave and Varley. A few simple rules suffice to abate terminological inconsistency and to enhance the biological meaning of this important concept. Correct citation of original references by ecologists and research journals could ameliorate terminological standards in our discipline and avoid linguistic confusion of mathematically and theoretically complex patterns.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Herrando-Perez2012,
      author = {Herrando-Pérez, Salvador and Delean, Steven and Brook, Barry W. and Bradshaw, Corey J. a.},
      title = {Density dependence: an ecological Tower of Babel},
      journal = {Oecologia},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {170},
      number = {3},
      pages = {585--603},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/l1r2v284168v8wt4/},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-012-2347-3}
    }
    
    Herrmann, S. & Osinski, E. Planning sustainable land use in rural areas at different spatial levels using GIS and modelling tools 1999 Landscape and Urban Planning
    Vol. 46(1-3), pp. 93-101 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Problem-oriented planning in rural areas requires a holistic approach in which the different spatial levels are combined within a framework. The highest level of this framework (e.g. a federal state) has to provide general ideas for the development of landscapes. Modified methods have to be used at the regional and local levels, in order to visualise the consequences of different planning measures. Geographical information systems and modelling approaches are very efficient for doing this. The participation of the people concerned, particularly at the local level, has to be guaranteed and integrated within the planning process. Planning in this sense needs not only a top-down but also a bottom-up approach. This paper presents the concepts involved and gives some results of such planning, using the example of Baden-Wuerttemberg in south Germany and examining the regional level (exemplified by an intensively farmed area) and local level (a community) within this federal state.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Herrmann1999,
      author = {Herrmann, S and Osinski, E},
      title = {Planning sustainable land use in rural areas at different spatial levels using GIS and modelling tools},
      journal = {Landscape and Urban Planning},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {46},
      number = {1-3},
      pages = {93--101},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-2046(99)00050-X},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-2046(99)00050-X}
    }
    
    Herzog, F., Austad, I., Gomez, S.A., Jongman, R., Pérez-Soba, M. & Bunce, R. Policy options to support transhumance and biodiversity in European mountains 2006 Quality production and quality of the environment in the mountain pastures of an enlarged Europe. Proceedings of 13th meeting of FAO CHIEAM sub-network on mountain pastures, pp. 43-48  inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Herzog2006,
      author = {Herzog, F. and Austad, I. and Gomez, Sal A. and Jongman, R.H.G. and Pérez-Soba, M. and Bunce, R.G.H.},
      title = {Policy options to support transhumance and biodiversity in European mountains},
      booktitle = {Quality production and quality of the environment in the mountain pastures of an enlarged Europe. Proceedings of 13th meeting of FAO CHIEAM sub-network on mountain pastures},
      publisher = {ERSA - Regional Agency for Rural Development Province Friuli Venetia Giuila},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {43--48}
    }
    
    Hik, D.S. & Jefferies, R.L. Increases in the Net Above-Ground Primary Production of a Salt-Marsh Forage Grass: A Test of the Predictions of the Herbivore-Optimization Model 1990 Journal of Ecology
    Vol. 78(1), pp. 180 - 195 
    article URL 
    Abstract: (1) The effects of grazing by captive goslings of the lesser snow goose on the vegetation of the La Perouse Bay salt marsh were investigated. On seven separate occasions during the summers of 1986 and 1987 goslings fed on different swards of Puccinellia phryganodes for up to 150 min. Net above-ground primary production (NAPP) and forage quality (amounts of nitrogen and carbon in tissues) of vegetation were measured in grazed and ungrazed plots. (2) Grazing early in the season resulted in increased NAPP of swards of Puccinellia, as predicted by the herbivore-optimization model. The greatest enhancement of production compared to that in ungrazed swards occurred in plots which received a low to moderate period of grazing (30-90 min). When the period of grazing was 120 or 150 min, NAPP was reduced. (3) The increase in NAPP above that of ungrazed swards was dependent upon the presence of goose faeces. In the absence of faeces NAPP did not increase, indicating the deleterious effects of clipping per se by the geese on the regrowth of swards. (4) A moderate period of grazing resulted in the maintenance of the nitrogen content of shoots (forage quality) throughout the season compared to the corresponding amount in shoots of ungrazed plants. Input of nitrogen from faeces alone was insufficient to account for the net accumulation of nitrogen in above-ground vegetation of swards which regrew following grazing. (5) The ability of swards to recover from the effects of grazing decreased over the course of the summer. With each successive experiment the maximum amount of regrowth decreased, and occurred in plots which received shorter grazing bouts, reflecting the increased foraging efficiency of the goslings. (6) The growth response exhibited by swards of Puccinellia when grazed depends upon the rapid recycling of nutrients via faeces, the intensity of grazing, and the phenology of plant growth. The ability of the herbivore-optimization model to predict the response of vegetation to the effects of grazing is relatively limited unless these and other factors are considered.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hik1990,
      author = {Hik, D. S. and Jefferies, R. L.},
      title = {Increases in the Net Above-Ground Primary Production of a Salt-Marsh Forage Grass: A Test of the Predictions of the Herbivore-Optimization Model},
      journal = {Journal of Ecology},
      year = {1990},
      volume = {78},
      number = {1},
      pages = {180 -- 195},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/2261044}
    }
    
    Hilborn, R. & Mangel, M. The ecological detective : confronting models with data 1997 , pp. 315pp.  book URL 
    BibTeX:
    @book{Hilborn1997,
      author = {Hilborn, R and Mangel, M},
      title = {The ecological detective : confronting models with data},
      publisher = {Princeton University Press},
      year = {1997},
      pages = {315pp.},
      url = {http://books.google.com/books?id=katmvQDi8PMC}
    }
    
    Hilderbrand, R.H., Watts, A.C. & Randle, A.M. The Myths of Restoration Ecology 2005 Ecology And Society
    Vol. 10(1), pp. 1-11 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hilderbrand2005,
      author = {Hilderbrand, Robert H and Watts, Adam C and Randle, April M},
      title = {The Myths of Restoration Ecology},
      journal = {Ecology And Society},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {10},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1--11},
      url = {http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol10/iss1/art19/}
    }
    
    Hill, R., Granica, K., Smith, G. & Schardt, M. Representation of an alpine treeline ecotone in SPOT 5 HRG data 2007 Remote Sensing of Environment
    Vol. 110(4), pp. 458-467 
    article URL 
    Abstract: An ecotone is a zone of vegetation transition between two communities, often resulting from a natural or anthropogenic environmental gradient. In remotely sensed imagery, an ecotone may appear as an edge, a boundary of mixed pixels or a zone of continuous variation, depending on the spatial scale of the vegetation communities and their transition zone in relation to the spatial resolution of the imagery. Often in image classification, an ecotone is either ignored if it falls within a width of one or two pixels, or part of it may be mapped as a separate vegetation community if it covers an area of several pixel widths. A soft classification method, such as probability mapping, is inherently appealing for mapping vegetation transition. Ideally, the probability of membership each pixel has to each vegetation class corresponds with the proportional composition of vegetation classes per pixel. In this paper we investigate the use of class probability mapping to produce a softened classification of an alpine treeline ecotone in Austria using a SPOT 5 HRG image. Here the transition with altitude is from dense subalpine forest to treeless alpine meadow and herbaceous vegetation. The posterior probabilities from a Maximum Likelihood algorithm are shown to reflect the land-cover composition of mixed pixels in the ecotone. The relationships between the posterior probability of class membership for the two end-member classes of ‘scrub and forest’ and ‘non-forest vegetation’ and the percentage ground cover of these vegetation classes (enumerated in 15 quadrats from 1:1500 aerial photographs) were highly significant: r2=0.83 and r2=0.85 respectively ( pb0.001, n=15). We identify thresholds (alphacuts) in the posterior probabilities of class membership of ‘scrub and forest’ and ‘non-forest vegetation’ to map the alpine treeline ecotone as a transition zone of five intermediate vegetation classes between the end-member communities. In addition, we investigate the representation of the ecotone as a ratio between the posterior probabilities of ‘scrub and forest’ and ‘non-forest vegetation’. This displays the vegetation transition without imposing subjective boundaries, and has greater emphasis on the ecotone transition rather than on the end-member communities. We comment on the fitness for purpose of the different ways investigated for representing the alpine treeline ecotone.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hill2007,
      author = {Hill, R.A. and Granica, Klaus and Smith, G.M. and Schardt, Mathias},
      title = {Representation of an alpine treeline ecotone in SPOT 5 HRG data},
      journal = {Remote Sensing of Environment},
      publisher = {Elsevier},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {110},
      number = {4},
      pages = {458--467},
      url = {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0034425707001848}
    }
    
    Hobbs, R.J. & Norton, D.A. Towards a Conceptual Framework for Restoration Ecology 1996 Restoration Ecology
    Vol. 4(2), pp. 93-110 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hobbs1996a,
      author = {Hobbs, Richard J. and Norton, David A.},
      title = {Towards a Conceptual Framework for Restoration Ecology},
      journal = {Restoration Ecology},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {4},
      number = {2},
      pages = {93--110},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1526-100X.1996.tb00112.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-100X.1996.tb00112.x}
    }
    
    Hobohm, C. Einige wissenschaftstheoretische Überlegungen zur Pflanzensoziologie 1994 Tuexenia
    Vol. 14, pp. 3-16 
    article  
    Abstract: It can be shown that the phytosociological approach, founded by BRAUN-BLANQUET (1921 ff.), leads to a consequent extrinsic and hierarchical system which provides a realistic image of nature. The different hierarchical levels of the system correspond to different levels of abstraction. The entire system is based on the central fact that plants which coexist in a small space influence each other. The predictive logic based on this fact is the connecting bond of the system. An evaluation of the methods in detail is necessary. It seems possible to enlarge their applicability: the methods are suitable to represent fragmentary units, transitions and unique situations just as well as heterogeneous stands. The criterion "uniform ecological standard" of the relevés is ambiguous and difficult to meet in the field. Because of history the registration of rules in phytosociology is more difficult than in sciences, which work in closed systems. Many questions concerning alpha-diversity and dynamics, of which several are also important for nature conservation, have not been answered, until now.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hobohm1994,
      author = {Hobohm, Carsten},
      title = {Einige wissenschaftstheoretische Überlegungen zur Pflanzensoziologie},
      journal = {Tuexenia},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {14},
      pages = {3--16}
    }
    
    Hobohm, C. & Härdtle, W. Zur Bedeutung einiger ökologischer Parameter für die Artenvielfalt innerhalb von Pflanzengesellschaften Mitteleuropas. 1997 Tuexenia
    Vol. 17, pp. 19-52 
    article  
    Abstract: The value of a-diversity, based on flowering plants, ferns, mosses and lichens, was determined for 102 plant communities of Central Europe. Correlation analyses show evidence of some relationships to ecological factors. Plant communities with high species richness are found in meadows and pastures (of the Koelerio-Corynephoretea, Molinio-Arrhenatheretea, Festuco-Brometea, Nardo-Callunetea, Scheuchzerio-Caricetea and associated communities). The soils are more or less poor in nitrogen and never flooded. Many of the plant communities with low species richness belong to the Lemnetea, Potamogetonetea, Littorelletea, Cakiletea, Ammophiletea or Asteretea tripolium. The soils have higher nitrogen content or belong to sometimes inundated communities such as saltmarshes or to aquatic vegetation. A hypothesis of the meaning of constancy in environmental factors for a-diversity is created and discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hobohm1997,
      author = {Hobohm, C. and Härdtle, W.},
      title = {Zur Bedeutung einiger ökologischer Parameter für die Artenvielfalt innerhalb von Pflanzengesellschaften Mitteleuropas. },
      journal = {Tuexenia},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {17},
      pages = {19--52}
    }
    
    Hoch, R., Gabele, T. & Benz, J. Towards a standard for documentation of mathematical models in ecology 1998 Ecological Modelling
    Vol. 113(1-3), pp. 3-12 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Mathematical models have become indispensable tools in contemporary ecology and environmental science. To facilitate an efficient (re-)usage of these models, the documentation and information system ECOBAS was designed. The objective of the project is to enable complete and consistent documentation of models as well as to make them accessible and comparable. The information requirements are outlined and the components of ECOBAS are explained.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hoch1998,
      author = {Hoch, R and Gabele, T and Benz, J},
      title = {Towards a standard for documentation of mathematical models in ecology},
      journal = {Ecological Modelling},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {113},
      number = {1-3},
      pages = {3--12},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3800(98)00130-6}
    }
    
    Hodgson, J.A., Kunin, W.E., Thomas, C.D., Benton, T.G. & Gabriel, D. Comparing organic farming and land sparing: optimizing yield and butterfly populations at a landscape scale 2010 Ecology Letters
    Vol. 13, pp. 1358-1367 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Organic farming aims to be wildlife-friendly, but it may not benefit wildlife overall if much greater areas are needed to produce a given quantity of food. We measured the density and species richness of butterflies on organic farms, conventional farms and grassland nature reserves in 16 landscapes. Organic farms supported a higher density of butterflies than conventional farms, but a lower density than reserves. Using our data, we predict the optimal land-use strategy to maintain yield whilst maximizing butterfly abundance under different scenarios. Farming conventionally and sparing land as nature reserves is better for butterflies when the organic yield per hectare falls below 87% of conventional yield. However, if the spared land is simply extra field margins, organic farming is optimal whenever organic yields are over 35% of conventional yields. The optimal balance of land sparing and wildlife-friendly farming to maintain production and biodiversity will differ between landscapes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hodgson2010,
      author = {Hodgson, Jenny A. and Kunin, William E. and Thomas, Chris D. and Benton, Tim G. and Gabriel, Doreen},
      title = {Comparing organic farming and land sparing: optimizing yield and butterfly populations at a landscape scale},
      journal = {Ecology Letters},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {13},
      pages = {1358--1367},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2010.01528.x}
    }
    
    Hoef, J.M.V. & Boveng, P.L. Quasi-Poisson vs. negative binomial regression: How should we model overdispersed count data? 2007 Ecology
    Vol. 88(11), pp. 2766-2772 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hoef2007,
      author = {Hoef, Jay M Ver and Boveng, Peter L},
      title = {Quasi-Poisson vs. negative binomial regression: How should we model overdispersed count data?},
      journal = {Ecology},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {88},
      number = {11},
      pages = {2766--2772},
      url = {http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/07-0043.1},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/07-0043.1}
    }
    
    Hoeksema, J.D., Chaudhary, V.B., Gehring, C. a., Johnson, N.C., Karst, J., Koide, R.T., Pringle, A., Zabinski, C., Bever, J.D., Moore, J.C., Wilson, G.W.T., Klironomos, J.N. & Umbanhowar, J. A meta-analysis of context-dependency in plant response to inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi. 2010 Ecology Letters  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Abstract Mycorrhizal fungi influence plant growth, local biodiversity and ecosystem function. Effects of the symbiosis on plants span the continuum from mutualism to parasitism. We sought to understand this variation in symbiotic function using meta-analysis with information theory-based model selection to assess the relative importance of factors in five categories: (1) identity of the host plant and its functional characteristics, (2) identity and type of mycorrhizal fungi (arbuscular mycorrhizal vs. ectomycorrhizal), (3) soil fertility, (4) biotic complexity of the soil and (5) experimental location (laboratory vs. field). Across most subsets of the data, host plant functional group and N-fertilization were surprisingly much more important in predicting plant responses to mycorrhizal inoculation ('plant response') than other factors. Non-N-fixing forbs and woody plants and C(4) grasses responded more positively to mycorrhizal inoculation than plants with N-fixing bacterial symbionts and C(3) grasses. In laboratory studies of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, plant response was more positive when the soil community was more complex. Univariate analyses supported the hypothesis that plant response is most positive when plants are P-limited rather than N-limited. These results emphasize that mycorrhizal function depends on both abiotic and biotic context, and have implications for plant community theory and restoration ecology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hoeksema2010,
      author = {Hoeksema, Jason D and Chaudhary, V Bala and Gehring, Catherine a and Johnson, Nancy Collins and Karst, Justine and Koide, Roger T and Pringle, Anne and Zabinski, Catherine and Bever, James D and Moore, John C and Wilson, Gail W T and Klironomos, John N and Umbanhowar, James},
      title = {A meta-analysis of context-dependency in plant response to inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi.},
      journal = {Ecology Letters},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20100237},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2009.01430.x}
    }
    
    Hoelzle, T.B., Jonas, J.L. & Paschke, M.W. Twenty-five years of sagebrush steppe plant community development following seed addition 2012 Journal of Applied Ecology
    Vol. Article fi, pp. 1-8 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: 1. Plant community succession has been a major area of study over the past century with recent research focusing on the importance of initial colonisers following disturbance. Seed addition can accelerate ecosystem regeneration and is a method commonly used by land managers to restore disturbed lands.However, fewstudies have examined the effects of seeding treatments on long-term community composition. 2. A study was established in 1984 in the Piceance Basin of northwest Colorado to examine how various revegetation seed mixes affect plant community development following disturbance. The sitewas surveyed again in 2008 and 2009 to assess long-term community development. 3. Initial seed mix resulted in significant differences in plant community composition after 25 years. Seeding with native and exotic early-seral species resulted in a community with significantly more exotic species and mid-seral shrubs,while seedingwith native late-seral species resulted in a commu- nity dominated by perennial grasses. Additionally, an unseeded control resulted in a vegetation community dominated by both perennial grasses and mid-seral shrubs, but community composi- tion at the species level was considerably different fromthat of the seeded treatments. However, the plant community composition of each of the three treatments was significantly different from an adjacent undisturbed reference area, which was dominated by the late-seral shrub, Artemisia triden- tata,and perennial grasses. 4. Synthesis and applications. Our results illustrate how initial colonisers (seed mix) can strongly affect subsequent community assemblage after 25 years of development. Restoration ecologists should give considerable thought to the species used in a restoration seed mix to ensure the success of restorationdesignsandto create thedesiredcommunityassemblyandassociatedecosystemservices.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hoelzle2012,
      author = {Hoelzle, Timothy B. and Jonas, Jayne L. and Paschke, Mark W.},
      title = {Twenty-five years of sagebrush steppe plant community development following seed addition},
      journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {Article fi},
      pages = {1--8},
      url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02154.x/full},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02154.x}
    }
    
    Hofer, G., Bunceb, R.G., Edwards, P.J., Szerencsits, E., Wagner, H.H. & Herzog, F. Use of topographic variability for assessing plant diversity in agricultural landscapes Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
    Vol. in Press 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hofer2011,
      author = {Hofer, Gabriela and Bunceb, Robert G.H. and Edwards, Peter J. and Szerencsits, Erich and Wagner, Helene H. and Herzog, Felix},
      title = {Use of topographic variability for assessing plant diversity in agricultural landscapes},
      journal = {Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment},
      volume = {in Press},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167880911001319},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2011.04.011}
    }
    
    Hohla, M., Stöhr, O., Brandstätter, G., Danner, J., Diewald, W., Essl, F., Fierleder, H., Grims, F., Höglinger, F., Kleesadl, G., Kraml, A., Lenglachner, F., Lugmair, A., Nadler, K., Niklfeld, H., Schmalzer, A., Schratt-Ehrendorfer, L., Schröck, C., Strauch, M. & Wittmann, H. Katalog und Rote Liste der Gefäß pflanzen Oberösterreichs 2009
    Vol. 91 
    book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Hohla2009,
      author = {Hohla, M and Stöhr, O and Brandstätter, G and Danner, J and Diewald, W and Essl, F and Fierleder, H and Grims, F and Höglinger, F and Kleesadl, G and Kraml, A and Lenglachner, F and Lugmair, A and Nadler, K and Niklfeld, H and Schmalzer, A and Schratt-Ehrendorfer, L and Schröck, C and Strauch, M and Wittmann, H},
      title = {Katalog und Rote Liste der Gefäß pflanzen Oberösterreichs},
      publisher = {Land Oberösterreich, Oberösterreichische Landesmuseen},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {91}
    }
    
    Holling, C.S. Understanding the Complexity of Economic, Ecological, and Social Systems 2001 Ecosystems
    Vol. 4(5), pp. 390-405 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Hierarchies and adaptive cycles comprise the basis of ecosystems and social-ecological systems across scales. Together they form a panarchy. The panar- chy describes how a healthy system can invent and experiment, benefiting from inventions that create opportunity while being kept safe from those that destabilize because of their nature or excessive ex- uberance. Each level is allowed to operate at its own pace, protected from above by slower, larger levels but invigorated from below by faster, smaller cycles of innovation. The whole panarchy is therefore both creative and conserving. The interactions between cycles in a panarchy combine learning with continuity. An analysis of this process helps to clar- ify the meaning of “sustainable development.” Sus- tainability is the capacity to create, test, and main- tain adaptive capability. Development is the process of creating, testing, and maintaining opportunity. The phrase that combines the two, “sustainable de- velopment,” thus refers to the goal of fostering adaptive capabilities and creating opportunities. It is therefore not an oxymoron but a term that de- scribes a logical partnership.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Holling2001,
      author = {Holling, C. S.},
      title = {Understanding the Complexity of Economic, Ecological, and Social Systems},
      journal = {Ecosystems},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {4},
      number = {5},
      pages = {390--405},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/3bl3mqf74gc501av/},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10021-001-0101-5}
    }
    
    Hopkins, A. Mountainious farming in Europe 2011 Grassland farming and land management systems in mountainious regions, pp. 3-12  inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Hopkins2011,
      author = {Hopkins, Alan},
      title = {Mountainious farming in Europe},
      booktitle = {Grassland farming and land management systems in mountainious regions},
      publisher = {Organising Committee of the 16th Symposium of the European Grassland Federation 2011 and Agricutlural Research and Education Centre (AREC) Raumberg-Gumpenstein, Irdning},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {3--12}
    }
    
    Hopkins, A. Relevance and functionality of semi-natural grassland in Europe – status quo and future prospective 2009 Proceedings of the international workshop of the SALVERE-Project, 25 - 26 May 2009, pp. 9-14  inproceedings  
    Abstract: An overview is presented of the role and functions of semi- natural grassland (SNG) in Europe. SNG has declined in recent decades and, despite policy support through agri-en- vironment schemes, threats from further intensification and abandonment remain. Evidence of their agricultural value in terms of productivity, forage quality and product value is reviewed. Production from SNG is typically less than 50% that of improved grasslands but comparable to unfertilized sown grassland; feed value is also variable with lower di- gestibility in SNG but differences in chemical composition may enhance the nutritional, health or gastronomic value of meat and dairy products compared with conventional feeding systems. SNG has an important role in biodiversity protection and in delivering ecosystem services which can contribute further to socio-economic values for rural com- munities. Many uncertainties surround the future for SNG as land management adapts in response to global changes including issues of security of food, water, energy and other agricultural inputs. Climate change poses threats to SNG in some areas, notably through water stress, but some types of SNG may be more resilient and contribute to mitigating the causes and effects of climate change. The role of SNG within the concept of multifunctionality is discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Hopkins2009,
      author = {Hopkins, Alan},
      title = {Relevance and functionality of semi-natural grassland in Europe – status quo and future prospective},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the international workshop of the SALVERE-Project, 25 - 26 May 2009},
      publisher = {Agricultural Research and EducationCentre Raumberg-Gumpenstein},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {9--14}
    }
    
    Houborg, R. & Boegh, E. Mapping leaf chlorophyll and leaf area index using inverse and forward canopy reflectance modeling and SPOT reflectance data 2008 Remote Sensing of Environment
    Vol. 112(1), pp. 186-202 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Reflectance data in the green, red and near-infrared wavelength region were acquired by the SPOT high resolution visible and geometric imaging instruments for an agricultural area in Denmark (56°N, 9°E) for the purpose of estimating leaf chlorophyll content (Cab) and green leaf area index (LAI). SPOT reflectance observations were atmospherically corrected using aerosol data from MODIS and profiles of air temperature, humidity and ozone from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), and used as input for the inversion of a canopy reflectance model. Computationally efficient inversion schemes were developed for the retrieval of soil and land cover-specific parameters which were used to build multiple species and site dependent formulations relating the two biophysical properties of interest to vegetation indices or single spectral band reflectances. Subsequently, the family of model generated relationships, each a function of soil background and canopy characteristics, was employed for a fast pixel-wise mapping of Cab and LAI. The biophysical parameter retrieval scheme is completely automated and image-based and solves for the soil background reflectance signal, leaf mesophyll structure, specific dry matter content, Markov clumping characteristics, Cab and LAI without utilizing calibration measurements. Despite the high vulnerability of near-infrared reflectances ($nir) to variations in background properties, an efficient correction for background influences and a strong sensitivity of $nir to LAI, caused LAI–$nir relationships to be very useful and preferable over LAI–NDVI relationships for LAI prediction when LAIN2. Reflectances in the green waveband ($green) were chosen for producing maps of Cab. The application of LAI–NDVI, LAI–$nir and Cab–$green relationships provided reliable quantitative estimates of Cab and LAI for agricultural crops characterized by contrasting architectures and leaf biochemical constituents with overall root mean square deviations between estimates and in-situ measurements of 0.74 for LAI and 5.0 $gcm−2 for Cab. The results of this study illustrate the non-uniqueness of spectral reflectance relationships and the potential of physically-based inverse and forward canopy reflectance modeling techniques for a reasonably fast and accurate retrieval of key biophysical parameters at regional scales.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Houborg2008,
      author = {Houborg, R and Boegh, E},
      title = {Mapping leaf chlorophyll and leaf area index using inverse and forward canopy reflectance modeling and SPOT reflectance data},
      journal = {Remote Sensing of Environment},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {112},
      number = {1},
      pages = {186--202},
      url = {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0034425707001940},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2007.04.012}
    }
    
    Hsu, J.S., Powell, J. & Adler, P.B. Sensitivity of mean annual primary production to precipitation 2012 Global Change Biology
    Vol. 18(7), pp. 2246-2255 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hsu2012a,
      author = {Hsu, Joanna S. and Powell, James and Adler, Peter B.},
      title = {Sensitivity of mean annual primary production to precipitation},
      journal = {Global Change Biology},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {18},
      number = {7},
      pages = {2246--2255},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02687.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02687.x}
    }
    
    Hudson, L.N., Emerson, R., Jenkins, G.B., Layer, K., Ledger, M.E., Pichler, D.E., Thompson, M.S.A., O'Gorman, E.J., Woodward, G. & Reuman, D.C. Cheddar: analysis and visualisation of ecological communities in R 2012 Methods in Ecology and Evolution, pp. n/a-n/a  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hudson2012,
      author = {Hudson, Lawrence N. and Emerson, Rob and Jenkins, Gareth B. and Layer, Katrin and Ledger, Mark E. and Pichler, Doris E. and Thompson, Murray S. A. and O'Gorman, Eoin J. and Woodward, Guy and Reuman, Daniel C.},
      title = {Cheddar: analysis and visualisation of ecological communities in R},
      journal = {Methods in Ecology and Evolution},
      year = {2012},
      pages = {n/a--n/a},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/2041-210X.12005},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/2041-210X.12005}
    }
    
    Hufkens, K., Scheunders, P. & Ceulemans, R. Ecotones in vegetation ecology: methodologies and definitions revisited 2009 Ecological Research
    Vol. 24(5), pp. 977-986 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: In this review paper, we highlight some of the trends and issues that have dominated ecotone research over the decade of 1996–2006. The terms and definitions of ecotone research in vegetation ecology are reviewed. We summarize the most important techniques and highlight the discrepancies between the definitions and their scientific application in vegetation ecology. We see a need for semantic uniformity with regard to the term and the definition of “the ecotone”, as the variable and the non-exclusive use of terms and definitions can be a source of confusion when interpreting and comparing different studies. To avoid further confusion, a unique definition of the term “ecotone” should be agreed upon, based upon a set of general characteristics. We therefore adapted and extended the definition from Holland et al. (Ecotones: the role of landscape boundaries in the management and restoration of changing environments, 1991) to “A multi-dimensional environmentally stochastic interaction zone between ecological systems with characteristics defined in space and time, and by the strength of the interaction”. We also advocate that (1) a shift in focus from one-dimensional to two-dimensional techniques in ecotone characterization is desirable and (2) more research into novel techniques, including multi-dimensional data and time series, is needed in view of local and global ecotone changes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hufkens2009,
      author = {Hufkens, Koen and Scheunders, Paul and Ceulemans, Reinhart},
      title = {Ecotones in vegetation ecology: methodologies and definitions revisited},
      journal = {Ecological Research},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {24},
      number = {5},
      pages = {977--986},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11284-009-0584-7},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11284-009-0584-7}
    }
    
    Huisman, J., Olff, H. & Fresco, L. A hierarchical set of models for species response analysis 1993 Journal of Vegetation Science
    Vol. 4, pp. 37-46 
    article  
    Abstract: Variation in the abundance of species in space and/or time can be caused by a wide range of underlying processes. Before such causes can be analysed we need simple mathematical models which can describe the observed response patterns. For this purpose a hierarchical set of models is presented. These models are applicable to positive data with an upper bound, like relative frequencies and percentages. The models are fitted to the observations by means of logistic and non-linear regression techniques. Working with models of increasing complexity allows us to choose for the simplest possible model which sufficiently explains the observed pattern. The models are particularly suited for description of responses in time or over major environmental gradients. Deviations from these temporal or spatial trends may be statistically ascribed to, for example, climatic fluctuations or small-scale spatial heterogeneity. The applicability of this approach is illustrated by examples from recent research. A combination of simple, descriptive models like those presented in this paper and causal models as developed by several others, is advocated as a powerful tool towards a fuller under standing of the dynamics and patterns of vegetational change.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Huisman1993,
      author = {Huisman, J and Olff, H and Fresco, L.F.M.},
      title = {A hierarchical set of models for species response analysis},
      journal = {Journal of Vegetation Science},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {4},
      pages = {37--46}
    }
    
    Hulme, P.E. Practitioner’s perspectives: introducing a different voice in applied ecology 2011 Journal of Applied Ecology
    Vol. 48(1), pp. 1-2 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hulme2011,
      author = {Hulme, Philip E.},
      title = {Practitioner’s perspectives: introducing a different voice in applied ecology},
      journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {48},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1--2},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01938.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01938.x}
    }
    
    Hunter, R.F. Hill sheep and their pasture : a study of sheep-grazing in south-east Scotland. 1962 Journal of Ecology
    Vol. 50(3), pp. 651-680 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The grazing preferences of Cheviot sheep were studied on a 251 acre (102 ha) hill pasture stocked at 1.76 acres (0.7 ha) per ewe or hogget. The sheep showed marked preferences among the nine sward types comprising the pasture and these preferences varied seasonally. Grazing intensity was more clearly related to CaO and crude fibre content than to any other factor. The observed disproportion between grazing intensity, the yield of herbage dry matter and the faecal return indicated that where sheep alone graze a pasture there is probably a trend towards pasture degeneration. Two qualitatively different classes of pasture were recognized. The first comprised the bent-fescue and bracken-infested swards, the second the Molinia, Nardus, heather and draw-moss swards and the relationship of the sheep towards these two classes was qualitatively different. The first class, described as the mull swards, were intensively grazed and were more heavily grazed in summer than in winter, the converse being true for the second class described as the mor swards. The relationship between these observations and the ecology, carrying capacity and improved utilization of hill pastures is discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hunter1962,
      author = {Hunter, R F},
      title = {Hill sheep and their pasture : a study of sheep-grazing in south-east Scotland.},
      journal = {Journal of Ecology},
      publisher = {British Ecological Society},
      year = {1962},
      volume = {50},
      number = {3},
      pages = {651--680},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/2257476},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2257476}
    }
    
    Hurford, A. GPS measurement error gives rise to spurious 180 degree turning angles and strong directional biases in animal movement data. 2009 PloS one
    Vol. 4(5), pp. e5632 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Movement data are frequently collected using Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, but recorded GPS locations are subject to errors. While past studies have suggested methods to improve location accuracy, mechanistic movement models utilize distributions of turning angles and directional biases and these data present a new challenge in recognizing and reducing the effect of measurement error.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hurford2009,
      author = {Hurford, Amy},
      title = {GPS measurement error gives rise to spurious 180 degree turning angles and strong directional biases in animal movement data.},
      journal = {PloS one},
      publisher = {Public Library of Science},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {4},
      number = {5},
      pages = {e5632},
      url = {http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005632},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005632}
    }
    
    Hurlbert, S.H. & Lombardi, C.M. Final collapse of the Neyman-Pearson decision theoretic framework and rise of the neoFisherian 2009 Ann. Zool. Fennici
    Vol. 46(October), pp. 311-349 
    article  
    Abstract: This essay grew out of an examination of one-tailed significance testing. One-tailed tests were little advocated by the founders of modern statistics but are widely used and recommended nowadays in the biological, behavioral and social sciences. The high frequency of their use in ecology and animal behavior and their logical indefensibil- ity have been documented in a companion review paper. In the present one, we trace the roots of this problem and counter some attacks on significance testing in general. Roots include: the early but irrational dichotomization of the P scale and adoption of the ‘significant/non-significant’ terminology; the mistaken notion that a high P value is evidence favoring the null hypothesis over the alternative hypothesis; and confusion over the distinction between statistical and research hypotheses. Resultant widespread misuse and misinterpretation of significance tests have also led to other problems, such as unjustifiable demands that reporting of P values be disallowed or greatly reduced and that reporting of confidence intervals and standardized effect sizes be required in their place. Our analysis of these matters thus leads us to a recommendation that for standard types of significance assessment the paleoFisherian and Neyman-Pearsonian paradigms be replaced by a neoFisherian one. The essence of the latter is that a critical $ (prob- ability of type I error) is not specified, the terms ‘significant’ and ‘non-significant’ are abandoned, that high P values lead only to suspended judgments, and that the so-called “three-valued logic” of Cox, Kaiser, Tukey, Tryon and Harris is adopted explicitly. Con- fidence intervals and bands, power analyses, and severity curves remain useful adjuncts in particular situations. Analyses conducted under this paradigm we term neoFisherian significance assessments (NFSA). Their role is assessment of the existence, sign and magnitude of statistical effects. The common label of null hypothesis significance tests (NHST) is retained for paleoFisherian and Neyman-Pearsonian approaches and their hybrids. The original Neyman-Pearson framework has no utility outside quality control type applications. Some advocates of Bayesian, likelihood and information-theoretic approaches to model selection have argued that P values and NFSAs are of little or no value, but those arguments do not withstand critical review. Champions of Bayesian methods in particular continue to overstate their value and relevance.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hurlbert2009,
      author = {Hurlbert, Stuart H and Lombardi, Celia M},
      title = {Final collapse of the Neyman-Pearson decision theoretic framework and rise of the neoFisherian},
      journal = {Ann. Zool. Fennici},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {46},
      number = {October},
      pages = {311--349}
    }
    
    Hutchinson, T.F., Boerner, R.E., Iverson, L.R., Sutherland, S. & Kennedy Sutherland, E. Landscape patterns of understory composition and richness across a moisture and nitrogen mineralization gradient in Ohio (U.S.A.) Quercus forests 1999 Plant Ecology
    Vol. 144, pp. 177-189 
    article URL 
    Abstract: This study quantified relationships of understory vascular plant species composition and richness along environmental gradients over a broad spatial scale in second-growth oak forests in eastern North America. Species frequencies were recorded in 108 25 x 25 m plots in four study sites extending over 70 km in southern Ohio, U.S.A. The plots were stratified into three long-term soil moisture classes with a GIS-derived integrated moisture index (IMI). In addition to the IMI, the environmental data matrix included eight soil and three overstory variables. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that variations in understory species composition were most strongly related to topographic variations in predicted moisture (IMI), N mineralization rate, nitrification rate, and soil pH. In addition, floristic variation at the regional scale was correlated with variations in soil texture, nitrification, pH, and PO14, resulting from differences in the soil parent material complexes among sites. Species richness averaged 65 species/plot, and increased with moisture and fertility. Stepwise regression indicated that richness was positively correlated with Nmineralization rate and nitrification rate, and inversely correlated with tree basal area. Greater richness on fertile plots was the largely the result of increasing forb richness. Forb richness per quadrat (2 m2) was most strongly and positively related to N mineralization rate. Conversely, richness of understory individuals of tree species was greatest on xeric, less-fertile plots. Our results describe general, broad-scale species-environment relationships that occurred at both the topographic scale (long-term moisture status and fertility) and the regional scale (geomorphological differences among the sites). Strong species richness-N mineralization correlations indicate an important link between below-ground processes and above-ground iodiversity. Because N availability was a strong correlate to vegetation patterns at a broad-scale, our results suggest that the increasing rates of atmospheric N deposition in the region could have a major impact on understory vegetation dynamics.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hutchinson1999,
      author = {Hutchinson, Todd F. and Boerner, Ralph E.J. and Iverson, Louis R. and Sutherland, Steve and Kennedy Sutherland, Elaine},
      title = {Landscape patterns of understory composition and richness across a moisture and nitrogen mineralization gradient in Ohio (U.S.A.) Quercus forests},
      journal = {Plant Ecology},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {144},
      pages = {177--189},
      url = {http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/21481}
    }
    
    Huttegger, K. Langzeitmonitoring im Nationalpark Hohe Tauern: Evaluierung und Optimierung des methodischen Ansatzes am Beispiel einer Fallstudie (Hüttschlag) 2002 School: Paris Lodron Universität Salzburg  mastersthesis  
    BibTeX:
    @mastersthesis{Huttegger2002,
      author = {Huttegger, Katharina},
      title = {Langzeitmonitoring im Nationalpark Hohe Tauern: Evaluierung und Optimierung des methodischen Ansatzes am Beispiel einer Fallstudie (Hüttschlag)},
      school = {Paris Lodron Universität Salzburg},
      year = {2002}
    }
    
    Huylenbroeck, G.V., Vandermeulen, V., Mettepenningen, E. & Verspecht, A. Multifunctionality of Agriculture: A Review of Definitions, Evidence and Instruments 2007 Living Reviews in Landscape Research, pp. 43  article URL 
    Abstract: In this contribution we try to look at the new role for agriculture in rural areas by reviewing the concept of multifunctional agriculture as well as the analytical frameworks used. Next, we review the existing evidence about the multifunctional role of farming. Although not overwhelming, the existing literature shows that agriculture contributes to the rural wealth not only through the production of commodities, but also by the delivery of non-tradable goods. This contribution can be both direct through increased values for properties or economic benefits in the tourism sector, but also indirect through conservation of rural heritage or agri-ecological systems. Next we focus on how this role of agriculture can be stimulated. It is argued that multifunctionality can be a unifying principle to bring the productive and non-productive functions into harmony. This requires the development of new institutional arrangements and a major change in policy incentives.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Huylenbroeck2007,
      author = {Huylenbroeck, Guido Van and Vandermeulen, Valerie and Mettepenningen, Evy and Verspecht, Ann},
      title = {Multifunctionality of Agriculture: A Review of Definitions, Evidence and Instruments},
      journal = {Living Reviews in Landscape Research},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {43},
      url = {http://landscaperesearch.livingreviews.org/Articles/lrlr-2007-3/}
    }
    
    Ide, R. & Oguma, H. Use of digital cameras for phenological observations 2010 Ecological Informatics  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Vegetation phenology such as the onset of green-up and senescence is strongly controlled by climate and other environmental factors, and in turn affects the terrestrial carbon balance. Therefore, phenological observation is important as an indicator of global warming and for estimation of the terrestrial carbon balance. Because phenological responses differ from species to species, precise monitoring from the species scale to the global scale is required. In this study, we analyzed images from digital cameras, which have proliferated in recent years, to investigate their utility as remote sensors. We collected daily images taken by digital cameras in national parks across Japan over 8 years in grassland, deciduous mixed forest, and evergreen broadleaved forest. Values of red, green, and blue (RGB) channels in each pixel within images were extracted, and a vegetation green excess index (2G-RBi) was calculated to detect phenology. The time series of 2G-RBi showed clear phenological patterns of each vegetation type in each year at the species or community scale. Even physiological damage due to a typhoon was detected. The dates of green-up were estimated easily and objectively from the second derivative of 2G-RBi, and a trend in yearly green-up dates of various types of vegetation was demonstrated. Furthermore, a strong correlation between interannual variations in green-up dates and local spring temperature was found, and the sensitivity of green-up date to temperature was revealed. The results suggest the utility of digital cameras for phenological observations at precise temporal and spatial resolutions, despite a year-to-year drift of color balance of camera as a technical device. As a form of near-surface remote sensing, digital cameras could obtain significant ecological information. Establishing camera networks could help us understand phenological responses at a wide range of scales.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ide2010,
      author = {Ide, Reiko and Oguma, Hiroyuki},
      title = {Use of digital cameras for phenological observations},
      journal = {Ecological Informatics},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoinf.2010.07.002},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoinf.2010.07.002}
    }
    
    Illyés, E., Chytrý, M., Botta-Dukát, Z., Jandt, U., Škodová, I., Janišová, M., Willner, W. & Hájek, O. Semi-dry grasslands along a climatic gradient across Central Europe: Vegetation classification with validation 2007 Journal of Vegetation Science
    Vol. 18(6), pp. 835-846 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Illyes2007,
      author = {Illyés, Eszter and Chytrý, Milan and Botta-Dukát, Zoltán and Jandt, Ute and Škodová, Iveta and Janišová, Monika and Willner, Wolfgang and Hájek, Ondřej},
      title = {Semi-dry grasslands along a climatic gradient across Central Europe: Vegetation classification with validation},
      journal = {Journal of Vegetation Science},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {18},
      number = {6},
      pages = {835--846},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1654-1103.2007.tb02600.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-1103.2007.tb02600.x}
    }
    
    INSPIRE Thematic Working Group Coordinate reference systems & Geographical grid systems D2.8.I.2 INSPIRE Specification on Geographical Grid Systems - Guidelines 2009   manual URL 
    BibTeX:
    @manual{INSPIRE2009,
      author = {INSPIRE Thematic Working Group Coordinate reference systems and Geographical grid systems},
      title = {D2.8.I.2 INSPIRE Specification on Geographical Grid Systems - Guidelines},
      year = {2009},
      edition = {V3.0},
      url = {http://inspire.jrc.ec.europa.eu/documents/DataSpecifications/INSPIRESpecificationGGSv3.0.pdf.}
    }
    
    Isbell, F., Calcagno, V., Hector, A., Connolly, J., Harpole, W.S., Reich, P.B., Scherer-Lorenzen, M., Schmid, B., Tilman, D., van Ruijven, J., Weigelt, A., Wilsey, B.J., Zavaleta, E.S. & Loreau, M. High plant diversity is needed to maintain ecosystem services 2011 Nature
    Vol. 477(7363), pp. 199-202 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Isbell2011,
      author = {Isbell, Forest and Calcagno, Vincent and Hector, Andy and Connolly, John and Harpole, W. Stanley and Reich, Peter B. and Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael and Schmid, Bernhard and Tilman, David and van Ruijven, Jasper and Weigelt, Alexandra and Wilsey, Brian J. and Zavaleta, Erika S. and Loreau, Michel},
      title = {High plant diversity is needed to maintain ecosystem services},
      journal = {Nature},
      publisher = {Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {477},
      number = {7363},
      pages = {199--202},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10282},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10282}
    }
    
    Isselin-Nondedeu, F., Rey, F. & Bedecarrats, A. Contributions of vegetation cover and cattle hoof prints towards seed runoff control on ski pistes 2006 Ecological Engineering
    Vol. 27(3), pp. 193-201 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Ski resorts in the French Alps greatly affect alpine ecosystems through the construction of ski pistes. In this harsh climate and on steep slopes, important seed runoff hinders the revegetation process. This study aims at understanding how vegetation and grazing interacts with seed runoff. Seed movement after dispersal was investigated with three contrasting types of seeds in different vegetation covers, two steep slopes (25° and 35°) and artificial hoof prints in soil. After 3 months, seeds showed notable post-dispersal movement. The results are illustrated by dispersal curves at the soil surface. As vegetation cover increased from 15% to 60 dispersal curves showed clumpy distributions of seeds. Hoof prints strongly reduced the traveled distance of post-dispersed seeds. Seed shape, measured by the flatness index, seems to be a key factor in post-dispersal movement, indicating that the flatter the seeds were, the more seeds remained on the slope. These results emphasize the engineering role of established vegetation and cow in aiding seeding success. The positive effects of hoof prints pointed out the utility of grazers in ski trail restoration. Additionally, the knowledge of seed shape will be helpful in predicting post-dispersal seeding patterns and subsequently in establishing both sown species and native species.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Isselin-Nondedeu2006,
      author = {Isselin-Nondedeu, F and Rey, F and Bedecarrats, A},
      title = {Contributions of vegetation cover and cattle hoof prints towards seed runoff control on ski pistes},
      journal = {Ecological Engineering},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {27},
      number = {3},
      pages = {193--201},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2006.02.006},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2006.02.006}
    }
    
    Isselstein, J., Griffith, B.A., Pradel, P. & Venerus, S. Effects of livestock breed and grazing intensity on biodiversity and production in grazing systems: 1. Nutritive value of herbage and livestock performance 2007 Grass and Forage Science
    Vol. 62(2), pp. 145-158 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Reduction of grazing intensity and the use of traditional instead of commercial breeds has frequently been recommended to meet biodiversity and production goals in sustainable grazing systems in Europe. To test the impact of such practices across a range of contrasting grassland types, integrated measurements of foraging behaviour, agronomic production and botanical, structural and invertebrate biodiversity were made over three years on four sites in the UK, Germany, France and Italy. The sites in the UK and Germany were mesotrophic grassland with high productivity and low to moderate initial levels of plant diversity, and were grazed by cattle. The French site was a semi-natural, species-rich grassland grazed by cattle. The Italian site contained a wider range in plant diversity, from species-rich to mesotrophic grassland, and was grazed by sheep. The treatments were: MC, moderate grazing intensity with a commercial breed - this was designed to utilize herbage growth for optimum livestock production; LC, lenient grazing intensity with a commercial breed - this was designed to increase biodiversity by not fully utilizing herbage growth; and LT, lenient grazing intensity with a traditional breed - this was also designed to increase biodiversity. Neither fertilizers nor pesticides were applied. The nutritive value of the herbage and the performance of the livestock were measured. Mean stocking rates were proportionately 0.30 - 0.40 lower and mean sward heights and herbage mass on offer were 0.30 - 0.50 higher on the LC and LT treatments compared with the MC treatment. The proportion of live and dead material, and leaves and stems in the herbage, its chemical composition and nutritive value were little affected by the treatments. Individual livestock performance, measured as liveweight gain, showed no consistent response to treatment. In Germany, performance on the MC treatment was slightly lower than on the LC and LT treatments but no such difference was found on the sites in the other countries. Livestock breed did not have a strong effect on livestock performance. In the UK and France the traditional breeds had a lower performance but this was not the case in Germany or Italy. Livestock performance per ha of the LC and LT treatments was up to 0.40 lower than of the MC treatment. It is concluded that biodiversity-targeted extensive grazing systems have potential to be integrated into intensive livestock production systems because the individual livestock performance reaches a similar level compared to a moderate grazing intensity. Traditional breeds did not have a production advantage over commercial breeds on extensively managed pastures.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Isselstein2007,
      author = {Isselstein, J and Griffith, B A and Pradel, P and Venerus, S},
      title = {Effects of livestock breed and grazing intensity on biodiversity and production in grazing systems: 1. Nutritive value of herbage and livestock performance},
      journal = {Grass and Forage Science},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {62},
      number = {2},
      pages = {145--158},
      url = {http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118485894/abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2494.2007.00571.x}
    }
    
    Iverson, D.C. Issues Related to Designing and Conducting School Health Education Research 1984 Journal of School Health
    Vol. 151(6), pp. 209-56 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Ecotones are inherent features of landscapes, transitional zones, and play more than one functional role in ecosystem dynamics. The delineation of ecotones and environmental boundaries is therefore an important step in land-use management planning. The delineation of ecotones depends on the phenomenon of interest and the statistical methods used as well as the associated spatial and temporal resolution of the data available. In the context of delineating wetland and riparian ecosystems, various data types (field data, remotely sensed data) can be used to delineate ecotones. Methodological issues related to their detection need to be addressed, however, so that their management and monitoring can yield useful information about their dynamics and functional roles in ecosystems. The aim of this paper is to review boundary detection methods. Because the most appropriate methods to detect and characterize boundaries depend of the spatial resolution and the measurement type of the data, a wide range of approaches are presented: GIS, remote sensing and statistical ones.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Iverson1984,
      author = {Iverson, Donald C.},
      title = {Issues Related to Designing and Conducting School Health Education Research},
      journal = {Journal of School Health},
      year = {1984},
      volume = {151},
      number = {6},
      pages = {209--56},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.1984.tb09736.x}
    }
    
    Jackson, S.T. & Hobbs, R.J. Ecological restoration in the light of ecological history. 2009 Science
    Vol. 325(5940), pp. 567-9 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Ecological history plays many roles in ecological restoration, most notably as a tool to identify and characterize appropriate targets for restoration efforts. However, ecological history also reveals deep human imprints on many ecological systems and indicates that secular climate change has kept many targets moving at centennial to millennial time scales. Past and ongoing environmental changes ensure that many historical restoration targets will be unsustainable in the coming decades. Ecological restoration efforts should aim to conserve and restore historical ecosystems where viable, while simultaneously preparing to design or steer emerging novel ecosystems to ensure maintenance of ecological goods and services.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jackson2009,
      author = {Jackson, Stephen T and Hobbs, Richard J},
      title = {Ecological restoration in the light of ecological history.},
      journal = {Science},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {325},
      number = {5940},
      pages = {567--9},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19644108},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1172977}
    }
    
    Jacquemyn, H., Brys, R., Davison, R., Tuljapurkar, S. & Jongejans, E. Stochastic LTRE analysis of the effects of herbivory on the population dynamics of a perennial grassland herb 2011 Oikos, pp. no-no  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jacquemyn2011,
      author = {Jacquemyn, Hans and Brys, Rein and Davison, Raziel and Tuljapurkar, Shripad and Jongejans, Eelke},
      title = {Stochastic LTRE analysis of the effects of herbivory on the population dynamics of a perennial grassland herb},
      journal = {Oikos},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {no--no},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2011.19774.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2011.19774.x}
    }
    
    Jacquemyn, H., Endels, P., Honnay, O. & Wiegand, T. Evaluating management interventions in small populations of a perennial herb Primula vulgaris using spatio-temporal analyses of point patterns 2010 Journal of Applied Ecology
    Vol. 47(2), pp. 431-440 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: 1.In high-intensity agricultural landscapes, small landscape elements such as hedgerows, ditch banks, and rows of pollard trees may represent the last refuge of many plant and animal species, some of them being rare or even threatened with extinction. However, due to their small size and low habitat quality, long-term population survival cannot be ascertained and often active management is needed to maintain viable populations of species forced to survive in these small landscape elements. 2. Population models are needed to assess the threats to species at risk and to evaluate alternative management actions. Here, we present a methodology to evaluate management interventions using spatio-temporal analyses of point patterns. We apply this method to several populations of primrose Primula vulgaris in Flanders, where it is rare and predominantly occurs along ditch banks. 3.The effects of ditch bank clearing on the establishment success of seedlings was investigated by comparing spatial patterns of seedling recruitment, survival and mortality between populations that were grazed and populations that were severely disturbed by mechanical clearing of ditch banks followed by annual mowing. A total of 884 seedlings were mapped and monitored during 4 consecutive years. 4.In all populations, plants showed significant clustering, but in cleared sites only seedlings were significantly clustered around adults. Spatial patterns of mortality varied according to the management intervention. In grazed sites, mortality was almost random, whereas in cleared sites we found clear evidence for strong negative density-dependent mortality. There was no evidence that the presence of adults affected survival of recruits in any of the sites studied. 5. Synthesis and applications. This study shows that the analysis of spatial point patterns contributes to our understanding of the population dynamics of plant species occurring in different environments. The approach can be broadly applied to other plant species to elucidate the processes that determine the number of individuals that establish and persist into later life stages and will help conservation managers to refine management strategies intended to conserve or restore plant populations. In the case of P. vulgaris, increasing the availability of microsites is most likely to result in increased growth rates, as it results in increased recruitment and establishment of recruits.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jacquemyn2010,
      author = {Jacquemyn, Hans and Endels, Patrick and Honnay, Olivier and Wiegand, Thorsten},
      title = {Evaluating management interventions in small populations of a perennial herb Primula vulgaris using spatio-temporal analyses of point patterns},
      journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {47},
      number = {2},
      pages = {431--440},
      url = {http://blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01778.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01778.x}
    }
    
    Janssen, S., Louhichi, K., Kanellopoulos, A., Zander, P., Flichman, G., Hengsdijk, H., Meuter, E., Andersen, E., Belhouchette, H., Blanco, M., Borkowski, N., Heckelei, T., Hecker, M., Li, H., Oude Lansink, A., Stokstad, G., Thorne, P., van Keulen, H. & van Ittersum, M.K. A Generic Bio-Economic Farm Model for Environmental and Economic Assessment of Agricultural Systems. 2010 Environmental management
    Vol. 46(6), pp. 862-877 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Bio-economic farm models are tools to evaluate ex-post or to assess ex-ante the impact of policy and technology change on agriculture, economics and environment. Recently, various BEFMs have been developed, often for one purpose or location, but hardly any of these models are re-used later for other purposes or locations. The Farm System Simulator (FSSIM) provides a generic framework enabling the application of BEFMs under various situations and for different purposes (generating supply response functions and detailed regional or farm type assessments). FSSIM is set up as a component-based framework with components representing farmer objectives, risk, calibration, policies, current activities, alternative activities and different types of activities (e.g., annual and perennial cropping and livestock). The generic nature of FSSIM is evaluated using five criteria by examining its applications. FSSIM has been applied for different climate zones and soil types (criterion 1) and to a range of different farm types (criterion 2) with different specializations, intensities and sizes. In most applications FSSIM has been used to assess the effects of policy changes and in two applications to assess the impact of technological innovations (criterion 3). In the various applications, different data sources, level of detail (e.g., criterion 4) and model configurations have been used. FSSIM has been linked to an economic and several biophysical models (criterion 5). The model is available for applications to other conditions and research issues, and it is open to be further tested and to be extended with new components, indicators or linkages to other models.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Janssen2010,
      author = {Janssen, Sander and Louhichi, Kamel and Kanellopoulos, Argyris and Zander, Peter and Flichman, Guillermo and Hengsdijk, Huib and Meuter, Eelco and Andersen, Erling and Belhouchette, Hatem and Blanco, Maria and Borkowski, Nina and Heckelei, Thomas and Hecker, Martin and Li, Hongtao and Oude Lansink, Alfons and Stokstad, Grete and Thorne, Peter and van Keulen, Herman and van Ittersum, Martin K},
      title = {A Generic Bio-Economic Farm Model for Environmental and Economic Assessment of Agricultural Systems.},
      journal = {Environmental management},
      publisher = {Springer New York},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {46},
      number = {6},
      pages = {862--877},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/y0654275u1127502/},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-010-9588-x}
    }
    
    Jelinski, N.A., Kucharik, C.J. & Zedler, J.B. A Test of Diversity-Productivity Models in Natural, Degraded, and Restored Wet Prairies 2011 Restoration Ecology
    Vol. 19(2), pp. 186-193 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jelinski2009,
      author = {Jelinski, Nicolas A. and Kucharik, Christopher J. and Zedler, Joy B.},
      title = {A Test of Diversity-Productivity Models in Natural, Degraded, and Restored Wet Prairies},
      journal = {Restoration Ecology},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {19},
      number = {2},
      pages = {186--193},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1526-100X.2009.00551.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-100X.2009.00551.x}
    }
    
    Jiang, L., Wan, S. & Li, L. Species diversity and productivity: why do results of diversity-manipulation experiments differ from natural patterns? 2009 Journal of Ecology
    Vol. 97, pp. 603-608 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: 1. Experiments that directly manipulate species diversity often report a positive diversity effect on productivity, whereas observations of natural communities reveal various productivity–diversity relationships and nutrient addition to natural plant communities generally results in negative productivity–diversity relationships. 2. We hypothesize that this apparent paradox may be potentially explained by the reduced roles of complementarity and positive selection effects, and the increased importance of competitive exclusion in natural communities compared to diversity-manipulation experiments. This hypothesis arises from the difference in species distribution and abundance patterns between immature synthetically assembled communities in diversity-manipulation experiments and more mature natural communities. 3. Our hypothesis applies best to small-scale studies within homogenous habitats and complements the environmental heterogeneity hypothesis that explains diversity–productivity patterns across heterogeneous habitats. 4. Synthesis. Our analysis highlights important differences between synthetic communities in diversity-manipulation experiments and natural communities that may translate into different diversity–productivity patterns, and cautions against indiscriminate extrapolations of results of diversity-manipulation experiments to natural communities.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jiang2009,
      author = {Jiang, Lin and Wan, Shiqiang and Li, Linghao},
      title = {Species diversity and productivity: why do results of diversity-manipulation experiments differ from natural patterns?},
      journal = {Journal of Ecology},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {97},
      pages = {603--608},
      url = {http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/122353721/abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2009.01503.x}
    }
    
    John, R., Chen, J., Lu, N., Guo, K., Liang, C., Wei, Y., Noormets, A., Ma, K. & Han, X. Predicting plant diversity based on remote sensing products in the semi-arid region of Inner Mongolia 2008 Remote Sensing of Environment
    Vol. 112(5), pp. 2018-2032 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{John2008,
      author = {John, Ranjeet and Chen, Jiquan and Lu, Nan and Guo, Ke and Liang, Cunzhu and Wei, Yafen and Noormets, Asko and Ma, Keping and Han, Xingguo},
      title = {Predicting plant diversity based on remote sensing products in the semi-arid region of Inner Mongolia},
      journal = {Remote Sensing of Environment},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {112},
      number = {5},
      pages = {2018--2032},
      url = {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0034425708000266},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2007.09.013}
    }
    
    Johnson, B.L. Introduction to the Special Feature: Adaptive Management - Scientifically Sound, Socially Challenged 1999 Conservation Ecology
    Vol. 3(1), pp. 10 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Johnson1999a,
      author = {Johnson, B. L.},
      title = {Introduction to the Special Feature: Adaptive Management - Scientifically Sound, Socially Challenged},
      journal = {Conservation Ecology},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {3},
      number = {1},
      pages = {10},
      url = {http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol3/iss1/art10/},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2354.00041}
    }
    
    Johnson, B.L. The role of adaptive management as an operational approach for resource management agencies 1999 Conservation ecology
    Vol. 3(2), pp. 1 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Johnson1999b,
      author = {Johnson, B. L.},
      title = {The role of adaptive management as an operational approach for resource management agencies},
      journal = {Conservation ecology},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {3},
      number = {2},
      pages = {1},
      url = {http://www.consecol.org/vol3/iss2/art8/}
    }
    
    Johnson, D.S., London, J.M., Lea, M.-A. & Durban, J.W. Continuous-time correlated random walk model for animal telemetry data 2008 Ecology
    Vol. 89(5), pp. 1208-1215 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Johnson2008,
      author = {Johnson, Devin S and London, Joshua M and Lea, Mary-Anne and Durban, John W},
      title = {Continuous-time correlated random walk model for animal telemetry data},
      journal = {Ecology},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {89},
      number = {5},
      pages = {1208--1215},
      url = {http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/07-1032.1},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/07-1032.1}
    }
    
    Johnston, A., Bezeau, L.M. & Smoliak, S. Chemical Composition and in Vitro Digestibility of Alpine Tundra Plants 1968 The Journal of Wildlife Management
    Vol. 32(4), pp. 773-777 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Samples of the principal forage species of the alpine tundra of the southeastern Canadian Cordillera were analyzed for crude protein, calcium, phosphorus, ash, silica, and cellulose. Digestibility coefficients of cellulose were determined in vitro. Seven grass and grass-like species at five stages of growth and 12 herbaceous and shrubby species at three stages of growth were studied. Percentages of crude protein and phosphorus of all species decreased with advancing maturity while calcium and cellulose contents increased. In vitro digestibility coefficients decreased with advancing maturity. High percentages of crude protein and phosphorus, a low calcium to phosphorus ratio, and a high percent digestibility of cellulose were found in alpine vegetation at all stages of growth. The vegetation provides a nutritious forage for bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) during the summer.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Johnston1968,
      author = {Johnston, A. and Bezeau, L. M. and Smoliak, S.},
      title = {Chemical Composition and in Vitro Digestibility of Alpine Tundra Plants},
      journal = {The Journal of Wildlife Management},
      year = {1968},
      volume = {32},
      number = {4},
      pages = {773--777},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/3799553}
    }
    
    Johnston, C.A. & Zedler, J.B. Identifying Preferential Associates to Initiate Restoration Plantings 2011 Restoration Ecology, pp. no-no  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Johnston2011,
      author = {Johnston, Carol A. and Zedler, Joy B.},
      title = {Identifying Preferential Associates to Initiate Restoration Plantings},
      journal = {Restoration Ecology},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {no--no},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1526-100X.2011.00837.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-100X.2011.00837.x}
    }
    
    Johst, K., Drechsler, M., van Teeffelen, A.J.A., Hartig, F., Vos, C.C., Wissel, S., Wätzold, F. & Opdam, P. Biodiversity conservation in dynamic landscapes: trade-offs between number, connectivity and turnover of habitat patches 2011 Journal of Applied Ecology
    Vol. 48(5), pp. 1227-1235 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Summary 1. Many species are adapted to landscapes with characteristic dynamics generated by ongoing habi- tat destruction and creation. Climate change and human land use, however, may change the dynam- ics of these landscapes. Studies have repeatedly shown that many species are not able to cope with such changes in landscape dynamics. Conservation policies must, therefore, explicitly address this threat. The way in which management should be modified when formerly static landscapes become dynamic or when landscape dynamics change is unclear. 2. Using an analytical formula for the rapid assessment of metapopulation lifetime in dynamic landscapes, we investigate if and how changes in one landscape attribute may be compensated by changes in another attribute to maintain species viability. We study such trade-offs considering both spatial (number, connectivity of patches) and temporal (patch destruction and creation rates) land- scape attributes. 3. We show that increasing patch destruction can be compensated to a certain extent by improve- ments in other spatial and ⁄ or temporal landscape attributes. Focusing on trade-offs between man- agement options reveals two key factors essential for management decisions: First, the trade-offs are generally nonlinear irrespective of considering spatial or temporal landscape attributes. Sec- ondly, species can be grouped according to their response to particular management options. 4. Synthesis and applications. We demonstrate the usefulness of an analytical formula for calculat- ing trade-offs between landscape attributes for a variety of landscapes and species. Two practical and robust management recommendations can be derived: (i) The nonlinearity of trade-offs implies that the effectiveness of conservation measures depends explicitly on the current level of landscape attributes. It must, therefore, be taken into account in conservation decision making. In particular, the existing level of patch turnover is decisive: if it is already high, improvements in other landscape attributes are ineffective in maintaining species viability. Thus, monitoring the current level of land- scape attributes is indispensable for effective biodiversity conservation. (ii) Compensation of increased patch destruction by increased patch creation is only suitable for species with high dis- persal propensity adapted to variable environments (aside from habitat patch turnover). This implies that conservation policies which rely on such compensation, like offsetting and conservation banking, are feasible only for this type of species.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Johst2011,
      author = {Johst, Karin and Drechsler, Martin and van Teeffelen, Astrid J. A. and Hartig, Florian and Vos, Claire C. and Wissel, Silvia and Wätzold, Frank and Opdam, Paul},
      title = {Biodiversity conservation in dynamic landscapes: trade-offs between number, connectivity and turnover of habitat patches},
      journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {48},
      number = {5},
      pages = {1227--1235},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.02015.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.02015.x}
    }
    
    Jones, A.T. & Hayes, M.J. Increasing floristic diversity in grassland: the effects of management regime and provenance on species introduction 1999 Biological Conservation
    Vol. 87(3), pp. 381-390 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jones1999,
      author = {Jones, A. T. and Hayes, M. J.},
      title = {Increasing floristic diversity in grassland: the effects of management regime and provenance on species introduction},
      journal = {Biological Conservation},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {87},
      number = {3},
      pages = {381--390},
      url = {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0006320798000706},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(98)00070-6}
    }
    
    Jones, C.G., Lawton, J.H. & Shachak, M. Positive and Negative Effects of Organisms as Physical Ecosystem Engineers 1997 Ecology
    Vol. 78(7), pp. 1946 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jones1997,
      author = {Jones, Clive G. and Lawton, John H. and Shachak, Moshe},
      title = {Positive and Negative Effects of Organisms as Physical Ecosystem Engineers},
      journal = {Ecology},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {78},
      number = {7},
      pages = {1946},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/2265935?origin=crossref},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2265935}
    }
    
    Jones, C.G., Lawton, J.H. & Shachak, M. Organisms as Ecosystem Engineers 1994 Oikos
    Vol. 69(3), pp. 373-386 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jones1994,
      author = {Jones, Clive G. and Lawton, John H. and Shachak, Moshe},
      title = {Organisms as Ecosystem Engineers},
      journal = {Oikos},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {69},
      number = {3},
      pages = {373--386},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/pss/3545850}
    }
    
    Jones, H.P. & Schmitz, O.J. Rapid Recovery of Damaged Ecosystems 2009 PLoS ONE
    Vol. 4(5), pp. e5653 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jones2009,
      author = {Jones, Holly P and Schmitz, Oswald J},
      title = {Rapid Recovery of Damaged Ecosystems},
      journal = {PLoS ONE},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {4},
      number = {5},
      pages = {e5653},
      url = {http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005653},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005653}
    }
    
    Jones, J.P.G. Monitoring species abundance and distribution at the landscape scale 2011 Journal of Applied Ecology
    Vol. 48(1), pp. 9-13 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jones2011,
      author = {Jones, Julia P. G.},
      title = {Monitoring species abundance and distribution at the landscape scale},
      journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {48},
      number = {1},
      pages = {9--13},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01917.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01917.x}
    }
    
    Jost, L. Partitioning diversity into independent alpha and beta components 2007 Journal of Ecology
    Vol. 88(10), pp. 2427-2439 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Existing general definitions of beta diversity often produce a beta with a hidden dependence on alpha. Such a beta cannot be used to compare regions that differ in alpha diversity. To avoid misinterpretation, existing definitions of alpha and beta must be replaced by a definition that partitions diversity into independent alpha and beta components. Such a unique definition is derived here. When these new alpha and beta components are transformed into their numbers equivalents (effective numbers of elements), Whittaker's multiplicative law (alpha × beta = gamma) is necessarily true for all indices. The new beta gives the effective number of distinct communities. The most popular similarity and overlap measures of ecology (Jaccard, Sorensen, Horn, and Morisita-Horn indices) are monotonic transformations of the new beta diversity. Shannon measures follow deductively from this formalism and do not need to be borrowed from information theory; they are shown to be the only standard diversity measures which can be decomposed into meaningful independent alpha and beta components when community weights are unequal.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jost2007,
      author = {Jost, Lou},
      title = {Partitioning diversity into independent alpha and beta components},
      journal = {Journal of Ecology},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {88},
      number = {10},
      pages = {2427--2439},
      url = {http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/06-1736.1},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/06-1736.1}
    }
    
    Jost, L. Entropy and diversity 2006 Oikos
    Vol. 113(2), pp. 363-375 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Entropies such as the Shannon-Wiener and Gini-Simpson indices are not themselves diversities. Conversion of these to effective number of species is the key to a unified and intuitive interpretation of diversity. Effective numbers of species derived from standard diversity indices share a common set of intuitive mathematical properties and behave as one would expect of a diversity, while raw indices do not. Contrary to Keylock, the lack of concavity of effective numbers of species is irrelevant as long as they are used as transformations of concave alpha, beta, and gamma entropies. The practical importance of this transformation is demonstrated by applying it to a popular community similarity measure based on raw diversity indices or entropies. The standard similarity measure based on untransformed indices is shown to give misleading results, but transforming the indices or entropies to effective numbers of species produces a stable, easily interpreted, sensitive general similarity measure. General overlap measures derived from this transformed similarity measure yield the Jaccard index, Sø rensen index, Horn index of overlap, and the Morisita2013Horn index as special cases.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jost2006,
      author = {Jost, Lou},
      title = {Entropy and diversity},
      journal = {Oikos},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {113},
      number = {2},
      pages = {363--375},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2006.0030-1299.14714.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2006.0030-1299.14714.x}
    }
    
    Köppler, A. Entwicklung eines Beweidungskonzeptes zur Heidepflege auf Hiddensee 2004 Museum, pp. 134pp.School: Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald  phdthesis  
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Koeppler2004,
      author = {Köppler, Astrid},
      title = {Entwicklung eines Beweidungskonzeptes zur Heidepflege auf Hiddensee},
      booktitle = {Museum},
      school = {Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald},
      year = {2004},
      pages = {134pp.}
    }
    
    Körner, C., Paulsen, J. & Spehn, E.M. A definition of mountains and their bioclimatic belts for global comparisons of biodiversity data 2011 Alpine Botany
    Vol. 121(2), pp. 73-78 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: This is the first quantitative attempt at a global areal definition of ‘alpine’ and ‘montane’ terrain by combining geographical information systems for topography with bioclimatic criteria (temperature) subdividing the life zones along elevational gradients. The mountain definition adopted here refrains from any truncation by low elevation thresholds, and defines the world’s mountains by a common ruggedness threshold (&gt;200 m difference in elevation within a 2.5′ cell, 0.5′ resolution), arriving at 16.5 Mio km 2 or 12.3% of all terrestrial land area outside Antartica being mountains. The model employed accounts for criteria of “mountainous terrain” for biological analysis, and thus arrives at a smaller land area fraction than hydrologically oriented approaches, and by its 2.5′ resolution, it includes less unstructured terrain (such as large plateaus, very wide valleys or basins) than earlier approaches. The thermal delineation of the alpine and nival biogeographic region by the climatic tree limit (the lower boundary of the alpine belt) arrives at 2.6% or 3.55 Mio km 2 of the global land area outside Antarctica (21.5% of all mountain terrain). Seven climate-defined life zones in mountains facilitate large-scale (global) comparisons of biodiversity information as used in the new electronic ‘Mountain Biodiversity Portal’ of the Global Mountain Biodiversity Assessment (GMBA).
    BibTeX:
    @article{Korner2011,
      author = {Körner, Christian and Paulsen, Jens and Spehn, Eva M.},
      title = {A definition of mountains and their bioclimatic belts for global comparisons of biodiversity data},
      journal = {Alpine Botany},
      publisher = {Birkhäuser Basel},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {121},
      number = {2},
      pages = {73--78},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/600814gv4782273j/},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00035-011-0094-4}
    }
    
    Kühbauch, W. Veränderung der Qualität von Grünlandfutter unter dem Einfluß von Standort und Bewirtschaftung 1987 Kali-Briefe
    Vol. 18(7), pp. 485-510 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kuehbauch1987,
      author = {Kühbauch, W.},
      title = {Veränderung der Qualität von Grünlandfutter unter dem Einfluß von Standort und Bewirtschaftung},
      journal = {Kali-Briefe},
      year = {1987},
      volume = {18},
      number = {7},
      pages = {485--510}
    }
    
    Kühbauch, W. & Anger, M. Modellberechnung des Nährstoffspielraums von Grünlandbetrieben mit Milchproduktion 1999 Agribiol. Res.
    Vol. 52(1), pp. 77-84 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kuehbauch1999,
      author = {Kühbauch, W. and Anger, M.},
      title = {Modellberechnung des Nährstoffspielraums von Grünlandbetrieben mit Milchproduktion},
      journal = {Agribiol. Res.},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {52},
      number = {1},
      pages = {77--84}
    }
    
    Kühbauch, W., Verch, G. & Bach, F. Veränderung der Vegetation von intensiv bewirtschaftetem Grünland nach der Umstellung auf extensive Wiesennutzung 1994 Das wirtschaftseigene Futter
    Vol. 40(1), pp. 101-110 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kuehbauch1994,
      author = {Kühbauch, W. and Verch, G. and Bach, F.},
      title = {Veränderung der Vegetation von intensiv bewirtschaftetem Grünland nach der Umstellung auf extensive Wiesennutzung},
      journal = {Das wirtschaftseigene Futter},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {40},
      number = {1},
      pages = {101--110}
    }
    
    Kühn, I. & Dormann, C.F. Less than eight (and a half) misconceptions of spatial analysis 2012 Journal of Biogeography
    Vol. 39(5), pp. 995-998 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kuhn2012,
      author = {Kühn, Ingolf and Dormann, Carsten F.},
      title = {Less than eight (and a half) misconceptions of spatial analysis},
      journal = {Journal of Biogeography},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {39},
      number = {5},
      pages = {995--998},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2012.02707.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2012.02707.x}
    }
    
    Kalies, M., Scholle, D. & Kaule, G. Flächenanalyse zur Einrichtung groß flächiger extensiver Weidesysteme in Deutschland 2003 Natur und Landschaft
    Vol. 78(3), pp. 100-108 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kalies2003,
      author = {Kalies, Martin and Scholle, Dagmar and Kaule, Giselher},
      title = {Flächenanalyse zur Einrichtung groß flächiger extensiver Weidesysteme in Deutschland},
      journal = {Natur und Landschaft},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {78},
      number = {3},
      pages = {100--108}
    }
    
    Kammerer, H. & Gubisch, G. ÖPUL-Naturschutzmaß nahmen - Umsetzung in der Steiermark 2002 10. Österreichisches Botanikertreffen, 30. Mai - 1. Juni 2002, Bundesanstalt für alpenländische Landwirtschaft Gumpenstein, pp. 61-64  inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Kammerer2002,
      author = {Kammerer, H and Gubisch, G},
      title = {ÖPUL-Naturschutzmaß nahmen - Umsetzung in der Steiermark},
      booktitle = {10. Österreichisches Botanikertreffen, 30. Mai - 1. Juni 2002, Bundesanstalt für alpenländische Landwirtschaft Gumpenstein},
      year = {2002},
      pages = {61--64}
    }
    
    Kampichler, C., Wieland, R., Calmé, S., Weissenberger, H. & Arriaga-Weiss, S. Classification in conservation biology: a comparison of five machine-learning methods 2010 Ecological Informatics
    Vol. accepted,, pp. 38pp. 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Classification is one of the most widely applied tasks in ecology. Ecologists have to deal with noisy, high-dimensional data that often are non-linear and do not meet the assumptions of conventional statistical procedures. To overcome this problem, machine-learning methods have been adopted as ecological classification methods. We compared five machine-learning based classification techniques (classification trees, random forests, artificial neural networks, support vector machines, automatically induced rule-based fuzzy models) in a biological conservation context. The study case was that of the ocellated turkey (Meleagris ocellata), a bird endemic to the Yucatan peninsula that has suffered considerable decreases in local abundance and distributional area during the last few decades. On a grid of 10 x 10 km cells that was superimposed to the peninsula we analysed relationships between environmental and social explanatory variables and ocellated turkey abundance changes between 1980 and 2000. Abundance was expressed in three (decrease, no change, increase) and 14 more detailed abundance change classes, respectively. Modelling performance varied considerably between methods with random forests and classification trees being the most efficient ones as measured by overall classification error and the normalised mutual information index. Artificial neural networks yielded the worst results along with linear discriminant analysis, which was included as a conventional statistical approach. We not only evaluated classification accuracy but also characteristics such as time effort, classifier comprehensibility and method intricacy—aspects that determine the success of a classification technique among ecologists and conservation biologists as well as for the communication with managers and decision makers. We recommend the combined use of classification trees and random forests due to the easy interpretability of classifiers and the high comprehensibility of the method.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kampichler2010,
      author = {Kampichler, Christian and Wieland, Ralf and Calmé, Sophie and Weissenberger, Holger and Arriaga-Weiss, Stefan},
      title = {Classification in conservation biology: a comparison of five machine-learning methods},
      journal = {Ecological Informatics},
      publisher = {Elsevier B.V.},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {accepted,},
      pages = {38pp.},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoinf.2010.06.003},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoinf.2010.06.003}
    }
    
    Kangas, K., Tolvanen, A., Kälkäjä, T. & Siikamäki, P. Ecological impacts of revegetation and management practices of ski slopes in northern Finland. 2009 Environmental management
    Vol. 44(3), pp. 408-19 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Outdoor recreation and nature-based tourism represent an increasingly intensive form of land use that has considerable impacts on native ecosystems. The aim of this paper is to investigate how revegetation and management of ski runs influence soil nutrients, vegetation characteristics, and the possible invasion of nonnative plant species used in revegetation into native ecosystems. A soil and vegetation survey at ski runs and nearby forests, and a factorial experiment simulating ski run construction and management (factors: soil removal, fertilization, and seed sowing) were conducted at Ruka ski resort, in northern Finland, during 2003-2008. According to the survey, management practices had caused considerable changes in the vegetation structure and increased soil nutrient concentrations, pH, and conductivity on the ski runs relative to nearby forests. Seed mixture species sown during the revegetation of ski runs had not spread to adjacent forests. The experimental study showed that the germination of seed mixture species was favored by treatments simulating the management of ski runs, but none of them could eventually establish in the study forest. As nutrient leaching causes both environmental deterioration and changes in vegetation structure, it may eventually pose a greater environmental risk than the spread of seed mixture species alone. Machine grading and fertilization, which have the most drastic effects on soils and vegetation, should, therefore, be minimized when constructing and managing ski runs.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kangas2009,
      author = {Kangas, Katja and Tolvanen, Anne and Kälkäjä, Tarja and Siikamäki, Pirkko},
      title = {Ecological impacts of revegetation and management practices of ski slopes in northern Finland.},
      journal = {Environmental management},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {44},
      number = {3},
      pages = {408--19},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19609601},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-009-9336-2}
    }
    
    Kantelhardt, J. Ökonomische Beurteilung landschaftsökologischer Auflagen für die Landwirtschaft 2004 Schriften der Gesellschaft für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaft des Landbaues e.V.
    Vol. 39, pp. 557-567 
    article  
    Abstract: Im Rahmen des vorliegenden Beitrages werden flächenwirksame ökologische Maß nahmen auf regionaler und einzelbetrieblicher Ebene ökonomisch beurteilt. Als Beispiel dient das Donauried, das entlang des Donautals von Neu-Ulm bis Donauwörth reicht. Das Donauried ist sowohl Lebensraum von internationaler Bedeutung für gefährdete Pflanzen- und Tierarten als auch Wirtschaftsraum für nahezu 3.000 landwirtschaftliche Betriebe. Noch zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts wurden die landwirtschaftlich genutzten Flächen zu nahezu 100 % als Grünland genutzt. Die Regulierung der Donau und das Absenken des Grundwasserstandes ermöglichten eine Intensivierung der Landnutzung und führten zu einem Rückgang des Grünlandanteiles auf etwa 16 % der landwirtschaftlich genutzten Fläche. Aufgrund dieser Entwicklung ist mittlerweile die Qualität und der Bestand wertvoller Lebensräume und deren Funktion für den Naturhaushalt gefährdet (19, S. 22; vgl. auch 17). Für das Donauried wurde von 1994 - 1999 ein Gesamtökologisches Gutachten erstellt (19), in dem Maß nahmen zu einer ressourcenschonenden Nutzung sowie zur Erhaltung, Wiederherstellung und Pflege von Auen-, Moor- und Wiesenbrüterbereichen vorgeschlagen werden. Dazu zählen wasserbauliche Maß nahmen wie die periodische Überflutung und die Grundwasseranhebung sowie eine Vielzahl von Nutzungsempfehlungen. Ihre Umsetzung würde die derzeitige intensive Landbewirtschaftung erheblich einschränken. Nach Vorlage des Gesamtökologischen Gutachtens wurde ein Agrarökonomisches Ergänzungsgutachten 1) erarbeitet (3; 4; 5), das die ökonomischen Konsequenzen der Umsetzung der betriebswirtschaftlich relevanten Maß nahmen für die landwirtschaftliche Nutzung des Donauriedes behandelt. Im vorliegenden Beitrag werden das methodische Vorgehen und die wichtigsten Ergebnisse des Agrarökonomischen Ergänzungsgutachtens vorgestellt.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kantelhardt2004,
      author = {Kantelhardt, J},
      title = {Ökonomische Beurteilung landschaftsökologischer Auflagen für die Landwirtschaft},
      journal = {Schriften der Gesellschaft für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaft des Landbaues e.V.},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {39},
      pages = {557--567}
    }
    
    Kapos, V., Balmford, A., Aveling, R., Bubb, P., Carey, P., Entwistle, A., Hopkins, J., Mulliken, T., Safford, R., Stattersfield, A., Walpole, M. & Manica, A. Calibrating conservation: new tools for measuring success 2008 Conservation Letters  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kapos2008,
      author = {Kapos, Valerie and Balmford, Andrew and Aveling, Rosalind and Bubb, Philip and Carey, Peter and Entwistle, Abigail and Hopkins, John and Mulliken, Teresa and Safford, Roger and Stattersfield, Alison and Walpole, Matt and Manica, Andrea},
      title = {Calibrating conservation: new tools for measuring success},
      journal = {Conservation Letters},
      year = {2008},
      url = {http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/121371753/abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-263X.2008.00025.x}
    }
    
    Karban, R. & Huntzinger, M. How to do Ecology - A concise Handbook 2006 , pp. 145  book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Karban2006,
      author = {Karban, Richard and Huntzinger, Mikaela},
      title = {How to do Ecology - A concise Handbook},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {145},
      edition = {1}
    }
    
    Kardol, P. & Wardle, D.A. How understanding aboveground–belowground linkages can assist restoration ecology 2010 Trends in Ecology and Evolution  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kardol2010,
      author = {Kardol, Paul and Wardle, David A.},
      title = {How understanding aboveground–belowground linkages can assist restoration ecology},
      journal = {Trends in Ecology and Evolution},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2010.09.001},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2010.09.001}
    }
    
    Karl, J.W. & Maurer, B.A. Spatial dependence of predictions from image segmentation: A variogram-based method to determine appropriate scales for producing land-management information Ecological Informatics
    Vol. In Press,  
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: A significant challenge in ecological studies has been defining scales of observation that correspond to the relevant ecological scales for organisms or processes of interest. Remote sensing has become commonplace in ecological studies and management, but the default resolution of imagery often used in studies is an arbitrary scale of observation. Segmentation of images into objects has been proposed as an alternative method for scaling remotely-sensed data into units having ecological meaning. However, to date, the selection of image object sets to represent landscape patterns has been largely subjective. Changes in observation scale affect the variance and spatial dependence of measured variables, and may be useful in determining which levels of image segmentation are most appropriate for a given purpose. We used observations of percent bare ground cover from 346 field sites in a semi-arid shrub-steppe ecosystem of southern Idaho to look at the changes in spatial dependence of regression predictions and residuals for 10 different levels of image segmentation. We found that the segmentation level whose regression predictions had spatial dependence that most closely matched the spatial dependence of the field samples also had the strongest predicted-to-observed correlations. This suggested that for percent bare ground cover in our study area an appropriate scale could be defined. With the incorporation of a geostatistical interpolator to predict the value of regression residuals at unsampled locations, however, we achieved consistently strong correlations across many segmentation levels. This suggests that if spatial dependence in percent bare ground is accounted for, a range of appropriate scales could be defined. Because the best analysis scale may vary for different ecosystem attributes and many inquiries consider more than one attribute, methods that can perform well across a range of scales and perhaps not at a single, ideal scale are important. More work is needed to develop methods that consider a wider range of ways to segment images into different scales and select sets of scales that perform best for answering specific management questions. The robustness of ecological landscape analyses will increase as methods are devised that remove the subjectivity with which observational scales are defined and selected.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Karl,
      author = {Karl, Jason W and Maurer, Brian A},
      title = {Spatial dependence of predictions from image segmentation: A variogram-based method to determine appropriate scales for producing land-management information},
      journal = {Ecological Informatics},
      volume = {In Press, },
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B7W63-4YH4R8H-2/2/0db9222fbf40edde6a0ba90ade623e18},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoinf.2010.02.004}
    }
    
    Kass, G.S., Shaw, R.F., Tew, T. & Macdonald, D.W. Securing the future of the natural environment: using scenarios to anticipate challenges to biodiversity, landscapes and public engagement with nature 2011 Journal of Applied Ecology, pp. no-no  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kass2011,
      author = {Kass, Gary S. and Shaw, Rosalind F. and Tew, Tom and Macdonald, David W.},
      title = {Securing the future of the natural environment: using scenarios to anticipate challenges to biodiversity, landscapes and public engagement with nature},
      journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {no--no},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.02055.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.02055.x}
    }
    
    Kaulfers, C. Weide- und Bewegungsverhalten von Schaf und Ziege auf der Alp und dessen Einfluss auf den Knochen- und Energiestoffwechsel 2009 , pp. 148pp.School: University of Zurich  phdthesis DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Kaulfers2009,
      author = {Kaulfers, C.},
      title = {Weide- und Bewegungsverhalten von Schaf und Ziege auf der Alp und dessen Einfluss auf den Knochen- und Energiestoffwechsel},
      school = {University of Zurich},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {148pp.},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.5167/uzh28432},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.5167/uzh28432}
    }
    
    Keenleyside, C., Tucker, G., Lee, H. & Mcconville, A. Farmland Abandonment in the EU: an assessment of trends and prospects. Report prepared for WWF 2010 , pp. 93pp.  book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Keenleyside2010,
      author = {Keenleyside, Clunie and Tucker, Graham and Lee, Hannah and Mcconville, Andrew},
      title = {Farmland Abandonment in the EU: an assessment of trends and prospects. Report prepared for WWF},
      publisher = {The Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP)},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {93pp.}
    }
    
    Keith, S.A., Newton, A.C., Morecroft, M.D., Golicher, D.J. & Bullock, J.M. Plant metacommunity structure remains unchanged during biodiversity loss in English woodlands 2010 Oikos, pp. no-no  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Keith2010,
      author = {Keith, Sally A. and Newton, Adrian C. and Morecroft, Michael D. and Golicher, Duncan J. and Bullock, James M.},
      title = {Plant metacommunity structure remains unchanged during biodiversity loss in English woodlands},
      journal = {Oikos},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {no--no},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2010.18775.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2010.18775.x}
    }
    
    Keitt, T.H. Spectral representation of neutral landscapes 2000 Landscape Ecology
    Vol. 15(5), pp. 479-494 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Pattern in ecological landscapes is often the result of different processes operating at different scales. Neutral landscape models were introduced in landscape ecology to differentiate patterns that are the result of simple random processes from patterns that arise from more complex ecological processes. Recent studies have used increasingly complex neutral models that incorporate contagion and other constraints on random patterns, as well as using neutral landscapes as input to spatial simulation models. Here, I consider a common mathematical framework based on spectral transforms that represents all neutral landscape models in terms of sets of spectral basis functions. Fractal and multi-fractal models are considered, as well as models with multiple scaling regions and anisotropy. All of the models considered are shown to be variations on a basic theme: a scaling relation between frequency and amplitude of spectral components. Two example landscapes examined showed long-range correlations (distances up to 1000 km) consistent with fractal scaling.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Keitt2000,
      author = {Keitt, Timothy H},
      title = {Spectral representation of neutral landscapes},
      journal = {Landscape Ecology},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {15},
      number = {5},
      pages = {479--494},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/r02410q8473064vj/?p=3e5836bf6109428b9a730a5169b5d2f7&pi=6},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1008193015770}
    }
    
    Kemkes, R.J., Farley, J. & Koliba, C.J. Determining when payments are an effective policy approach to ecosystem service provision 2009 Ecological Economics  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: There are several policy tools available for the provision of ecosystem services. The economic characteristics of the ecosystem service being provided, such as rivalry and excludability, along with the spatial scale at which benefits accrue can help determine the appropriate policy approach. In this paper we provide a brief introduction to ecosystem services and discuss the policy tools available for providing them along with the dimensions, political feasibility and appropriateness of each tool. Throughout the paper we focus primarily on payments as a mechanism for ecosystem service provision. We present a framework for determining the characteristics of an ecosystem service and when payments are a viable policy tool option based on the characteristics. Additionally, we provide examples of when payments do not provide a socially desirable level of ecosystem benefits. We conclude with a summary of policy recommendations, specifically desirable property rights and payment types based on the particular classification of an ecosystem service. We also discuss the advantages of creating monopsony power to reduce transaction costs, delineating and bundling ecosystem services and utilizing existing intermediaries.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kemkes2009,
      author = {Kemkes, Robin J. and Farley, Joshua and Koliba, Christopher J.},
      title = {Determining when payments are an effective policy approach to ecosystem service provision},
      journal = {Ecological Economics},
      year = {2009},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.11.032},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.11.032}
    }
    
    Kemp, M.U., Emiel van Loon, E., Shamoun-Baranes, J. & Bouten, W. RNCEP: global weather and climate data at your fingertips 2011 Methods in Ecology and Evolution, pp. no-no  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kemp2011,
      author = {Kemp, Michael U. and Emiel van Loon, E. and Shamoun-Baranes, Judy and Bouten, Willem},
      title = {RNCEP: global weather and climate data at your fingertips},
      journal = {Methods in Ecology and Evolution},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {no--no},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.2041-210X.2011.00138.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2041-210X.2011.00138.x}
    }
    
    Kenoyer, L. A study of Raunkaier's law of frequence 1927 Ecology
    Vol. 8(3), pp. 341-349 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kenoyer1927,
      author = {Kenoyer, LA},
      title = {A study of Raunkaier's law of frequence},
      journal = {Ecology},
      year = {1927},
      volume = {8},
      number = {3},
      pages = {341--349},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/1929336}
    }
    
    Kerns, G.J. Introduction to Probability and Statistics Using R 2010 , pp. 386  book URL 
    BibTeX:
    @book{Klauber2010,
      author = {Kerns, G Jay},
      title = {Introduction to Probability and Statistics Using R},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {386},
      url = {http://ipsur.org/}
    }
    
    Kerven, C. & Behnke, R. Policies and practices of pastoralism in Europe 2011 Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice
    Vol. 1(1), pp. 28 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kerven2011,
      author = {Kerven, Carol and Behnke, Roy},
      title = {Policies and practices of pastoralism in Europe},
      journal = {Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {1},
      number = {1},
      pages = {28},
      url = {http://www.pastoralismjournal.com/content/1/1/28},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2041-7136-1-28}
    }
    
    Keuchel, J., Naumann, S., Heiler, M. & Siegmund, A. Automatic land cover analysis for Tenerife by supervised classification using remotely sensed data 2003 Remote Sensing of Environment
    Vol. 86(4), pp. 530-541 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Automatic land cover classification from satellite images is an important topic in many remote sensing applications. In this paper, we consider three different statistical approaches to tackle this problem: two of them, namely the well-known maximum likelihood classification (ML) and the support vector machine (SVM), are noncontextual methods. The third one, iterated conditional modes (ICM), exploits spatial context by using a Markov random field. We apply these methods to Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data from Tenerife, the largest of the Canary Islands. Due to the size and the strong relief of the island, ground truth data could be collected only sparsely by examination of test areas for previously defined land cover classes. We show that after application of an unsupervised clustering method to identify subclasses, all classification algorithms give satisfactory results (with statistical overall accuracy of about 90 if the model parameters are selected appropriately. Although being superior to ML theoretically, both SVM and ICM have to be used carefully: ICM is able to improve ML, but when applied for too many iterations, spatially small sample areas are smoothed away, leading to statistically slightly worse classification results. SVM yields better statistical results than ML, but when investigated visually, the classification result is not completely satisfying. This is due to the fact that no a priori information on the frequency of occurrence of a class was used in this context, which helps ML to limit the unlikely classes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Keuchel2003,
      author = {Keuchel, Jens and Naumann, Simone and Heiler, Matthias and Siegmund, Alexander},
      title = {Automatic land cover analysis for Tenerife by supervised classification using remotely sensed data},
      journal = {Remote Sensing of Environment},
      publisher = {Elsevier},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {86},
      number = {4},
      pages = {530--541},
      url = {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0034425703001305}
    }
    
    Khoury, C., Laliberté, B. & Guarino, L. Trends in ex situ conservation of plant genetic resources: a review of global crop and regional conservation strategies 2010 Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution
    Vol. 57(4), pp. 625-639 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Khoury2010,
      author = {Khoury, Colin and Laliberté, Brigitte and Guarino, Luigi},
      title = {Trends in ex situ conservation of plant genetic resources: a review of global crop and regional conservation strategies},
      journal = {Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {57},
      number = {4},
      pages = {625--639},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/index/10.1007/s10722-010-9534-z},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10722-010-9534-z}
    }
    
    Kiehl, K. Plant species introduction in ecological restoration: Possibilities and limitations 2010 Basic and Applied Ecology
    Vol. 11(4), pp. 281-284 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kiehl2010a,
      author = {Kiehl, Kathrin},
      title = {Plant species introduction in ecological restoration: Possibilities and limitations},
      journal = {Basic and Applied Ecology},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {11},
      number = {4},
      pages = {281--284}
    }
    
    Kiehl, K., Kirmer, A., Donath, T.W., Rasran, L. & Hölzel, N. Species indroduction in restoration projects - Evaluation of different techniques for the establishment of semi- natural grasslands in Central and Northwestern Europe 2010 Basic and Applied Ecology
    Vol. 11(4), pp. 285-299 
    article  
    Abstract: During recent decades, many studies have shown that the successful restoration of species-rich grasslands is often seed-limited because of depleted seed banks and limited seed dispersal in modern fragmented landscapes. In Europe, commercial seed mixtures, which are widely used for restoration measures, mostly consist of species and varieties of non-local provenance. The regional biodiversity of a given landscape, however, can be preserved only when seeds or plants of local provenance are used in restoration projects. Furthermore, the transfer of suitable target species of local provenance can strongly enhance restoration success. We review and evaluate the success of currently used near-natural methods for the introduction of target plant species (e.g. seeding of site-specific seed mixtures, transfer of fresh seed-containing hay, vacuum harvesting, transfer of turves or seed-containing soil) on restoration sites, ranging from dry and mesic meadows to floodplain grasslands and fens. Own data combined with literature findings show species establishment rates during the initial phase as well as the persistence of target species during long-term vegetation development on restoration sites. In conclusion, our review indicates that seed limitation can be overcome successfully by most of the reviewed measures for species introduction. The establishment of species-rich grasslands is most successful when seeds, seed-containing plant material or soil are spread on bare soil of ex-arable fields after tilling or topsoil removal, or on raw soils, e.g. in mined areas. In species-poor grasslands without soil disturbance and on older ex-arable fields with dense weed vegetation, final transfer rates were the lowest. For future restoration projects, suitable measures have to be chosen carefully from case to case as they differ considerably in costs and logistic effort. Long-term prospects for restored grassland are especially good when management can be incorporated in agricultural systems.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kiehl2010b,
      author = {Kiehl, Kathrin and Kirmer, Anita and Donath, Tobias W. and Rasran, Leonid and Hölzel, Norbert},
      title = {Species indroduction in restoration projects - Evaluation of different techniques for the establishment of semi- natural grasslands in Central and Northwestern Europe},
      journal = {Basic and Applied Ecology},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {11},
      number = {4},
      pages = {285--299}
    }
    
    Kienast, F., Bolliger, J., Potschin, M., de Groot, R., Verburg, P., Heller, I., Wascher, D. & Haines-Young, R. Assessing Landscape Functions with Broad-Scale Environmental Data: Insights Gained from a Prototype Development for Europe 2009 Environmental Management
    Vol. 44(6), pp. 1099-1120 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Abstract We examine the advantages and disadvantages of a methodological framework designed to analyze the poorly understood relationships between the ecosystem properties of large portions of land, and their capacities (stocks) to provide goods and services (flows). These capacities (stocks) are referred to as landscape functions. The core of our assessment is a set of expert- and literature-driven binary links, expressing whether specific land uses or other environmental properties have a supportive or neutral role for given landscape functions. The binary links were applied to the environmental properties of 581 administrative units of Europe with widely differing environmental conditions and this resulted in a spatially explicit landscape function assessment. To check under what circumstances the binary links are able to replace complex interrelations, we compared the landscape function maps with independently generated continent-wide assessments (maps of ecosystem services or environmental parameters/indicators). This rigorous testing revealed that for 9 out of 15 functions the straightforward binary links work satisfactorily and generate plausible geographical patterns. This conclusion holds primarily for production functions. The sensitivity of the nine landscape functions to changes in land use was assessed with four land use scenarios (IPCC SRES). It was found that most European regions maintain their capacity to provide the selected services under any of the four scenarios, although in some cases at other locations within the region. At the proposed continental scale, the selected input parameters are thus valid proxies which can be used to assess the mid-term potential of landscapes to provide goods and services.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kienast2009,
      author = {Kienast, Felix and Bolliger, Janine and Potschin, Marion and de Groot, Rudolf and Verburg, Peter and Heller, Iris and Wascher, Dirk and Haines-Young, Roy},
      title = {Assessing Landscape Functions with Broad-Scale Environmental Data: Insights Gained from a Prototype Development for Europe},
      journal = {Environmental Management},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {44},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1099--1120},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-009-9384-7},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-009-9384-7}
    }
    
    Kikvidze, Z. & Brooker, R. Towards a more exact definition of the importance of competition - a reply to Freckleton et al. (2009) 2010 Journal of Ecology  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: 1. Freckleton, Watkinson & Rees (2009) criticize a recent paper by ourselves in this journal (Brooker & Kikvidze 2008) as well as our earlier work on competition importance (Brooker et al. 2005). In response, here we clarify our ideas with the aim of defining more clearly the key points of scientific debate, specifically (i) the definition of the importance of competition and (ii) its measurement. 2. Freckleton, Watkinson & Rees (2009) interpret the classic paper by Welden & Slauson (1986) such that importance as a concept relates to long-term, population-level consequences of competition. However, we consider competition importance to be the proportional impact of competition relative to the overall impact of the environment, and our index Cimp expresses changes in competition importance 2013 as defined by ourselves 2013 along productivity gradients. We argue that our definition more accurately reflects the work of Welden & Slauson, as well as a more recent use of the concept (Grace 1991), which precedes the work of Freckleton & Watkinson (2001). 3. We highlight that Cimp was never proposed as a general index of competition importance, but is readily applicable in certain circumstances. Notably, our index and the approaches to measuring competition importance as set out by Freckleton, Watkinson & Rees (2009) are not unrelated. 4. We also discuss some recent additional responses to both our (2008) paper and that by Freckleton, Watkinson & Rees (2009), including applications of the concept of competition importance. Although the authors of these papers may not have used our index Cimp, they follow the same definitions for the overall concept of competition importance as ourselves. 5. Synthesis. We conclude that the complex topic of biotic interactions, including the specific issue of the importance of competition, invites a range of approaches. Importantly, these approaches can be complementary and not conflicting. Here, we propose what we see as a sensible resolution to the current debate concerning the definition of competition importance, a resolution which is backed by the original source article, literature precedent and current usage.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kikvidze2010,
      author = {Kikvidze, Zaal and Brooker, Rob},
      title = {Towards a more exact definition of the importance of competition - a reply to Freckleton et al. (2009)},
      journal = {Journal of Ecology},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/123374191/abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2010.01660.x}
    }
    
    Kilpatrick, A.D., Warren-Smith, S.C., Read, J.L., Lewis, M.M. & Ostendorf, B. Cross-fence comparisons: Theory for spatially comprehensive, controlled variable assessment of treatment effects in managed landscapes 2011 Ecological Informatics
    Vol. 6(2), pp. 170-176 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Historically monitoring of grazing impacts in rangelands has been seriously compromised by the small area, infrequency and variability of field-based sampling plots. Remote sensing of vegetation cover, which can be a surrogate for overall ecosystem condition, permits adequate spatial and temporal monitoring of land condition but can still be compromised by considerable inter and intra-paddock (field) variability. Cross-fence sample pairs control for local clines and patchiness in spatial and temporal variables such as vegetation, landform, soil type, surface-flows, and rainfall. We describe the theory behind a novel monitoring methodology that utilizes cross-fence sample pairs to rank paddocks, whether adjacent or not, using a system of linear equations and field based or preferably remotely-sensed data. This methodology outputs a condition ranking for each paddock in the system, with the aforementioned spatial and temporal variables controlled. Within paddock variability, such as differential grazing distribution, can be readily incorporated as weighting factors when suitable models are developed. This methodology may also be applicable to other grazing, agricultural and natural systems and applications where land management units have distinguishable boundaries.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kilpatrick2011,
      author = {Kilpatrick, Adam D. and Warren-Smith, Stephen C. and Read, John L. and Lewis, Megan M. and Ostendorf, Bertram},
      title = {Cross-fence comparisons: Theory for spatially comprehensive, controlled variable assessment of treatment effects in managed landscapes},
      journal = {Ecological Informatics},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {6},
      number = {2},
      pages = {170--176},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoinf.2010.10.001},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoinf.2010.10.001}
    }
    
    Kirkham, F.W., Bhogal, A., Chambers, B.J., Dunn, R.M. & Tallowin, J.R.B. Effects of spreading species-rich green hay on the botanical composition of an agriculturally improved hay meadow in northern England 2012 Grass and Forage Science, pp. n/a-n/a  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kirkham2012,
      author = {Kirkham, F. W. and Bhogal, A. and Chambers, B. J. and Dunn, R. M. and Tallowin, J. R. B.},
      title = {Effects of spreading species-rich green hay on the botanical composition of an agriculturally improved hay meadow in northern England},
      journal = {Grass and Forage Science},
      year = {2012},
      pages = {n/a--n/a},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1365-2494.2012.00895.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2494.2012.00895.x}
    }
    
    Kirmer, A., Baasch, A. & Tischew, S. Sowing of low and high diversity seed mixtures in ecological restoration of surface mined-land 2011 Applied Vegetation Science, pp. n/a-n/a  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kirmer2011,
      author = {Kirmer, Anita and Baasch, Annett and Tischew, Sabine},
      title = {Sowing of low and high diversity seed mixtures in ecological restoration of surface mined-land},
      journal = {Applied Vegetation Science},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {n/a--n/a},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1654-109X.2011.01156.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-109X.2011.01156.x}
    }
    
    Klapp, R. Retardierte Sukzessionen auf trockenem Brachland in Mittelgebirgen Westdeutschlands 1979 Mitt. Flor.soz.Arbeitsgem
    Vol. 21, pp. 97-105 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Klapp1979,
      author = {Klapp, R},
      title = {Retardierte Sukzessionen auf trockenem Brachland in Mittelgebirgen Westdeutschlands},
      journal = {Mitt. Flor.soz.Arbeitsgem},
      year = {1979},
      volume = {21},
      pages = {97--105}
    }
    
    Klug, B., Hübl, E. & Scharfetter, E. Struktur und Zusammensetzung der Phytomasse ostösterreichischer Wiesen nach Nutzungsänderungen (Teilergebnisse eines dreijährigen BM:LFUW-Projekts) 2002 10. Österreichisches Botanikertreffen, 30. Mai - 1. Juni 2002, Bundesanstalt für alpenländische Landwirtschaft Gumpenstein, pp. 123-124  inproceedings  
    Abstract: Auswirkungen von Bewirtschaftungsänderungen auf Struktur, Zusammensetzung und Phytomasse von Wirtschaftswiesen in den ostösterreichischen Regionen Waldviertel und Bucklige Welt werden vorgestellt. Die nur 3 Jahre dauernden Versuche führten im Waldviertel mit seinem raueren Klima und im speziellen Fall trockenerem Boden zu deutlicheren Bestandesveränderungen als in der Buckligen Welt. Durch Düngeverzicht bei gleichzeitiger Einführung eines dritten Schnitts wurde hier die oberirdische Phytomasse in Menge und Zusammensetzung besonders stark verändert.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Klug2002,
      author = {Klug, B and Hübl, E and Scharfetter, E},
      title = {Struktur und Zusammensetzung der Phytomasse ostösterreichischer Wiesen nach Nutzungsänderungen (Teilergebnisse eines dreijährigen BM:LFUW-Projekts)},
      booktitle = {10. Österreichisches Botanikertreffen, 30. Mai - 1. Juni 2002, Bundesanstalt für alpenländische Landwirtschaft Gumpenstein},
      year = {2002},
      pages = {123--124}
    }
    
    Knapp, C.N., Fernandez-Gimenez, M.E., Briske, D.D., Bestelmeyer, B.T. & Wu, X.B. An Assessment of State-and-Transition Models: Perceptions Following Two Decades of Development and Implementation 2011 Rangeland Ecology & Management
    Vol. 64(6), pp. 598-606 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: State-and-transition models (STMs) are being developed for many areas in the United States and represent an important tool for assessing and managing public and private rangelands. Substantial resources have been invested in model development, yet minimal efforts have been made to evaluate the utility of STMs for rangeland assessment and management. We interviewed 47 rangeland professionals, equally divided between managers and researchers, in four ecoregions to determine their perceptions of the purpose, development, and strengths and weaknesses of STMs to assess the status of the STM framework. Our analysis identified three primary perspectives regarding the purpose of STMs: a decision-making tool for land managers, a means to represent the complex dynamics of rangeland ecosystems, and an effective communication tool. These diverse views of STM purposes were associated with differing perspectives concerning model development that identified five major issues in need of further development and refinement: 1) the relative importance of management practices and ecological processes in driving transitions, 2) the criteria used to define thresholds, 3) the appropriate level of model complexity, 4) the respective roles of expert knowledge and ecological data in model development, and 5) processes for model review and revision. We recommend greater dialogue among researchers and managers to further clarify STM terminology and develop standard protocols for model development and validation. Mechanisms are critically needed to assure peer review and revision of existing models so that STMs are continually updated to reflect current understanding of rangeland dynamics.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Knapp2011,
      author = {Knapp, Corrine N. and Fernandez-Gimenez, Maria E. and Briske, David D. and Bestelmeyer, Brandon T. and Wu, X. Ben},
      title = {An Assessment of State-and-Transition Models: Perceptions Following Two Decades of Development and Implementation},
      journal = {Rangeland Ecology & Management},
      publisher = {Society for Range Management},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {64},
      number = {6},
      pages = {598--606},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2111/REM-D-10-00188.1},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2111/REM-D-10-00188.1}
    }
    
    Knapp, S. & Kühn, I. Origin matters: widely distributed native and non-native species benefit from different functional traits 2012 Ecology Letters, pp. n/a-n/a  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Recently, ecologists debated whether distinguishing native from non-native species is sensible or not. One argument is that widespread and less widespread species are functionally different, whether or not they are native. An opposing statement points out ecologically relevant differences between native and non-native species. We studied the functional traits that drive native and non-native vascular plant species frequency in Germany by explaining species grid-cell frequency using traits and their interaction with status. Native and non-native species frequency was equally driven by life span, ploidy type and self-compatibility. Non-native species frequency rose with later flowering cessation date, whereas this relationship was absent for native species. Native and non-native species differed in storage organs and in the number of environmental conditions they tolerate. We infer that environmental filters drive trait convergence of native and non-native species, whereas competition drives trait divergence. Meanwhile, introduction pathways functionally bias the frequency of non-native species.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Knapp2012,
      author = {Knapp, Sonja and Kühn, Ingolf},
      title = {Origin matters: widely distributed native and non-native species benefit from different functional traits},
      journal = {Ecology Letters},
      year = {2012},
      pages = {n/a--n/a},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22519661},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2012.01787.x}
    }
    
    Kobayashi, T., Hori, Y. & Nomoto, N. Effects of trampling and vegetation removal on species diversity and micro-environment under different shade conditions 1997 Journal of Vegetation Science
    Vol. 8(6), pp. 873-880 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kobayashi1997,
      author = {Kobayashi, T. and Hori, Y. and Nomoto, N.},
      title = {Effects of trampling and vegetation removal on species diversity and micro-environment under different shade conditions},
      journal = {Journal of Vegetation Science},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {8},
      number = {6},
      pages = {873--880},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.2307/3237032},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3237032}
    }
    
    Koch, C. & Kollmann, J. Clonal Re-Introduction of Endangered Plant Species: The Case of German False Tamarisk in Pre-Alpine Rivers. 2012 Environmental management  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The scope of re-introduction as a measure for plant species protection is increasing, but as long as no standardized methods are available, species-specific assessments are necessary to determine whether seeds, adult plants or plant fragments should be used. The endangered German False Tamarisk (Myricaria germanica), which occurs on gravel bars along pre-alpine rivers, is difficult to grow from seeds. Thus, propagation of stem cuttings was investigated as an alternative method. Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse and a field site with three treatments: cutting length 5 or 10 cm, vertical burial 5 or 10 cm, and water level low or high. Plants grown in the greenhouse were transplanted to the River Isar to test establishment of rooted cuttings on gravel bars. The cuttings in the greenhouse showed high survival (34-96 . Survival and biomass production were greatest for 10-cm cuttings buried at 10-cm depth, while only one of the 5-cm cuttings survived at this depth, and no significant effect of variation in water level was observed. None of the cuttings transplanted to field sites survived, most likely because of drought stress and competition. We conclude that for re-introduction of Myricaria germanica rooted cuttings can be easily produced in large quantities, while transplantation to near-natural environments has to be improved to reduce mortality.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Koch2012,
      author = {Koch, Christiane and Kollmann, Johannes},
      title = {Clonal Re-Introduction of Endangered Plant Species: The Case of German False Tamarisk in Pre-Alpine Rivers.},
      journal = {Environmental management},
      year = {2012},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/u0404063214g8m0t/},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-012-9880-z}
    }
    
    Koh, L.P., Lee, T.M., Sodhi, N.S. & Ghazoul, J. An overhaul of the species-area approach for predicting biodiversity loss: incorporating matrix and edge effects 2010 Journal of Applied Ecology, pp. no-no  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Koh2010,
      author = {Koh, Lian Pin and Lee, Tien Ming and Sodhi, Navjot S. and Ghazoul, Jaboury},
      title = {An overhaul of the species-area approach for predicting biodiversity loss: incorporating matrix and edge effects},
      journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {no--no},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01860.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01860.x}
    }
    
    Kokaly, R.F., Despain, D.G., Clark, R.N. & Livo, K.E. Mapping vegetation in Yellowstone National Park using spectral feature analysis of AVIRIS data 2003 Remote Sensing of Environment
    Vol. 84, pp. 437-456 
    article  
    Abstract: Knowledge of the distribution of vegetation on the landscape can be used to investigate ecosystem functioning. The sizes and movements of animal populations can be linked to resources provided by different plant species. This paper demonstrates the application of imaging spectroscopy to the study of vegetation in Yellowstone National Park (Yellowstone) using spectral feature analysis of data from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). AVIRIS data, acquired on August 7, 1996, were calibrated to surface reflectance using a radiative transfer model and field reflectance measurements of a ground calibration site. A spectral library of canopy reflectance signatures was created by averaging pixels of the calibrated AVIRIS data over areas of known forest and nonforest vegetation cover types in Yellowstone. Using continuum removal and least squares fitting algorithms in the US Geological Survey’s Tetracorder expert system, the distributions of these vegetation types were determined by comparing the absorption features of vegetation in the spectral library with the spectra from the AVIRIS data. The 0.68 Am chlorophyll absorption feature and leaf water absorption features, centered near 0.98 and 1.20 Am, were analyzed. Nonforest cover types of sagebrush, grasslands, willows, sedges, and other wetland vegetation were mapped in the Lamar Valley of Yellowstone. Conifer cover types of lodgepole pine, whitebark pine, Douglas fir, and mixed Engelmann spruce/subalpine fir forests were spectrally discriminated and their distributions mapped in the AVIRIS images. In the Mount Washburn area of Yellowstone, a comparison of the AVIRIS map of forest cover types to a map derived from air photos resulted in an overall agreement of 74.1% (kappa statistic = 0.62).
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kokaly2003,
      author = {Kokaly, Raymond F and Despain, Don G and Clark, Roger N and Livo, K Eric},
      title = {Mapping vegetation in Yellowstone National Park using spectral feature analysis of AVIRIS data},
      journal = {Remote Sensing of Environment},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {84},
      pages = {437--456}
    }
    
    Koleff, P., Gaston, K.J. & Lennon, J.J. Measuring beta diversity for presence-absence data 2003 Journal of Animal Ecology
    Vol. 72(3), pp. 367-382 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Koleff2003,
      author = {Koleff, Patricia and Gaston, Kevin J. and Lennon, Jack J.},
      title = {Measuring beta diversity for presence-absence data},
      journal = {Journal of Animal Ecology},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {72},
      number = {3},
      pages = {367--382},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1046/j.1365-2656.2003.00710.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2656.2003.00710.x}
    }
    
    Kollmann, J. & Schneider, B. Landscape structure and diversity of fleshy-fruited species at forest edges 1999 Plant Ecology
    Vol. 144, pp. 37-48 
    article  
    Abstract: This study investigates correlations between mean -diversity of woody species (fleshy-fruited and non-fleshyfruited) at forest edges and the attributes of the sites and of the adjacent landscape that might influence it. For a total of 45 forest edges in three areas in northern Switzerland species composition and structure of the edges were recorded. Based on aerial photographs, maps and a ground survey, the adjacent landscape within a radius of 100 m was mapped with GIS for two time periods (1952–1954 and 1994–1997). Diversity of fleshy-fruited species was higher at forest edges adjacent to nutrient-poor grassland or small roads compared with fertilized meadows. A positive correlation existed between diversity of fleshy-fruited species and density of isolated trees in the surroundings, although some trees have disappeared since 1952. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the diversity of fleshy-fruited species correlated positively with edge height and depth, and negatively with mean patch size in the adjacent landscape; a significant fraction of the variation among sites was also explained by the geological bedrock. Only a few other attributes of the sites and of their surroundings had a significant effect. Mean -diversity of non-fleshy-fruited species correlated with only two landscape attributes, i.e. total forest area and geology. The results are discussed on the basis of dispersal of fleshy-fruited species by passerine birds. The resulting hypothesis is that an increase in species diversity along forest edges is partly controlled by bird-mediated landscape effects.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kollmann1999,
      author = {Kollmann, Johannes and Schneider, Barbara},
      title = {Landscape structure and diversity of fleshy-fruited species at forest edges},
      journal = {Plant Ecology},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {144},
      pages = {37--48}
    }
    
    Korevaar, H. The nitrogen balance on intensive Dutch dairy farms: a review 1992 Livestock-Production Science
    Vol. 31, pp. 17-27 
    article  
    Abstract: Recently the governments in the Netherlands and some other Western European countries have set a number of targets to reduce nitrogen losses from agriculture to the environment in near future.
    The nitrogen balance of a farm shows the difference between N-input and N-output. The N-surplus is a potential source for loss to the environment. At present only about 14% of the N-input is recovered in milk and meat on intensive dairy farms in the Netherlands. High losses of nutrients occur during the conversion of grass, roughage and concentrates to dairy products, with animal manure as a by-product. Only a low percentage of the nitrogen from the animal manure is utilized.
    Different techniques, such as slurry handling and application and adaptation of nutrition are available to reduce the N-losses. By optimizing these different techniques into an integrated system it is possible to reduce substantially the N-losses by better management of feeding and manuring. Farm scale studies describe reductions of N-surplus by 25 to 50% within a couple of years. Estimations indicate that with an optimized package of measures a further reduction of the N-surplus might be possible.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Korevaar1992,
      author = {Korevaar, H.},
      title = {The nitrogen balance on intensive Dutch dairy farms: a review},
      journal = {Livestock-Production Science},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {31},
      pages = {17--27}
    }
    
    Koschack, J. Standardabweichung und Standardfehler: der kleine, aber feine Unterschied 2008 Z Allg Med
    Vol. 84(6), pp. 258-260 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Koschack2008,
      author = {Koschack, J.},
      title = {Standardabweichung und Standardfehler: der kleine, aber feine Unterschied},
      journal = {Z Allg Med},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {84},
      number = {6},
      pages = {258--260},
      url = {http://www.thieme-connect.com/ejournals/abstract/zfa/doi/10.1055/s-2008-1073146 http://www.thieme-connect.de/DOI/DOI?10.1055/s-2008-1073146},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2008-1073146}
    }
    
    Kosoy, N. & Corbera, E. Payments for ecosystem services as commodity fetishism 2010 Ecological Economics
    Vol. 69(6), pp. 1228-1236 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) economically reward resource managers for the provision of ecosystem services and are thus characterised by (i) an ecological function subject to trade; (ii) the establishment of a standard unit of exchange; (iii) and supply, demand and intermediation flows between those who sell and buy ecosystem services. This paper departs from the term commodity fetishism, broadly understood as the masking of the social relationships underlying the process of production, to illuminate three invisibilities in the commodification of ecosystem services. Firstly, we argue that narrowing down the complexity of ecosystems to a single service has serious technical difficulties and ethical implications on the way we relate to and perceive nature. Secondly, the commodification of ecosystem services denies the multiplicity of values which can be attributed to these services, since it requires that a single exchange-value is adopted for trading. Finally, we suggest that the process of production, exchange and consumption of ecosystem services is characterised by power asymmetries which may contribute to reproducing rather than addressing existing inequalities in the access to natural resources and services.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kosoy2010,
      author = {Kosoy, Nicolás and Corbera, Esteve},
      title = {Payments for ecosystem services as commodity fetishism},
      journal = {Ecological Economics},
      publisher = {Elsevier B.V.},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {69},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1228--1236},
      url = {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0921800909004510},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009.11.002}
    }
    
    Kratochwil, A. Grundsätzliche Überlegungen zu einer Roten Liste von Biotopen 1989 Schriftenreihe für Landschaftspflege und Naturschutz, pp. 136-150  article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kratochwil1989,
      author = {Kratochwil, Anselm},
      title = {Grundsätzliche Überlegungen zu einer Roten Liste von Biotopen},
      journal = {Schriftenreihe für Landschaftspflege und Naturschutz},
      year = {1989},
      pages = {136--150},
      url = {http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&btnG=Search&q=intitle:Grundsätzliche+Überlegungen+zu+einer+Roten+Liste+von+Biotopen0}
    }
    
    Krautzer, B., Graiss, W., Peratoner, G., Partl, C., Venerus, S. & Klug, B. The influence of recultivation technique and seed mixture on erosion stability after restoration in mountain environment 2011 Natural Hazards
    Vol. 56(2), pp. 547-557 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Krautzer2011,
      author = {Krautzer, Bernhard and Graiss, Wilhelm and Peratoner, Giovanni and Partl, Christian and Venerus, Sonia and Klug, Brigitte},
      title = {The influence of recultivation technique and seed mixture on erosion stability after restoration in mountain environment},
      journal = {Natural Hazards},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {56},
      number = {2},
      pages = {547--557},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/index/10.1007/s11069-009-9491-z},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11069-009-9491-z}
    }
    
    Krautzer, B., Lassacher, F. & Guggenberger, T. Das physiologische Alter des Pflanzenbestandes - ein Beitrag zum interdisziplinären Forschungsprojekt 'Einfluss der Grünlandbewirtschaftung auf die Milchproduktion' 2000 27. Viehwirtschaftliche Fachtagung, 6.-8. Juni, pp. 107-110  inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Krautzer2000,
      author = {Krautzer, B. and Lassacher, F. and Guggenberger, Thomas},
      title = {Das physiologische Alter des Pflanzenbestandes - ein Beitrag zum interdisziplinären Forschungsprojekt 'Einfluss der Grünlandbewirtschaftung auf die Milchproduktion'},
      booktitle = {27. Viehwirtschaftliche Fachtagung, 6.-8. Juni},
      publisher = {Bundesanstalt für alpenländische Landwirtschaft Gumpenstein},
      year = {2000},
      pages = {107--110}
    }
    
    Kueffer, C. & Hadorn, G.H. How to Achieve Effectiveness in Problem-Oriented Landscape Research: The Example of Research on Biotic Invasions 2008 Living Reviews in Landscape Research, pp. 49  article  
    Abstract: It is increasingly expected from environmental research such as landscape research that science directly contributes to the solving of pressing societal problems. However, despite increased efforts to direct research towards societal problems, it is not obvious if science has become more effective in supporting environmental problem-solving. We present in this article a framework that facilitates the analysis and design of problem-orientation in research fields. We then apply the proposed framework to a concrete example of a problem-oriented landscape research field - namely research on biotic invasions. Invasion research addresses the problem that some organisms, that have been introduced by humans to a new geographic area where they were previously not present, spread in the landscape and pose negative impacts. We argue that problem-oriented research is more than applied research. Besides research on specific questions it also encompasses boundary management, i.e., deliberations among experts and stakeholders on the framing of adequate research questions about processes, values and practices for effective problem-solving. We postulate that such research may assist problem-solving in three ways, by analysing causal relationships (systems knowledge), clarifying conflicts of interests and values (target knowledge), or contributing to the development of appropriate means for action (transformation knowledge). We show that over the past decades a broad range of different research approaches has emerged in the young field of invasion research in order to produce systems, target and transformation knowledge for invasive species management. Early research in the field was dominated by the development of systems knowledge, but increasingly the three knowledge forms are treated more equally. The research field has also become more interdisciplinary and context-specific.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kueffer2008,
      author = {Kueffer, Christoph and Hadorn, Gertrude Hirsch},
      title = {How to Achieve Effectiveness in Problem-Oriented Landscape Research: The Example of Research on Biotic Invasions},
      journal = {Living Reviews in Landscape Research},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {49}
    }
    
    Kuhn, M. Building Predictive Models in R Using the caret Package 2008 Journal of Statistical Software
    Vol. 28(5), pp. 1-26 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The caret package, short for classification and regression training, contains numerous tools for developing predictive models using the rich set of models available in R. The package focuses on simplifying model training and tuning across a wide variety of modeling techniques. It also includes methods for pre-processing training data, calculating variable importance, and model visualizations. An example from computational chemistry is used to illustrate the functionality on a real data set and to benchmark the benefits of parallel processing with several types of models.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kuhn2008,
      author = {Kuhn, Max},
      title = {Building Predictive Models in R Using the caret Package},
      journal = {Journal of Statistical Software},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {28},
      number = {5},
      pages = {1--26},
      url = {http://www.jstatsoft.org/v28/i05/}
    }
    
    Kuhnert, P.M., Martin, T.G. & Griffiths, S.P. A guide to eliciting and using expert knowledge in Bayesian ecological models 2010 Ecology Letters
    Vol. 13(7), pp. 900-914 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Expert knowledge in ecology is gaining momentum as a tool for conservation decision-making where data are lacking. Yet, little information is available to help a researcher decide whether expert opinion is useful for their model, how an elicitation should be conducted, what the most relevant method for elicitation is and how this can be translated into prior distributions for analysis in a Bayesian model. In this study, we provide guidance in using expert knowledge in a transparent and credible manner to inform ecological models and ultimately natural resource and conservation decision-making. We illustrate the decisions faced when considering the use of expert knowledge in a model with the help of two real ecological case studies. These examples are explored further to examine the impact of expert knowledge through 'priors' in Bayesian modeling and specifically how to minimize potential bias. Finally, we make recommendations on the use of expert opinion in ecology. We believe if expert knowledge is elicited and incorporated into ecological models with the same level of rigour provided in the collection and use of empirical data, expert knowledge can increase the precision of models and facilitate informed decision-making in a cost-effective manner.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kuhnert2010,
      author = {Kuhnert, Petra M. and Martin, Tara G. and Griffiths, Shane P.},
      title = {A guide to eliciting and using expert knowledge in Bayesian ecological models},
      journal = {Ecology Letters},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {13},
      number = {7},
      pages = {900--914},
      url = {http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/123443069/abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2010.01477.x}
    }
    
    Kulakowski, D., Bebi, P. & Rixen, C. The interacting effects of land use change, climate change and suppression of natural disturbances on landscape forest structure in the Swiss alps 2010 Oikos, pp. no-no  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kulakowski2010,
      author = {Kulakowski, Dominik and Bebi, Peter and Rixen, Christian},
      title = {The interacting effects of land use change, climate change and suppression of natural disturbances on landscape forest structure in the Swiss alps},
      journal = {Oikos},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {no--no},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2010.18726.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2010.18726.x}
    }
    
    Kunz, J. Auswirkungen der Beweidung im landwirtschaftlichen Betrieb auf die Artenzusammensetzung des Grünlandes 2005 , pp. 65pp.School: Hochschule für Wirtschaft und Umwelt Nürtingen-Geislingen  phdthesis  
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Kunz2005,
      author = {Kunz, Julia},
      title = {Auswirkungen der Beweidung im landwirtschaftlichen Betrieb auf die Artenzusammensetzung des Grünlandes},
      school = {Hochschule für Wirtschaft und Umwelt Nürtingen-Geislingen},
      year = {2005},
      pages = {65pp.}
    }
    
    Kustas, W. Effects of remote sensing pixel resolution on modeled energy flux variability of croplands in Iowa 2004 Remote Sensing of Environment
    Vol. 92(4), pp. 535-547 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: With increased availability of satellite data products used in mapping surface energy balance and evapotranspiration (ET), routine ET monitoring at large scales is becoming more feasible. Daily satellite coverage is available, but an essential model input, surface temperature, is at 1 km or greater pixel resolution. At such coarse spatial resolutions, the capability to monitor the impact of land cover change and disturbances on ET or to evaluate ET from different crop covers is severely hampered. The effect of sensor resolution on model output for an agricultural region in central Iowa is examined using Landsat data collected during the Soil Moisture Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (SMACEX). This study was conducted in concert with the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02). Two images collected during a rapid growth period in soybean and corn crops are used with a two-source (soil +vegetation) energy balance model, which explicitly evaluates soil and vegetation contributions to the radiative temperature and to the net turbulent exchange/surface energy balance. The pixel resolution of the remote sensing inputs are varied from 60 m to 120, 240, and 960 m. Model output at high resolution are first validated with tower and aircraft-based flux measurements to assure reliability of model computations. Histograms of the flux distributions and resulting statistics at the different pixel resolutions are compared and contrasted. Results indicate that when the input resolution is on the order of 1000 m, variation in fluxes, particularly ET, between corn and soybean fields is not feasible. However, results also suggest that thermal sharpening techniques for estimating surface temperature at higher resolutions (f250 m) using the visible/near infrared waveband resolutions could provide enough spatial detail for discriminating ET from individual corn and soybean fields. Additional support for this nominal resolution requirement is deduced from a geostatistical analysis of the vegetation index and surface temperature images.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kustas2004,
      author = {Kustas, W},
      title = {Effects of remote sensing pixel resolution on modeled energy flux variability of croplands in Iowa},
      journal = {Remote Sensing of Environment},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {92},
      number = {4},
      pages = {535--547},
      url = {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S003442570400183X},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2004.02.020}
    }
    
    Löttker, P., Rummel, A., Traube, M., Stache, A., Šustr, P., Müller, J. & Heurich, M. New Possibilities of Observing Animal Behaviour from a Distance Using Activity Sensors in GPS-Collars: An Attempt to Calibrate Remotely Collected Activity Data with Direct Behavioural Observations in Red Deer Cervus elaphus 2009 Wildlife Biology
    Vol. 15(4), pp. 425-434 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Loettker2009,
      author = {Löttker, Petra and Rummel, Anna and Traube, Miriam and Stache, Anja and Šustr, Pavel and Müller, Jörg and Heurich, Marco},
      title = {New Possibilities of Observing Animal Behaviour from a Distance Using Activity Sensors in GPS-Collars: An Attempt to Calibrate Remotely Collected Activity Data with Direct Behavioural Observations in Red Deer Cervus elaphus},
      journal = {Wildlife Biology},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {15},
      number = {4},
      pages = {425--434},
      url = {http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.2981/08-014},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2981/08-014}
    }
    
    Lütz, M. & Felici, F. Indicators to identify the agricultural pressures on environmental functions and their use in the development of agri-environmental measures 2008 Regional Environmental Change
    Vol. 9(3), pp. 181-196 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The effects of agricultural activities on the environment can be presented by suitable pressure indicators. These pressure indicators can also be used as control variables to achieve a desired environmental state. Therefore, pressure indicators can play a decisive role in the elaboration of agri-environmental measures. This paper deals with the use of pressure indicators to assess the sustainability of agricultural land use on the one hand, and their contribution to the development of agri-environmental measures on the other hand. After the illustration of the general political background on the CAP evolution and the information needed for monitoring, control and ex-post assessment, the methodological approach of the AEMBAC project to provide this information is presented. Experiences in applying pressure indicators in assessing the agrienvironmental measures are discussed and their applicability for the identification of environmental impacts, management and monitoring is evaluated.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Luetz2008,
      author = {Lütz, Michael and Felici, Francesco},
      title = {Indicators to identify the agricultural pressures on environmental functions and their use in the development of agri-environmental measures},
      journal = {Regional Environmental Change},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {9},
      number = {3},
      pages = {181--196},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/c1136856k55437t2/ http://www.springerlink.com/index/10.1007/s10113-008-0061-9},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10113-008-0061-9}
    }
    
    Laca, E. a., Sokolow, S., Galli, J.R. & Cangiano, C. a. Allometry and spatial scales of foraging in mammalian herbivores. 2010 Ecology letters  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Herbivores forage in spatially complex habitats. Due to allometry and scale-dependent foraging, herbivores are hypothesized to perceive and respond to heterogeneity of resources at scales relative to their body sizes. This hypothesis has not been manipulatively tested for animals with only moderate differences in body size and similar food niches. We compared short-term spatial foraging behavior of two herbivores (sheep and cattle) with similar dietary niche but differing body size. Although intake rates scaled allometrically with body mass (mass(0.75)), spatial foraging strategies substantially differed, with cattle exhibiting a coarser-grained use of the 'foodscape.' Selectivity by cattle (and not sheep) for their preferred food was more restricted when patches were smaller (< 10 m(2)). We conclude that differences in spatial scales of selection offers a plausible mechanism by which species can coexist on shared resources that exhibit multiple scales of spatial heterogeneity.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Laca2010,
      author = {Laca, Emilio a and Sokolow, Susanne and Galli, Julio R and Cangiano, Carlos a},
      title = {Allometry and spatial scales of foraging in mammalian herbivores.},
      journal = {Ecology letters},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20100240},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2009.01423.x}
    }
    
    Ladau, J. & Ryan, S.J. MPowering ecologists: community assembly tools for community assembly rules 2009 Oikos
    Vol. 9999(9999) 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Null model tests of presence-absence data ('NMTPAs') provide important tools for inferring effects of competition, facilitation, habitat filtering, and other ecological processes from observational data. Many NMTPAs have been developed, but they often yield conflicting conclusions when applied to the same data. Type I and II error rates, size, power, robustness and bias provide important criteria for assessing which tests are valid, but these criteria need to be evaluated contingent on the sample size, null hypothesis of interest, and assumptions that are appropriate for the data set that is being analyzed. In this paper, we confirm that this is the case using the software MPower, evaluating the validity of NMTPAs contingent on the null hypothesis being tested, assumptions that can be made, and sample size. Evaluating the validity of NMTPAs contingent on these factors is important towards ensuring that reliable inferences are drawn from observational data about the processes controlling community assembly.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ladau2009,
      author = {Ladau, Joshua and Ryan, Sadie J},
      title = {MPowering ecologists: community assembly tools for community assembly rules},
      journal = {Oikos},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {9999},
      number = {9999},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2009.17574.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2009.17574.x}
    }
    
    Lahdelma, R., Salminen, P. & Hokkanen, J. Using Multicriteria Methods in Environmental Planning and Management. 2000 Environmental management
    Vol. 26(6), pp. 595-605 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: In environmental planning and decision processes several alternatives are analyzed in terms of multiple noncommensurate criteria, and many different stakeholders with conflicting preferences are involved. Based on our experience in real-life applications, we discuss how multicriteria decision aid (MCDA) methods can be used successfully in such processes. MCDA methods support these processes by providing a framework for collecting, storing, and processing all relevant information, thus making the decision process traceable and transparent. It is therefore possible to understand and explain why, under several conflicting preferences, a particular decision was made. The MCDA framework also makes the requirements for new information explicit, thus supporting the allocation of resources for the process.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lahdelma2000,
      author = {Lahdelma, R and Salminen, P and Hokkanen, J},
      title = {Using Multicriteria Methods in Environmental Planning and Management.},
      journal = {Environmental management},
      publisher = {Springer New York},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {26},
      number = {6},
      pages = {595--605},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/hgl418qlam18jjl3/},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002670010118}
    }
    
    Laliberté, E. & Legendre, P. A distance-based framework for measuring functional diversity from multiple traits 2010 Ecology
    Vol. 91(1), pp. 299-305 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Laliberte2010a,
      author = {Laliberté, Etienne and Legendre, Pierre},
      title = {A distance-based framework for measuring functional diversity from multiple traits},
      journal = {Ecology},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {91},
      number = {1},
      pages = {299--305},
      url = {http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/08-2244.1},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/08-2244.1}
    }
    
    Laliberté, E., Shipley, B., Norton, D.A. & Scott, D. Which plant traits determine abundance under long-term shifts in soil resource availability and grazing intensity? 2012 Journal of Ecology, pp. no-no  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Laliberte2012,
      author = {Laliberté, Etienne and Shipley, Bill and Norton, David A. and Scott, David},
      title = {Which plant traits determine abundance under long-term shifts in soil resource availability and grazing intensity?},
      journal = {Journal of Ecology},
      year = {2012},
      pages = {no--no},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2011.01947.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2011.01947.x}
    }
    
    Laliberté, E., Wells, J.A., DeClerck, F., Metcalfe, D.J., Catterall, C.P., Queiroz, C., Aubin, I., Bonser, S.P., Ding, Y., Fraterrigo, J.M., McNamara, S., Morgan, J.W., Merlos, D.S., Vesk, P.A. & Mayfield, M.M. Land-use intensification reduces functional redundancy and response diversity in plant communities 2010 Ecology Letters
    Vol. 13(1), pp. 76-86 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Ecosystem resilience depends on functional redundancy (the number of species contributing similarly to an ecosystem function) and response diversity (how functionally similar species respond differently to disturbance). Here, we explore how land-use change impacts these attributes in plant communities, using data from 18 land-use intensity gradients that represent five biomes and more than 2800 species. We identify functional groups using multivariate analysis of plant traits which influence ecosystem processes. Functional redundancy is calculated as the species richness within each group, and response diversity as the multivariate within-group dispersion in response trait space, using traits that influence responses to disturbances. Meta-analysis across all datasets showed that land-use intensification significantly reduced both functional redundancy and response diversity, although specific relationships varied considerably among the different land-use gradients. These results indicate that intensified management of ecosystems for resource extraction can increase their vulnerability to future disturbances.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Laliberte2010b,
      author = {Laliberté, Etienne and Wells, Jessie A and DeClerck, Fabrice and Metcalfe, Daniel J and Catterall, Carla P and Queiroz, Cibele and Aubin, Isabelle and Bonser, Stephen P and Ding, Yi and Fraterrigo, Jennifer M and McNamara, Sean and Morgan, John W and Merlos, Dalia Sánchez and Vesk, Peter A and Mayfield, Margaret M},
      title = {Land-use intensification reduces functional redundancy and response diversity in plant communities},
      journal = {Ecology Letters},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {13},
      number = {1},
      pages = {76--86},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2009.01403.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2009.01403.x}
    }
    
    Laliberte, a., Rango, A., Havstad, K., Paris, J., Beck, R., Mcneely, R. & Gonzalez, A. Object-oriented image analysis for mapping shrub encroachment from 1937 to 2003 in southern New Mexico 2004 Remote Sensing of Environment
    Vol. 93(1-2), pp. 198-210 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Shrub encroachment into arid and semi-arid grasslands in the southwestern United States is of concern because increased shrub cover leads to declines in species diversity, water availability, grazing capacity, and soil organic matter. Although it is well known that shrubs have increased over time, we have little quantitative information related to the non-linear nature of this vegetation change over a particular period. On the Jornada Experimental Range (JER; USDA-ARS) and the adjacent Chihuahuan Desert Rangeland Research Center (CDRRC; New Mexico State University) in southern New Mexico, shrub increase has been measured with various ground survey techniques extending back to 1858. For this study, we used 11 aerial photos taken between 1937 and 1996 that covered a 150-ha study area and had sufficient resolution for shrub detection. A QuickBird satellite image provided coverage for 2003.We used image segmentation and object-based classification to monitor vegetation changes over time. Shrub cover increased from 0.9% in 1937 to 13.1% in 2003, while grass cover declined from 18.5% to 1.9 Vegetation dynamics reflected changes in precipitation patterns, in particular, effects of the 1951–1956 drought. Accuracy assessment showed that shrub and grass cover was underestimated due to the constraint of the pixel size. About 87% of all shrubs N2m2 were detected. The use of object-based classification has advantages over pixel based classification for the extraction of shrubs from panchromatic aerial and high-resolution satellite imagery. Incorporating both spectral and spatial image information approximates the way humans interpret information visually from aerial photos, but has the benefit of an automated classification routine. Combining several scales of analysis in a hierarchical segmentation method is appropriate in an ecological sense and allows for determining shrub density in coarser level classes. Despite encountering difficulties in analyzing a greatly varying aerial photo data set, including variability in spectral and spatial resolutions, moisture conditions, time of year of observation, and appearance of grass cover, aerial photos provide an invaluable historic record for monitoring shrub encroachment into a desert grassland.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Laliberte2004,
      author = {Laliberte, a and Rango, A and Havstad, K and Paris, J and Beck, R and Mcneely, R and Gonzalez, A},
      title = {Object-oriented image analysis for mapping shrub encroachment from 1937 to 2003 in southern New Mexico},
      journal = {Remote Sensing of Environment},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {93},
      number = {1-2},
      pages = {198--210},
      url = {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0034425704002147},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2004.07.011}
    }
    
    Lang, S. & Blaschke, T. Landschaftsanalyse mit GIS 2007 , pp. 404  book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Lang2007,
      author = {Lang, Stefan and Blaschke, Thomas},
      title = {Landschaftsanalyse mit GIS},
      publisher = {Verlag Eugen Ulmer},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {404}
    }
    
    Laughlin, D.C., Joshi, C., Bodegom, P.M., Bastow, Z.A. & Fulé, P.Z. A predictive model of community assembly that incorporates intraspecific trait variation 2012 Ecology Letters, pp. n/a-n/a  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Community assembly involves two antagonistic processes that select functional traits in opposite directions. Environmental filtering tends to increase the functional similarity of species within communities leading to trait convergence, whereas competition tends to limit the functional similarity of species within communities leading to trait divergence. Here, we introduce a new hierarchical Bayesian model that incorporates intraspecific trait variation into a predictive framework to unify classic coexistence theory and evolutionary biology with recent trait-based approaches. Model predictions exhibited a significant positive correlation (r = 0.66) with observed relative abundances along a 10 °C gradient in mean annual temperature. The model predicted the correct dominant species in half of the plots, and accurately reproduced species' temperature optimums. The framework is generalizable to any ecosystem as it can accommodate any species pool, any set of functional traits and multiple environmental gradients, and it eliminates some of the criticisms associated with recent trait-based community assembly models.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Laughlin2012,
      author = {Laughlin, Daniel C. and Joshi, Chaitanya and Bodegom, Peter M. and Bastow, Zachary A. and Fulé, Peter Z.},
      title = {A predictive model of community assembly that incorporates intraspecific trait variation},
      journal = {Ecology Letters},
      year = {2012},
      pages = {n/a--n/a},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22906233},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2012.01852.x}
    }
    
    Laurie, H. & Perrier, E. Beyond species area curves: application of a scale-free measure for spatial variability of species richness 2011 Oikos
    Vol. 120(7), pp. 966-978 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: We report a novel pattern in species richness, complementary to the well-known species–area relationship. We show that, as sample area increases, the variation in relative richness decreases among otherwise comparable spatial units. This pattern holds for southern African birds, French birds, Cape Proteaceae and the trees of Barro Colorado Island. We propose a scale-free method for quantifying this pattern by measuring the multifractal intensity of species richness, which is the multi-scale tendency of adjacent patches with the same area to differ in richness. By this measure, spatial variability is strongest for Cape Proteaceae and weakest for Barro Colorado Island trees. Our results have implications for area-dependent estimates of species-richness, for example in reserve planning and in simulation-based studies. They imply that such estimates are most accurate for large areas, and will be subject to substantial uncertainty when the multifractal intensity is high and the area is small. For comparative purposes, multifractal intensity may be used as a supplement or as an alternative to mean richness, as well as for other ecological densities, such as biomass distribution and local abundance.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Laurie2011,
      author = {Laurie, Henri and Perrier, Edith},
      title = {Beyond species area curves: application of a scale-free measure for spatial variability of species richness},
      journal = {Oikos},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {120},
      number = {7},
      pages = {966--978},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2010.19134.x}
    }
    
    Lausch, A. Raum, Zeit, Struktur und Skala in Habitatmodellen – Eine Einfuhrung 2004
    Vol. UFZ-BerichHabitatmodelle – Methodik, Anwendung, Nutzen. Tagungsband zum Workshop vom 8.-10. Oktober 2003 am UFZ Leipzig, pp. 69-82 
    inproceedings  
    Abstract: Ziel der Habitatmodellierung ist die Untersuchung okologisch relevanter artspezifischer Habitat- und Umweltfaktoren, die das Vorkommen bzw. Nichtvorkommen einer Art, Artengemeinschaft im Habitat und der Landschaft erklärt. Zur Untersuchung und Bewertung von Art - Habitat - Wechselwirkungen ist neben der Aufstellung von Hypothesen, die Inwertsetzung der Habitat- und Umweltfaktoren erforderlich. Hierbei spielen die Faktoren der räumlichen Skala (Grain und Extent), die Struktur und das Muster sowie die Dynamik der gewählten Habitatfaktoren eine auß erordentlich groß e Rolle. Neben der richtigen Wahl des statistischen Verfahrens sind sie für den Erfolg des Habitatmodells verantwortlich. Genaue Kenntnisse und Erfordernisse zu Qualität, Informationstiefe, notwendiger Verarbeitung und Bewertung tragen zum Erfolg eines Guten aussagekräftigen Habitatmodells bei.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Lausch2004,
      author = {Lausch, Angela},
      title = {Raum, Zeit, Struktur und Skala in Habitatmodellen – Eine Einfuhrung},
      booktitle = {Habitatmodelle – Methodik, Anwendung, Nutzen. Tagungsband zum Workshop vom 8.-10. Oktober 2003 am UFZ Leipzig},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {UFZ-Berich},
      pages = {69--82}
    }
    
    Lavorel, S., Grigulis, K., Lamarque, P., Colace, M.-P., Garden, D., Girel, J., Pellet, G. & Douzet, R. Using plant functional traits to understand the landscape distribution of multiple ecosystem services 2010 Journal of Ecology, pp. 1-13  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: 1. Spatially explicit understanding of the delivery of multiple ecosystem services (ES) from global to local scales is currently limited. New studies analysing the simultaneous provision of multiple services at landscape scale should aid the understanding of multiple ES delivery and trade-offs to support policy, management and land planning. 2. Here, we propose a new approach for the analysis, mapping and understanding of multiple ES delivery in landscapes. Spatially explicit single ES models based on plant traits and abiotic charac- teristics are combined to identify ‘hot’ and ‘cold’ spots of multiple ES delivery, and the land use and biotic determinants of such distributions. We demonstrate the value of this trait-based approach as compared to a pure land-use approach for a pastoral landscape from the central French Alps, and highlight how it improves understanding of ecological constraints to, and opportunities for, the delivery of multiple services. 3. Vegetative height and leaf traits such as leaf dry matter content were response traits strongly influenced by land use and abiotic environment, with follow-on effects on several ecosystem proper- ties, and could therefore be used as functional markers of ES. 4. Patterns of association among ES were related to the dominant traits underlying different eco- system properties. The functional decoupling between height and leaf traits provided alternative pathways for high agronomic value, as well as determining hot and cold spots of ES. Traditional land uses such as organic fertilization and mowing or altitude summer grazing were also linked with ES hot spots, because functional characteristics supporting fodder production and quality are com- patible with species and functional diversity. 5. Synthesis. Analyses of ES using plant functional variation across landscapes are a powerful approach to understanding the fundamental ecological mechanisms underlying ES provision, and trade-offs or synergies among services. Sustainable management of species and functionally diverse grassland could simultaneously aim at conserving biodiversity and locally important ES by taking advantage of correlations and trade-offs among different plant functional traits.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lavorel2010,
      author = {Lavorel, Sandra and Grigulis, Karl and Lamarque, Pénélope and Colace, Marie-Pascale and Garden, Denys and Girel, Jacky and Pellet, Gilles and Douzet, Rolland},
      title = {Using plant functional traits to understand the landscape distribution of multiple ecosystem services},
      journal = {Journal of Ecology},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {1--13},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2010.01753.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2010.01753.x}
    }
    
    Law, R., Illian, J., Burslem, D.F.R.P., Gratzer, G., Gunatilleke, C.V.S. & Gunatilleke, I.A.U.N. Ecological information from spatial patterns of plants: insights from point process theory 2009 Journal of Ecology
    Vol. 97(4), pp. 616-628 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: 1. This article reviews the application of some summary statistics from current theory of spatial point processes for extracting information from spatial patterns of plants. Theoretical measures and issues connected with their estimation are described. Results are illustrated in the context of specific ecological questions about spatial patterns of trees in two forests. 2. The pair correlation function, related to Ripley's K function, provides a formal measure of the density of neighbouring plants and makes precise the general notion of a 'plant's-eye' view of a community. The pair correlation function can also be used to describe spatial relationships of neighbouring plants with different qualitative properties, such as species identity and size class. 3. The mark correlation function can be used to describe the spatial relationships of quantitative measures (e.g. biomass). We discuss two types of correlation function for quantitative marks. Applying these functions to the distribution of biomass in a temperate forest, it is shown that the spatial pattern of biomass is uncoupled from the spatial pattern of plant locations. 4. The inhomogeneous pair correlation function enables first-order heterogeneity in the environment to be removed from second-order spatial statistics. We illustrate this for a tree species in a forest of high topographic heterogeneity and show that spatial aggregation remains after allowing for spatial variation in density. An alternative method, the master function, takes a weighted average of homogeneous pair correlation functions computed in subareas; when applied to the same data and compared with the former method, the spatial aggregations are smaller in size. 5. Synthesis. These spatial statistics, especially those derived from pair densities, will help ecologists to extract important ecological information from intricate spatially correlated plants in populations and communities.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Law2009,
      author = {Law, Richard and Illian, Janine and Burslem, David F R P and Gratzer, Georg and Gunatilleke, C V S and Gunatilleke, I A U N},
      title = {Ecological information from spatial patterns of plants: insights from point process theory},
      journal = {Journal of Ecology},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {97},
      number = {4},
      pages = {616--628},
      url = {http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/122430746/abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2009.01510.x}
    }
    
    Lawniczaka, A., Güsewell, S. & Verhoeven, J. Effect of N:K supply ratios on the performance of three grass species from herbaceous wetlands 2009 Basic and Applied Ecology
    Vol. 10(8), pp. 715-725 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Shifts from N limitation to P or K limitation in wetlands (e.g. due to mowing and high atmospheric N deposition) are reflected by increased N:P and N:K ratios of plant biomass and changes in species composition. So far, the implications of increased N:K ratios for wetland vegetation have hardly been investigated. We examined how the supply of N and K influences the growth of three wetland grass species (Holcus lanatus, Anthoxanthum odoratum, Deschampsia caespitosa) to determine at what N:K ratios growth is likely to be K limited, how N:K ratios influence biomass allocation and nutrient uptake, and whether the responses to high N:K ratios vary among species. Plants were grown in sand at six N:K supply ratios ranging from 0.17 to 40.5 and combined with two levels of fertility in a factorial design. In 15 weeks of growth, plant biomass increased with increasing N:K supply ratios, indicating that growth was mostly limited by N and not by K across the entire range of N:K ratios. However, there were indications of K deficiency at the highest N:K supply ratio, such as increased leaf mortality and strong reduction of K concentrations during leaf senescence. The response of total plant biomass to nutrient treatments did not differ among the three species. However, other plant traits, such as biomass allocation to roots, leaf senescence and N concentrations, suggested that D. caespitosa is better adapted to extremely low K availability than the other two species. The short-term responses of the three wetland grass species to N and K supply were similar to those found in previous experiments testing different N:P supply ratios. In both cases, growth depended mainly on N supply, despite high N:K or N:P supply ratios and very low K or P concentrations in plant biomass. In those previous experiments, P supply became more important in the second year. There are indications that the same could also be true for K in a longer-term experiment. Hence, the so-called ‘critical’ values for N:K ratios of plant biomass in the field might be lower than indicated by our short-term experiment.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lawniczaka2009,
      author = {Lawniczaka, A.E. and Güsewell, S. and Verhoeven, J.T.A.},
      title = {Effect of N:K supply ratios on the performance of three grass species from herbaceous wetlands},
      journal = {Basic and Applied Ecology},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {10},
      number = {8},
      pages = {715--725},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2009.05.004},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.10 16/j.baae.2009.05.004}
    }
    
    Lawton, J.H. Are There General Laws in Ecology? 1999 Oikos
    Vol. 84(2), pp. 177-192 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The dictionary definition of a law is: "Generalized formulation based on a series of events or processes observed to recur regularly under certain conditions; a widely observable tendency". I argue that ecology has numerous laws in this sense of the word, in the form of widespread, repeatable patterns in nature, but hardly any laws that are universally true. Typically, in other words, ecological patterns and the laws, rules and mechanisms that underpin them are contingent on the organisms involved, and their environment. This contingency is manageable at a relatively simple level of ecological organisation (for example the population dynamics of single and small numbers of species), and re-emerges also in a manageable form in large sets of species, over large spatial scales, or over long time periods, in the form of detail-free statistical patterns - recently called 'macroecology'. The contingency becomes overwhelmingly complicated at intermediate scales, characteristic of community ecology, where there a...
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lawton1999,
      author = {Lawton, John H.},
      title = {Are There General Laws in Ecology?},
      journal = {Oikos},
      publisher = {Munksgaard International Publishers, Ltd.},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {84},
      number = {2},
      pages = {177--192},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/pss/3546712}
    }
    
    Le, Q.B., Park, S.J. & Vlek, P.L.G. Land Use Dynamic Simulator (LUDAS): A multi-agent system model for simulating spatio-temporal dynamics of coupled human-landscape system. 2. Scenario-based application for impact assessment of land-use policies 2010 Ecological Informatics
    Vol. 5(3), pp. 203-221 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Assessment of future socio-ecological consequences of land-use policies is useful for supporting decisions about what and where to invest for the best overall environmental and developmental outcomes. However, the task faces a great challenge due to the inherent complexity of coupled human-landscape systems and the long-term perspective required for sustainability assessment. Multi-agent system models have been recognised to be well suited to express the co-evolutions of the human and landscape systems in response to policy interventions. This paper applies the Land Use Dynamics Simulator (LUDAS) framework presented by Le et al. [Ecological Informatics 3 (2008) 135] to a mountain watershed in central Vietnam for supporting the design of land-use policies that enhance environmental and socio-economical benefits in long term. With an exploratory modelling strategy for complex integrated systems, our purpose is to assess relative impacts of policy interventions by measuring the long-term landscape and community divergences (compared with a baseline) driven from the widest plausible range of options for a given policy. Model's tests include empirical verification and validation of sub-models, rational evaluation of coupled model's structure, and behaviour tests using sensitivity/uncertainty analyses. We design experiments of replicated simulations for relevant policy factors in the study region that include (i) forest protection zoning, (ii) agricultural extension and (iii) agrochemical subsidies. As expected, the stronger human-environment interactions the performance indicators involve, the more uncertain the indicators are. Similar to the findings globally summarised by Liu et al. [Science 317 (2007) 1513], time lags between the implementation of land-use policies and the appearance of socio-ecological consequences are observed in our case. Long-term legacies are found in the responses of the total cropping area, farm size and income distribution to changes in forest protection zoning, implying that impact assessment of nature conservation policies on rural livelihoods must be considered in multiple decades. Our comparative assessment of alternative future socio-ecological scenarios shows that it is challenging to attain better either household income or forest conservation by straightforward expanding the current agricultural extensions and subsidy schemes without improving the qualities of the services. The results also suggest that the policy intervention that strengthens the enforcement of forest protection in the critical areas of the watershed and simultaneously create incentives and opportunities for agricultural production in the less critical areas will likely promote forest restoration and community income in long run. We also discuss limitations of the simulation model and recommend future directions for model development.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Le2010,
      author = {Le, Quang Bao and Park, Soo Jin and Vlek, Paul L G},
      title = {Land Use Dynamic Simulator (LUDAS): A multi-agent system model for simulating spatio-temporal dynamics of coupled human-landscape system. 2. Scenario-based application for impact assessment of land-use policies},
      journal = {Ecological Informatics},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {5},
      number = {3},
      pages = {203--221},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B7W63-4YCS087-1/2/14527f8ceecd0bdd38c74a26660df07b},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoinf.2010.02.001}
    }
    
    Lee, K.N. Conservation Ecology: Appraising Adaptive Management 1999 Ecology and Society
    Vol. 3(2), pp. online 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Adaptive management is appraised as a policy implementation approach by examining its conceptual, technical, equity, and practical strengths and limitations. Three conclusions are drawn: (1) Adaptive management has been more influential, so far, as an idea than as a practical means of gaining insight into the behavior of ecosystems utilized and inhabited by humans. (2) Adaptive management should be used only after disputing parties have agreed to an agenda of questions to be answered using the adaptive approach; this is not how the approach has been used. (3) Efficient, effective social learning, of the kind facilitated by adaptive management, is likely to be of strategic importance in governing ecosystems as humanity searches for a sustainable economy.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lee1999,
      author = {Lee, K. N.},
      title = {Conservation Ecology: Appraising Adaptive Management},
      journal = {Ecology and Society},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {3},
      number = {2},
      pages = {online},
      url = {http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol3/iss2/art3/}
    }
    
    Legendre, P. & Anderson, M.J.M. Distance-based redundancy analysis: Testing multispecies responses in multifactorial ecological experiments 1999 Ecological Monographs
    Vol. 69(1)(1), pp. 1-24 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Legendre1999,
      author = {Legendre, Pierre and Anderson, Marti J. MJ},
      title = {Distance-based redundancy analysis: Testing multispecies responses in multifactorial ecological experiments},
      journal = {Ecological Monographs},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {69(1)},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1--24},
      url = {http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/0012-9615(1999)069[0001:DBRATM]2.0.CO;2 http://www.mendeley.com/research/distancebased-redundancy-analysis-testing-multispecies-responses-in-multifactorial-ecological-experiments/}
    }
    
    Legendre, P., Cáceres, M.D. & Borcard, D. Community surveys through space and time: testing the space-time interaction in the absence of replication 2010 Ecology
    Vol. 91(1), pp. 262-272 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Legendre2010,
      author = {Legendre, Pierre and Cáceres, Miquel De and Borcard, Daniel},
      title = {Community surveys through space and time: testing the space-time interaction in the absence of replication},
      journal = {Ecology},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {91},
      number = {1},
      pages = {262--272},
      url = {http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/09-0199.1},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/09-0199.1}
    }
    
    Legendre, P., Dale, M.R.T., Fortin, M.-J., Casgrain, P. & Gurevitch, J. Effects of Spatial Structures on the Results of Field Experiments 2004 Ecology
    Vol. 85(12), pp. 3202-3214 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Field experiments have been designed to account for spatial structures since the inception of randomized complete block designs by R. A. Fisher. In recent years, our understanding of spatial structures led to refinements in the design and analysis of field experiments in the face of spatial patterning. In the presence of spatial autocorrelation in the response variable, is it possible to optimize the experimental design to maximize the response to the experimental factors? The questions addressed in this paper are: (1) What is the effect of spatial autocorrelation on type I error of the tests of significance commonly used to analyze the results of field experiments? (2) How effectively can we control for the effect of spatial autocorrelation by the design of the experiment? (3) Which experimental designs lead to tests of significance that have greater power? (4) What is the influence of spatial autocorrelation on power of ANOVA tests of significance? This paper attempts to answer these questions through numerical simulations with known spatial autocorrelation. Response variable were simulated to represent the sum of separate effects: (1) an explanatory environmental variable (which could be used as a covariable in the analysis) with a de- terministic structure plus spatial autocorrelation, (2) an effect of the experimental treat- ments, (3) spatial autocorrelation in the response (e.g., biological) variable, and (4) a random error. The program repeatedly generated and analyzed surfaces with given parameters (1000 replicates). The rejection rate of the null hypothesis of no effect of the treatment onto the response variable provided estimates of type I error and power. The simulations showed the following: (1) In the presence of spatial autocorrelation, or if repetitive deterministic structures are present in the variables influencing the response, experimental units should not be positioned at random. (2) ANOVA that takes blocking into account is an efficient way of correcting for deterministic structures or spatial auto- correlation. (3) For constant effort, experimental designs that have more, smaller blocks, broadly spread across the experimental area, lead to tests that have more power in the presence of spatial autocorrelation. (4) Short-ranged spatial autocorrelation affects the pow- er of ANOVA tests more than large-ranged spatial autocorrelation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Legendre2004,
      author = {Legendre, Pierre and Dale, Mark R. T. and Fortin, Marie-Josée and Casgrain, Philippe and Gurevitch, Jessica},
      title = {Effects of Spatial Structures on the Results of Field Experiments},
      journal = {Ecology},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {85},
      number = {12},
      pages = {3202--3214},
      url = {http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/03-0677},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/03-0677}
    }
    
    Legendre, P. & Gallagher, E. Ecologically meaningful transformations for ordination of species data 2001 Oecologia
    Vol. 129(2), pp. 271-280 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Legendre2001,
      author = {Legendre, Pierre and Gallagher, Eugene},
      title = {Ecologically meaningful transformations for ordination of species data},
      journal = {Oecologia},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {129},
      number = {2},
      pages = {271--280},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/c8510heqk5atd31v},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s004420100716}
    }
    
    Leger, E. The adaptive value of remnant native plants in invaded communities: an example from the Great Basin. 2008 Ecological Applications
    Vol. 18(5), pp. 1226-35 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Changes in the species composition of biotic communities may alter patterns of natural selection occurring within them. Native perennial grass species in the Intermountain West are experiencing a shift in the composition of interspecific competitors from primarily perennial species to an exotic, annual grass. Thus traits that confer an advantage to perennial grasses in the presence of novel annual competitors may evolve in invaded communities. Here I show that such traits are apparent in populations of a native perennial grass, big squirreltail (Elymus multisetus M.E. Jones), exposed to cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) competitors. Dormant big squirreltail plants were collected from cheatgrass-invaded and uninvaded sites near Bordertown, California, USA, a mid-elevation (1600 m) sagebrush community, and transplanted into pots in a greenhouse. Individual plants were split into equal halves. One half was grown with competition from cheatgrass, and the other half was grown without competition. Plants collected from invaded sites responded more quickly to watering, growing more leaves in the first 10 days after transplanting. In addition, big squirreltail plants collected from invaded areas experienced a smaller decrease in plant size when grown with competition than did plants collected from uninvaded areas. Accordingly, while there were fewer big squirreltail individuals in the invaded sites, they were more competitive with cheatgrass than were the more abundant conspecifics in nearby uninvaded areas. It is possible that annual grasses were the selective force that caused these population differences, which may contribute to the long-term persistence of the native populations. While it is tempting to restore degraded areas to higher densities of natives (usually done by bringing in outside seed material), such actions may impede long-term adaptation to new conditions by arresting or reversing the direction of ongoing natural selection in the resident population. If hot spots of rapid evolutionary change can be identified within invaded systems, these areas should be managed to promote desirable change and could serve as possible sources of restoration material or reveal traits that should be prioritized during the development of restoration seed material.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Leger2008,
      author = {Leger, Elizabeth},
      title = {The adaptive value of remnant native plants in invaded communities: an example from the Great Basin.},
      journal = {Ecological Applications},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {18},
      number = {5},
      pages = {1226--35},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18686583}
    }
    
    Leopold, A.C. & Salazar, J. Understory Species Richness during Restoration of Wet Tropical Forest in Costa Rica 2008 Ecological Restoration
    Vol. 26(1), pp. 22-26 
    article URL 
    Abstract: An effort to restore wet tropical forest in Costa Rica began in 1993 with plantings of native trees in abandoned pasture land. We compared understory plant species richness in three sites planted with a mix of native tree species with under-story species in two monoculture plantations and in two secondary growth (unplanted) areas. Understory species in nearby primary forest remnants are also reported for comparison. We identified 356 understory species, ranging from 46 to 134 understory species per plot. Woody species were predominant (50-80, as were plant species relying on animals for seed dispersal (60-80. Our data indicate that substantial progress toward understory species richness can be obtained in the first decade of wet tropical forest restoration
    BibTeX:
    @article{Leopold2008,
      author = {Leopold, A Carl and Salazar, Jackeline},
      title = {Understory Species Richness during Restoration of Wet Tropical Forest in Costa Rica},
      journal = {Ecological Restoration},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {26},
      number = {1},
      pages = {22--26},
      url = {http://er.uwpress.org/cgi/content/abstract/26/1/22}
    }
    
    Leps, J. & Stursa, J. Species-Area Curve, Life History Strategies, and Succession: A Field Test of Relationships 1989 Vegetatio
    Vol. 83, pp. 249-257 
    article  
    Abstract: Changes of species richness along temporal and environmental gradients were investigated. Two data sets were used: a successional sere of old-field plant communities in the Bohemian Karst, and a set of plant communities under various intensities of disturbance in the Krkono e (Giant) Mts, both in Czechoslovakia. The species richness of a plant community is a spatial phenomenon, and should be described by the species-area relationship (using e.g. the power function S = c Az rather than by a single number. In the old-field succession, the number of species in very small plots (0.1 0.1 m) tends to increase with successional age while the number of species in larger plots (4 4 m) decreases from the third year of succession. The plant community under the highest rate of disturbance of the Krkono e Mts data set shows the lowest number of species on small plots and the highest number of species on large plots. The results may be explained using the distinction between founder- and dominance-controlled communities (Yodzis 1978, 1984). In accordance with this theory, the species-area relationship within a community is shaped mainly by the type of competitive interaction and may be predicted on the basis of life-history strategies of constituent species. Disturbance causes a shift from dominance to founder control. On the landscape scale, the species-area relationship is shaped by other factors, and so it is unjustified to extrapolate the relationship outside the range in which it was originally assessed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Leps1989,
      author = {Leps, Jan and Stursa, Jan},
      title = {Species-Area Curve, Life History Strategies, and Succession: A Field Test of Relationships},
      journal = {Vegetatio},
      year = {1989},
      volume = {83},
      pages = {249--257}
    }
    
    Leser, H. Landschaftsökologie. Ansatz, Modelle, Methodik, Anwendung 1997 , pp. 647pp.  book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Leser1997,
      author = {Leser, Hartmut},
      title = {Landschaftsökologie. Ansatz, Modelle, Methodik, Anwendung},
      publisher = {UTB für Wissenschaft, Ulmer-Verlag},
      year = {1997},
      pages = {647pp.}
    }
    
    Levins, R. Coexistence in a Variable Environment 1979 The American Naturalist
    Vol. 114(6), pp. 765-783 
    article URL 
    Abstract: A community which would not reach a stable equilibrium may nevertheless persist if there is temporal variation and nonlinear dynamics. A procedure is introduced for taking time averages of the rates of change. Since the average of a nonlinear function is not the function of the average, higher terms such as the variances of resources or covariances among species and environmental factors enter into the coexistence conditions. These measures behave as if they were resources. Therefore the number of consumer species cannot exceed the number of resources plus distinct nonlinearities. The nonlinearities arise from predator saturation, learning, group hunting, multiple nutritional requirements, or seasonally variable feeding rates. It is shown that there is no long term correlation between the abundance of a species and its rates of increase.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Levins1979,
      author = {Levins, Richard},
      title = {Coexistence in a Variable Environment},
      journal = {The American Naturalist},
      year = {1979},
      volume = {114},
      number = {6},
      pages = {765--783},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/2460550}
    }
    
    Li, W.-J., Li, J.-H., Knops, J., Wang, G., Jia, J.-J. & Qin, Y.-Y. Plant Communities, Soil Carbon, and Soil Nitrogen Properties in a Successional Gradient of Sub-Alpine Meadows on the Eastern Tibetan Plateau of China 2009 Environmental Management
    Vol. 44(4), pp. 755-765 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Abstract To assess the recovery trajectory and self-maintenance of restored ecosystems, a successional gradient (1, 3, 5, 15, and 30 years after abandonment) was established in a sub-alpine meadow of the eastern Tibetan Plateau in China. Plant communities and soil carbon and nitrogen properties were investigated and analyzed. Regression analyses were used to assess the models (linear or quadratic) relating measures of species richness, soil carbon and nitrogen properties to fallow time. We found that species richness (S) increased over the first 20 years but decreased thereafter, and aboveground biomass showed a linear increase along the fallow time gradient. The richness of different functional groups (forb, grass and legume) changed little along the fallow time gradient, but their corresponding above ground biomass showed the U-shaped, humped or linear pattern. Soil microbial carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) in the upper 20 cm showed a U-shaped pattern along the fallow time gradient. However, soil organic carbon (Corg) and total nitrogen (TN) in the soil at depth greater than 20 cm showed significant patterns of linear decline along the fallow time gradient. The threshold models of species richness reflected best the recovery over the 15 year fallow period. These results indicated that fallow time had a greater influence on development of the plant community than soil processes in abandoned fields in sub-alpine meadow ecosystem. These results also suggested that although the succession process did not significantly increase soil C, an increase in microbial biomass at the latter stage of succession could promote the decomposability of plant litter. Therefore, abandoned fields in sub-alpine meadow ecosystem may have a high resilience and strong rehabilitating capability under natural recovery condition.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Li2009,
      author = {Li, Wen-Jin and Li, Jin-Hua and Knops, Johannes and Wang, Gang and Jia, Ju-Jie and Qin, Yan-Yan},
      title = {Plant Communities, Soil Carbon, and Soil Nitrogen Properties in a Successional Gradient of Sub-Alpine Meadows on the Eastern Tibetan Plateau of China},
      journal = {Environmental Management},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {44},
      number = {4},
      pages = {755--765},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-009-9361-1},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-009-9361-1}
    }
    
    Lichtenecker, A., Bassler, G. & Karrer, G. Regionale Grünlandgliederung im Waldviertel unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Standorts- und Bewirtschaftungsfaktoren sowie naturschutzfachlichen Kriterien 2002 10. Österreichisches Botanikertreffen, 30. Mai - 1. Juni 2002, Bundesanstalt für alpenländische Landwirtschaft Gumpenstein, pp. 109-112  inproceedings  
    Abstract: In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden eine regionale Grünland-Klassifikation vorgestellt und Probleme in der Auswahl der Klassifizierungs-Kriterien diskutiert. Objektiviert durch Gradientenanalysen wurde der Hauptdatensatz in mehreren Teilungsschritten in lokal spezifische Einheiten gegliedert, die in den Kontext vergleichbarer Literatur gestellt wurden. Von wesentlicher Bedeutung ist hierbei der Zeitpunkt der Datenerhebung, da Grünland einem raschen Wandel durch Änderung der Bewirtschaftung (Schnittzeitpunkt, Schnitthäufigkeit, Düngung, Drainage, Brachephasen) unterliegt und damit ältere Daten mit darauf begründeten Klassifikationen der aktuellen Grünland-Diversität nicht mehr gerecht werden.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Lichtenecker2002,
      author = {Lichtenecker, A and Bassler, G and Karrer, G},
      title = {Regionale Grünlandgliederung im Waldviertel unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Standorts- und Bewirtschaftungsfaktoren sowie naturschutzfachlichen Kriterien},
      booktitle = {10. Österreichisches Botanikertreffen, 30. Mai - 1. Juni 2002, Bundesanstalt für alpenländische Landwirtschaft Gumpenstein},
      year = {2002},
      pages = {109--112}
    }
    
    Lin, J.Y., Pype, A.D., Murray, S.O. & Boynton, G.M. Enhanced memory for scenes presented at behaviorally relevant points in time. 2010 PLoS biology
    Vol. 8(3), pp. e1000337 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The ability to remember a briefly presented scene depends on a number of factors, such as its saliency, novelty, degree of threat, or behavioral relevance to a task. Here, however, we show that the encoding of a scene into memory may depend not only on what the scene contains but also when it occurs. Participants performed an attentionally demanding target detection task at fixation while also viewing a rapid sequence of full-field photographs of urban and natural scenes. Participants were then tested on whether they recognized a specific scene from the previous sequence. We found that scenes were recognized reliably only when presented concurrently with a target at fixation. This is evidence of a mechanism where traces of a visual scene are automatically encoded into memory at behaviorally relevant points in time regardless of the spatial focus of attention.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lin2010,
      author = {Lin, Jeffrey Y and Pype, Amanda D and Murray, Scott O and Boynton, Geoffrey M},
      title = {Enhanced memory for scenes presented at behaviorally relevant points in time.},
      journal = {PLoS biology},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {8},
      number = {3},
      pages = {e1000337},
      url = {http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2838752&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000337}
    }
    
    Lindenmayer, D., Hobbs, R.J., Montague-Drake, R., Alexandra, J., Bennett, A., Burgman, M., Cale, P., Calhoun, A., Cramer, V., Cullen, P., Driscoll, D., Fahrig, L., Fischer, J., Franklin, J., Haila, Y., Hunter, M., Gibbons, P., Lake, S., Luck, G., MacGregor, C., McIntyre, S., Nally, R.M., Manning, A., Miller, J., Mooney, H., Noss, R., Possingham, H., Saunders, D., Schmiegelow, F., Scott, M., Simberloff, D., Sisk, T., Tabor, G., Walker, B., Wiens, J., Woinarski, J. & Zavaleta, E. A checklist for ecological management of landscapes for conservation 2008 Ecology Letters
    Vol. 11(1), pp. 78-91 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The management of landscapes for biological conservation and ecologically sustainable natural resource use are crucial global issues. Research for over two decades has resulted in a large literature, yet there is little consensus on the applicability or even the existence of general principles or broad considerations that could guide landscape conservation. We assess six major themes in the ecology and conservation of landscapes. We identify 13 important issues that need to be considered in developing approaches to landscape conservation. They include recognizing the importance of landscape mosaics (including the integration of terrestrial and aquatic areas), recognizing interactions between vegetation cover and vegetation configuration, using an appropriate landscape conceptual model, maintaining the capacity to recover from disturbance and managing landscapes in an adaptive framework. These considerations are influenced by landscape context, species assemblages and management goals and do not translate directly into on-the-ground management guidelines but they should be recognized by researchers and resource managers when developing guidelines for specific cases. Two crucial overarching issues are: (i) a clearly articulated vision for landscape conservation and (ii) quantifiable objectives that offer unambiguous signposts for measuring progress.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lindenmayer2008,
      author = {Lindenmayer, David and Hobbs, Richard J and Montague-Drake, Rebecca and Alexandra, Jason and Bennett, Andrew and Burgman, Mark and Cale, Peter and Calhoun, Aram and Cramer, Viki and Cullen, Peter and Driscoll, Don and Fahrig, Lenore and Fischer, Joern and Franklin, Jerry and Haila, Yrjo and Hunter, Malcolm and Gibbons, Philip and Lake, Sam and Luck, Gary and MacGregor, Chris and McIntyre, Sue and Nally, Ralph Mac and Manning, Adrian and Miller, James and Mooney, Hal and Noss, Reed and Possingham, Hugh and Saunders, Denis and Schmiegelow, Fiona and Scott, Michael and Simberloff, Dan and Sisk, Tom and Tabor, Gary and Walker, Brian and Wiens, John and Woinarski, John and Zavaleta, Erika},
      title = {A checklist for ecological management of landscapes for conservation},
      journal = {Ecology Letters},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {11},
      number = {1},
      pages = {78--91},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2007.01114.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2007.01114.x}
    }
    
    Lindgren, s. Effects of herbivory on arctic and alpine vegetation 2007 School: Department of Botany, Stockholm Universityhttp://su.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:196974  phdthesis URL 
    Abstract: The distribution of plant species and functional traits in alpine and arctic environments are determined by abiotic conditions, but also by biotic interactions. In this thesis, I investigate interactions among plants and herbivory effects on plant community composition and plant functional traits in three different regions: Swedish Lapland, Beringia (USA/Russia) and Finnmark (Norway). Reindeer grazing was found to be extensive in southern Lapland and had limited effects on plant community composition and seedling germination. However, reindeer presence was found to influence plant functional traits, particularly in the subalpine birch forest. Tall herbs were lower and had lower SLA when reindeer were present, while small herbs showed an opposite pattern. The contrasting effects on the two herb groups are probably explained by a competitive release for small herbs when the tall herbs are suppressed by reindeer. Rodents had the largest relative impact on plant community composition in southern Lapland and this is consistent with the study from Finnmark, where rodents heavily affected dwarf shrubs on predator-free islands. With no predators present, vole densities increased profoundly and almost depleted some dwarf shrub species. These results support the idea that small mammals in arctic and alpine tundra are controlled by predators (i.e. top-down). However, a decrease in the nutritional quality in a sedge after defoliation gives support for the idea that small mammals are regulated by plant quality (i.e. bottom-up). In Beringia, small and large herbivores differed in the relation to plant community composition, since large herbivores were related to species richness and small herbivores were related to plant abundance. Plant functional traits were related only to large herbivores and standing crop of vascular plants.
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Lindgren2007,
      author = {Lindgren, Å sa},
      title = {Effects of herbivory on arctic and alpine vegetation},
      school = {Department of Botany, Stockholm University},
      year = {2007},
      url = {http://su.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:196974}
    }
    
    Ling, C., Hanna, K. & Dale, A. A Template for Integrated Community Sustainability Planning 2009 Environmental Management
    Vol. 44(2), pp. 228-242 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: This article describes a template for implementing an integrated community sustainability plan. The template emphasizes community engagement and outlines the components of a basic framework for integrating ecological, social and economic dynamics into a community plan. The framework is a series of steps that support a sustainable community development process. While it reflects the Canadian experience, the tools and techniques have applied value for a range of environmental planning contexts around the world. The research is case study based and draws from a diverse range of communities representing many types of infrastructure, demographics and ecological and geographical contexts. A critical path for moving local governments to sustainable community development is the creation and implementation of integrated planning approaches. To be effective and to be implemented, a requisite shift to sustainability requires active community engagement processes, political will, and a commitment to political and administrative accountability, and measurement.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ling2009,
      author = {Ling, Christopher and Hanna, Kevin and Dale, Ann},
      title = {A Template for Integrated Community Sustainability Planning},
      journal = {Environmental Management},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {44},
      number = {2},
      pages = {228--242},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-009-9315-7},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-009-9315-7}
    }
    
    Little, C.M. & Needham, M.D. Skier and Snowboarder Motivations and Knowledge Related to Voluntary Environmental Programs at an Alpine Ski Area. 2011 Environmental management, pp. 1-15  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Many alpine ski areas have recently adopted voluntary environmental programs (VEPs) such as using recycling, renewable energy, and biofuels to help reduce their environmental impacts. Studies have addressed the performance of these VEPs in mitigating environmental impacts of this industry, but little is known about visitor awareness and perceptions of these programs. This article addresses this knowledge gap by exploring skier and snowboarder knowledge of VEPs at a ski area and the influence of these programs on their motivations to visit this area currently and behavioral intentions to visit again in the future. Data were obtained from an onsite survey at the Mt. Bachelor ski area in Oregon, USA (n = 429, 89.7% response rate). Few skiers and snowboarders were knowledgeable of VEPs at this area and fewer than 20% were motivated to visit on their current trip because of these programs. Other attributes such as scenery, snow conditions, and access were more important for influencing visitation. Up to 38% of skiers and snowboarders, however, intend to visit this ski area more often if it adopts and promotes more VEPs. Managers can use these results to inform communication and marketing of their environmental programs and performance to visitors. Additional implications for management and future research are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Little2011,
      author = {Little, Christopher M and Needham, Mark D},
      title = {Skier and Snowboarder Motivations and Knowledge Related to Voluntary Environmental Programs at an Alpine Ski Area.},
      journal = {Environmental management},
      publisher = {Springer New York},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {1--15},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/175h801n4u71v17r/},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-011-9734-0}
    }
    
    Liu, S., Costanza, R., Troy, A., D'Aagostino, J. & Mates, W. Valuing New Jersey's Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital: A Spatially Explicit Benefit Transfer Approach. 2010 Environmental management
    Vol. online, pp. 1-15 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: We intend to estimate the value of ecosystem services in the U.S. State of New Jersey using spatially explicit benefit transfer. The aggregated net rent, a conservative underestimate for the total economic value of the state's natural environment, ranged from 11.6 to 19.6 billion/year, conditional on how inclusive we were in selecting the primary studies used to calculate the central tendency values to transfer. In addition to calculating the range, mean, and standard deviation for each of 12 ecosystem services for 11 Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) types, we also conduct a gap analysis of how well ecosystem service values are represented in the literature. We then map these values by assuming a mean value for each LULC and apply this to spatial data. As to sensitivity analysis, we calculate the net present value of New Jersey's natural environment utilizing three different methods of discounting. These research results provide a useful, albeit imperfect, basis for assessing the value of ecosystem services and natural capital, and their comparison with the value of conventional human and built capitals.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Liu2010,
      author = {Liu, Shuang and Costanza, Robert and Troy, Austin and D'Aagostino, John and Mates, Willam},
      title = {Valuing New Jersey's Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital: A Spatially Explicit Benefit Transfer Approach.},
      journal = {Environmental management},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {online},
      pages = {1--15},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/p73m8tgql8782j70},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-010-9483-5}
    }
    
    Loacker, I. Ziegen gegen verwachsene Alpflachen. Ein Pilotprojekt auf der Alpe Sera in Vorarlberg 2010 Der Alm- und Bergbauer, pp. 1-3  article  
    Abstract: Auch auf bewirtschafteten Alpen fallen Flachen zunehmend brach, wenn sich die Weidenutzung auf flache, meliorierungsfähige Standorte konzentriert (Penz 1996). Die Auswirkungen dieser Entwicklung werden unterschiedlich bewertet. Jedenfalis wurden auf aufgelassenen Alpflachen Hangrutschungen und Blaikenbildung haufiger beobachtet als auf bewirtschafteten (Spatz 1994, Tasser et al. 2001). Denn Beweidung wirkt stabilisierend, da Viehtritte steile Hänge terrassieren (Niederschick 2007). In einem Pilotprojekt auf der Alpe Sera im Biospharenpark Groß es Walsertal wird versucht, durch kontrollierte Ziegenbeweidung die Verbuschung, vor allem Grünerlen, gezielt zurückzudrängen.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Loacker2007,
      author = {Loacker, Ingrid},
      title = {Ziegen gegen verwachsene Alpflachen. Ein Pilotprojekt auf der Alpe Sera in Vorarlberg},
      journal = {Der Alm- und Bergbauer},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {1--3}
    }
    
    Londo, G. The decimal scale for releves of permanent quadrats 1976 Vegetatio
    Vol. 33(1), pp. 61-64 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: For vegetation analyses of permanent quadrats the author formerly used a modified scale of Braun-Blanquet with smaller intervals than in the original. For calculations of difference- and change quotients etc., on the basis of coverage, the symbols of this scale have to be converted to values proportional to the real coverage percentages. A conversion in simple terms is not possible; so the calculations are inconvenient.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Londo1976,
      author = {Londo, G.},
      title = {The decimal scale for releves of permanent quadrats},
      journal = {Vegetatio},
      year = {1976},
      volume = {33},
      number = {1},
      pages = {61--64},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/mk8222615003ku2x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00055300}
    }
    
    Long, J., Nelson, T. & Wulder, M. Regionalization of Landscape Pattern Indices Using Multivariate Cluster Analysis. 2010 Environmental management  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Regionalization, or the grouping of objects in space, is a useful tool for organizing, visualizing, and synthesizing the information contained in multivariate spatial data. Landscape pattern indices can be used to quantify the spatial pattern (composition and configuration) of land cover features. Observable patterns can be linked to underlying processes affecting the generation of landscape patterns (e.g., forest harvesting). The objective of this research is to develop an approach for investigating the spatial distribution of forest pattern across a study area where forest harvesting, other anthropogenic activities, and topography, are all influencing forest pattern. We generate spatial pattern regions (SPR) that describe forest pattern with a regionalization approach. Analysis is performed using a 2006 land cover dataset covering the Prince George and Quesnel Forest Districts, 5.5 million ha of primarily forested land base situated within the interior plateau of British Columbia, Canada. Multivariate cluster analysis (with the CLARA algorithm) is used to group landscape objects containing forest pattern information into SPR. Of the six generated SPR, the second cluster (SPR2) is the most prevalent covering 22% of the study area. On average, landscapes in SPR2 are comprised of 55.5% forest cover, and contain the highest number of patches, and forest/non-forest joins, indicating highly fragmented landscapes. Regionalization of landscape pattern metrics provides a useful approach for examining the spatial distribution of forest pattern. Where forest patterns are associated with positive or negative environmental conditions, SPR can be used to identify similar regions for conservation or management activities.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Long2010,
      author = {Long, Jed and Nelson, Trisalyn and Wulder, Michael},
      title = {Regionalization of Landscape Pattern Indices Using Multivariate Cluster Analysis.},
      journal = {Environmental management},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/r1m122xu28728v22},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-010-9510-6}
    }
    
    Longru, J., He, H., Yufei, Z., Rencang, B. & Keping, S. Assessing the Effects of Management Alternatives on Habitat Suitability in a Forested Landscape of Northeastern China 2010 Environmental Management
    Vol. Online Fir 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Abstract Forest management often has cumulative, long-lasting effects on wildlife habitat suitability and the effects may be impractical to evaluate using landscape-scale field experiments. To understand such effects, we linked a spatially explicit landscape disturbance and succession model (LANDIS) with habitat suitability index (HSI) models to assess the effects of management alternatives on habitat suitability in a forested landscape of northeastern China. LANDIS was applied to simulate future forest landscape changes under four management alternatives (no cutting, clearcutting, selective cutting I and II) over a 200-year horizon. The simulation outputs were linked with HSI models for three wildlife species, the red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris), the red deer (Cervus elaphus) and the hazel grouse (Bonasa bonasia). These species are chosen because they represent numerous species that have distinct habitat requirements in our study area. We assessed their habitat suitability based on the mean HSI values, which is a measure of the average habitat quality. Our simulation results showed that no one management scenario was the best for all species and various forest management scenarios would lead to conflicting wildlife habitat outcomes. How to choose a scenario is dependent on the trade-off of economical, ecological and social goals. Our modeling effort could provide decision makers with relative comparisons among management scenarios from the perspective of biodiversity conservation. The general simulation results were expected based on our knowledge of forest management and habitat relationships of the species, which confirmed that the coupled modeling approach correctly simulated the assumed relationships between the wildlife, forest composition, age structure, and spatial configuration of habitat. However, several emergent results revealed the unexpected outcomes that a management scenario may lead to.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Longru2010,
      author = {Longru, Jin and He, Hong and Yufei, Zhou and Rencang, Bu and Keping, Sun},
      title = {Assessing the Effects of Management Alternatives on Habitat Suitability in a Forested Landscape of Northeastern China},
      journal = {Environmental Management},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {Online Fir},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-010-9473-7},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-010-9473-7}
    }
    
    Lorz, C., Fürst, C., Galic, Z., Matijasic, D., Podrazky, V., Potocic, N., Simoncic, P., Strauch, M., Vacik, H. & Makeschin, F. GIS-based Probability Assessment of Natural Hazards in Forested Landscapes of Central and South-Eastern Europe. 2010 Environmental management  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: We assessed the probability of three major natural hazards-windthrow, drought, and forest fire-for Central and South-Eastern European forests which are major threats for the provision of forest goods and ecosystem services. In addition, we analyzed spatial distribution and implications for a future oriented management of forested landscapes. For estimating the probability of windthrow, we used rooting depth and average wind speed. Probabilities of drought and fire were calculated from climatic and total water balance during growing season. As an approximation to climate change scenarios, we used a simplified approach with a general increase of pET by 20 Monitoring data from the pan-European forests crown condition program and observed burnt areas and hot spots from the European Forest Fire Information System were used to test the plausibility of probability maps. Regions with high probabilities of natural hazard are identified and management strategies to minimize probability of natural hazards are discussed. We suggest future research should focus on (i) estimating probabilities using process based models (including sensitivity analysis), (ii) defining probability in terms of economic loss, (iii) including biotic hazards, (iv) using more detailed data sets on natural hazards, forest inventories and climate change scenarios, and (v) developing a framework of adaptive risk management.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lorz2010,
      author = {Lorz, C and Fürst, C and Galic, Z and Matijasic, D and Podrazky, V and Potocic, N and Simoncic, P and Strauch, M and Vacik, H and Makeschin, F},
      title = {GIS-based Probability Assessment of Natural Hazards in Forested Landscapes of Central and South-Eastern Europe.},
      journal = {Environmental management},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/l310341q4t644072},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-010-9508-0}
    }
    
    Loydi, A., Eckstein, R.L., Otte, A. & Donath, T.W. Effects of litter on seedling establishment in natural and semi‐natural grasslands: a meta‐analysis 2012 Journal of Ecology
    Vol. Article fi, pp. 1-11 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: 1. Plant litter is a key component in terrestrial ecosystems. It plays a major role in nutrient cycles and community organization. Land use and climate change may change the accumulation of litter in herbaceous ecosystems and affect plant community dynamics. Additionally, the transfer of seeds containing plant material (i.e. litter) is a widespread technique in grassland restoration. 2. Ecosystem responses to litter represent the outcome of interactions, whose sign and strength will depend on many variables (e.g. litter amount, seed size). A previous meta-analysis (from 1999) reported that litter had an overall negative effect on seed germination and seedling establishment in different ecosystems. However, recent studies indicated that this might not be the case in grassland ecosystems. 3. We used 914 data from 46 independent studies to analyse the effects of litter on seedling (i) emergence, (ii) survival and (iii) biomass, employing meta-analytical techniques. Each data set was stratified according to methodology, grassland type, irrigation conditions, litter amount and seed size. 4. We found an overall neutral effect of litter presence on seedling emergence and survival and a positive effect on seedling biomass. However, whereas for field experiments the response remained neutral, it was positive for common garden studies. In glasshouse experiments, litter effects were negative for emergence and positive for biomass. 5. Litter may have a positive effect on seedling recruitment in dry grasslands or under water-limited conditions, or in the presence of low to medium litter amounts (< 500 g mÀ2). However, high litter amounts (> 500 g mÀ2) will inhibit seedling recruitment. Large seeds showed a more positive response to litter presence with respect to seedling emergence and survival, but not concerning biomass. 6. Synthesis. Under dry conditions (e.g. dry grasslands or dry periods) or with low to medium litter amounts, litter presence has a positive effect on seedling establishment. However, climate and land use change may promote litter accumulation and reduce seedling establishment, affecting grasslands composition and ecosystem functions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Loydi2012,
      author = {Loydi, Alejandro and Eckstein, R. Lutz and Otte, Annette and Donath, Tobias W.},
      title = {Effects of litter on seedling establishment in natural and semi‐natural grasslands: a meta‐analysis},
      journal = {Journal of Ecology},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {Article fi},
      pages = {1--11},
      url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2745.12033/full},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12033}
    }
    
    Lozier, J.D., Aniello, P. & Hickerson, M.J. Predicting the distribution of Sasquatch in western North America: anything goes with ecological niche modelling 2009 Journal of Biogeography
    Vol. 36(9), pp. 1623-1627 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The availability of user-friendly software and publicly available biodiversity databases has led to a rapid increase in the use of ecological niche modelling to predict species distributions. A potential source of error in publicly available data that may affect the accuracy of ecological niche models (ENMs), and one that is difficult to correct for, is incorrect (or incomplete) taxonomy. Here we remind researchers of the need for careful evaluation of database records prior to use in modelling, especially when the presence of cryptic species is suspected or many records are based on indirect evidence. To draw attention to this potential problem, we construct ENMs for the North American Sasquatch (i.e. Bigfoot). Specifically, we use a large database of georeferenced putative sightings and footprints for Sasquatch in western North America, demonstrating how convincing environmentally predicted distributions of a taxon's potential range can be generated from questionable site-occurrence data. We compare the distribution of Bigfoot with an ENM for the black bear, Ursus americanus, and suggest that many sightings of this cryptozoid may be cases of mistaken identity.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lozier2009,
      author = {Lozier, J D and Aniello, P and Hickerson, M J},
      title = {Predicting the distribution of Sasquatch in western North America: anything goes with ecological niche modelling},
      journal = {Journal of Biogeography},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {36},
      number = {9},
      pages = {1623--1627},
      url = {http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/122476732/abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2009.02152.x}
    }
    
    Lundholm, J.T. & Richardson, P.J. Habitat analogues for reconciliation ecology in urban and industrial environments 2010 Journal of Applied Ecology
    Vol. 47(5), pp. 1-10 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: 1. Current views of anthropogenic environments emphasize the extreme novelty of urban and industrial ecosystems. Proponents of reconciliation ecology argue that we need to use such habitats to conserve biodiversity, given the inadequacy of natural reserve systems. 2. Some of the harshest anthropogenic ecosystems may be able to support indigenous biodiversity due to their structural or functional resemblance to natural ecosystems, habitats, or microsites that may be present in the region but not part of the historic ecosystem on a particular site. Here we review recent work that evaluates similarities between urban and industrial ecosystems and natural analogues, and explore the potential for these in reconciliation ecology. 3. We find that artificial habitats represent a gradient of ecological novelty which may be independent of the degree of human influence. While hard-surfaced habitats such as walls and quarries are the most investigated artificial analogues (of natural rock pavements and cliffs), there are many other examples spanning a range of habitats in both terrestrial and marine settings. Analogous ecosystems may be present in the region but limits to dispersal can prevent appropriate species from reaching urban or industrial sites, and small differences in abiotic conditions can sometimes prevent colonization by native biota in otherwise similar artificial habitats. We suggest that a search for habitat analogues represents an important principle to guide reconciliation ecology in urban and industrial lands. In constrast, analogous ecosystems may also support pest species that exploit the similarities between anthropogenic habitats and their ancestral habitats. 4. Synthesis and applications. Identifying analogous habitats and ecosystems could enhance biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services in anthropogenic environments. Abiotic and biotic differences between artificial analogues and natural systems can be frequently overcome by ecological engineering to make the environment more suitable for native biodiversity, and/or assisted dispersal to allow suitable native organisms to reach appropriate sites within artificial ecosystems. Altering some habitats to become less analogous may help reduce impacts of pest species in urban and industrial areas.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lundholm2010,
      author = {Lundholm, Jeremy T. and Richardson, Paul J.},
      title = {Habitat analogues for reconciliation ecology in urban and industrial environments},
      journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {47},
      number = {5},
      pages = {1--10},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01857.x http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/123613733/abstract},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01857.x}
    }
    
    MacDonald, D., Crabtree, J.R., Wiesinger, G., Dax, T., Stamou, N., Fleury, P., Gutierrez-Lazpita, J. & Gibon, A. Agricultural abandonment in mountain areas of Europe: Environmental consequences and policy response 2000 Journal of Environmental Management
    Vol. 59(1), pp. 47-69 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Agricultural abandonment reflects a post war trend in western Europe of rural depopulation to which isolated and poorer areas are most vulnerable. The commercialisation of agriculture, through technological developments, and the influence of Common Agricultural Policy have increased productivity and focused agricultural activity on more fertile and accessible land thus transforming traditional approaches to farming. In many areas this has lead to a decline in traditional labour intensive practices and marginal agricultural land is being abandoned. The problems that these trends create are particularly marked in mountain areas. The social and economic impacts of these changes have been well documented. However, the implications for environmental policy are less well recognised. This paper reviews the literature on abandonment and gives a comparative analysis of European mountain case studies to assess the environmental impacts of land abandonment and decline in traditional farming practices. It finds abandonment is widespread and that, while the influence of environmental changes is unpredictable due to environmental, agricultural and socio-economic contextual factors, abandonment generally has an undesirable effect on the environmental parameters examined. The application of agri-environment policy measures in relation to abandonment is discussed and suggestions for future policy are proposed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MacDonald2000,
      author = {MacDonald, D. and Crabtree, J. R. and Wiesinger, G. and Dax, T. and Stamou, N. and Fleury, P. and Gutierrez-Lazpita, J. and Gibon, A.},
      title = {Agricultural abandonment in mountain areas of Europe: Environmental consequences and policy response},
      journal = {Journal of Environmental Management},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {59},
      number = {1},
      pages = {47--69},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jema.1999.0335},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jema.1999.0335}
    }
    
    Macfadyen, S., Cunningham, S.A., Costamagna, A.C. & Schellhorn, N.A. Managing ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation in agricultural landscapes: are the solutions the same? Journal of Applied Ecology
    Vol. 49(3), pp. 690-694 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Macfadyen2012,
      author = {Macfadyen, Sarina and Cunningham, Saul A. and Costamagna, Alejandro C. and Schellhorn, Nancy A.},
      title = {Managing ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation in agricultural landscapes: are the solutions the same?},
      journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
      volume = {49},
      number = {3},
      pages = {690--694},
      url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02132.x/full},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02132.x}
    }
    
    Machatschek, M. & Kurz, P. ALP Austria: Programm zur Sicherung und Entwicklung der alpinen Kulturlandschaft - Biodiversität 2006 Recherche, pp. 243pp.  book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Machatschek2006,
      author = {Machatschek, Michael and Kurz, Peter},
      title = {ALP Austria: Programm zur Sicherung und Entwicklung der alpinen Kulturlandschaft - Biodiversität},
      booktitle = {Recherche},
      publisher = {Bundesministerium für Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Umwelt und Wasserwirtschaft, Land Kärnten, Land Oberösterreich, Land Salzburg, Land Steiermark, Land Tirol, Land Vorarlberg},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {243pp.}
    }
    
    MacKinnon, K. Are We Really Getting Conservation So Badly Wrong? 2011 PLoS Biology
    Vol. 9(1), pp. e1001010 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{MacKinnon2011,
      author = {MacKinnon, Kathy},
      title = {Are We Really Getting Conservation So Badly Wrong?},
      journal = {PLoS Biology},
      publisher = {Public Library of Science},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {9},
      number = {1},
      pages = {e1001010},
      url = {http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001010},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001010}
    }
    
    Madsen, M.D., Davies, K.W., Williams, C.J. & Svejcar, T.J. Agglomerating seeds to enhance native seedling emergence and growth 2012 Journal of Applied Ecology, pp. no-no  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Madsen2012,
      author = {Madsen, Matthew D. and Davies, Kirk W. and Williams, C. Jason and Svejcar, Tony J.},
      title = {Agglomerating seeds to enhance native seedling emergence and growth},
      journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
      year = {2012},
      pages = {no--no},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02118.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02118.x}
    }
    
    Madsen, M.D., Zvirzdin, D.L., Davis, B.D., Petersen, S.L. & Roundy, B.A. Feature Extraction Techniques for Measuring Piñon and Juniper Tree Cover and Density, and Comparison with Field-Based Management Surveys. 2011 Environmental management, pp. 1-11-11  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Western North America is experiencing a dramatic expansion of piñon (Pinus spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.) (P-J) trees into shrub-steppe communities. Feature extracted data acquired from remotely sensed imagery can help managers rapidly and accurately assess this land cover change in order to manage rangeland ecosystems at a landscape-scale. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop an effective and efficient method for accurately quantifying P-J tree canopy cover and density directly from high resolution photographs and (2) compare feature-extracted data to typical in-situ datasets used by land managers. Tree cover was extracted from aerial-photography using Feature Analyst(®). Tree density was calculated as the sum of the total number of individual polygons (trees) within the tree cover output file after isolation using a negative buffer post-processing technique. Feature-extracted data were compared to ground reference measurements from Utah's Division of Wildlife Resources Range Trend Project (DWR-RTP). We found that the proposed feature-extraction techniques used for measuring cover and density were highly correlated to ground reference and DWR-RTP datasets. Feature-extracted measurements of cover generally showed a near 1:1 relationship to these data, while tree density was underestimated; however, after calibration for juvenile trees, a near 1:1 relationship was realized. Feature-extraction techniques used in this study provide an efficient method for assessing important rangeland indicators, including: density, cover, and extent of P-J tree encroachment. Correlations found between field and feature-extracted data provide evidence to support extrapolation between the two approaches when assessing woodland encroachment.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Madsen2011,
      author = {Madsen, Matthew D and Zvirzdin, Daniel L and Davis, Bracken D and Petersen, Steven L and Roundy, Bruce A},
      title = {Feature Extraction Techniques for Measuring Piñon and Juniper Tree Cover and Density, and Comparison with Field-Based Management Surveys.},
      journal = {Environmental management},
      publisher = {Springer New York},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {1--11--11},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/h415378457643427/},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-011-9634-3}
    }
    
    Maestre, F.T., Quero, J.L., Gotelli, N.J., Escudero, A., Ochoa, V., Delgado-Baquerizo, M., Garca-Gómez, M., Bowker, M.A., Soliveres, S., Escolar, C., Garca-Palacios, P., Berdugo, M., Valencia, E., Gozalo, B., Gallardo, A., Aguilera, L., Arredondo, T., Blones, J., Boeken, B., Bran, D., Conceiç ao, A.A., Cabrera, O., Chaieb, M., Derak, M., Eldridge, D.J., Espinosa, C.I., Florentino, A., Gaitán, J., Gatica, M.G., Ghiloufi, W., Gómez-González, S., Gutiérrez, J.R., Hernández, R.M., Huang, X., Huber-Sannwald, E., Jankju, M., Miriti, M., Monerris, J., Mau, R.L., Morici, E., Naseri, K., Ospina, A., Polo, V., Prina, A., Pucheta, E., Ramrez-Collantes, D.A., Rom ao, R., Tighe, M., Torres-Daz, C., Val, J., Veiga, J.P., Wang, D. & Zaady, E. Plant species richness and ecosystem multifunctionality in global drylands. 2012 Science
    Vol. 335(6065), pp. 214-8 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Experiments suggest that biodiversity enhances the ability of ecosystems to maintain multiple functions, such as carbon storage, productivity, and the buildup of nutrient pools (multifunctionality). However, the relationship between biodiversity and multifunctionality has never been assessed globally in natural ecosystems. We report here on a global empirical study relating plant species richness and abiotic factors to multifunctionality in drylands, which collectively cover 41% of Earth's land surface and support over 38% of the human population. Multifunctionality was positively and significantly related to species richness. The best-fitting models accounted for over 55% of the variation in multifunctionality and always included species richness as a predictor variable. Our results suggest that the preservation of plant biodiversity is crucial to buffer negative effects of climate change and desertification in drylands.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Maestre2012,
      author = {Maestre, Fernando T and Quero, José L and Gotelli, Nicholas J and Escudero, Adrián and Ochoa, Victoria and Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel and Garca-Gómez, Miguel and Bowker, Matthew A and Soliveres, Santiago and Escolar, Cristina and Garca-Palacios, Pablo and Berdugo, Miguel and Valencia, Enrique and Gozalo, Beatriz and Gallardo, Antonio and Aguilera, Lorgio and Arredondo, Tulio and Blones, Julio and Boeken, Bertrand and Bran, Donaldo and Conceição, Abel A and Cabrera, Omar and Chaieb, Mohamed and Derak, McHich and Eldridge, David J and Espinosa, Carlos I and Florentino, Adriana and Gaitán, Juan and Gatica, M Gabriel and Ghiloufi, Wahida and Gómez-González, Susana and Gutiérrez, Julio R and Hernández, Rosa M and Huang, Xuewen and Huber-Sannwald, Elisabeth and Jankju, Mohammad and Miriti, Maria and Monerris, Jorge and Mau, Rebecca L and Morici, Ernesto and Naseri, Kamal and Ospina, Abelardo and Polo, Vicente and Prina, Anbal and Pucheta, Eduardo and Ramrez-Collantes, David A and Romão, Roberto and Tighe, Matthew and Torres-Daz, Cristian and Val, James and Veiga, José P and Wang, Deli and Zaady, Eli},
      title = {Plant species richness and ecosystem multifunctionality in global drylands.},
      journal = {Science},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {335},
      number = {6065},
      pages = {214--8},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22246775},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1215442}
    }
    
    Mahan, C.G., Vanderhorst, J.P. & Young, J.A. Natural Resource Assessment: An Approach to Science Based Planning in National Parks 2009 Environmental Management
    Vol. 43(6), pp. 1301-1312 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: We conducted a natural resource assessment at two national parks, New River Gorge National River and Shenandoah National Park, to help meet the goals of the Natural Resource Challenge—a program to help strengthen natural resource management at national parks. We met this challenge by synthesizing and interpreting natural resource information for planning purposes and we identified information gaps and natural significance of resources. We identified a variety of natural resources at both parks as being globally and/or nationally significant, including large expanses of unfragmented, mixed-mesophytic forests that qualify for wilderness protection, rare plant communities, diverse assemblages of neotropical migratory birds and salamanders, and outstanding aquatic recreational resources. In addition, these parks function, in part, as ecological reserves for plants in and wildlife. With these significant natural resources in mind, we also developed a suite of natural resource management recommendations in light of increasing threats from within and outside park boundaries. We hope that our approach can provide a blueprint for natural resource conservation at publically owned lands.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mahan2009,
      author = {Mahan, Carolyn G and Vanderhorst, James P and Young, John A},
      title = {Natural Resource Assessment: An Approach to Science Based Planning in National Parks},
      journal = {Environmental Management},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {43},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1301--1312},
      url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/7657265p4u16w501/},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-009-9292-x}
    }
    
    Makkar, H.P.S. Recent advances in in vitro gas method for evaluation of nutritional quality of feed resources 2003 AGRIPPA - http://www.fao.org/agrippa/  electronic URL 
    Abstract: This paper highlights the potential of a novel approach using an in vitro rumen fermentation technique for evaluation of nutritional quality of feed resources. This technique enables selection of a feed or feed constituents for high efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen along with high dry matter digestibility, and provides a basis for development of feeding strategies to maximise substrate fixation into microbial cells. This could lead to increase in the supply of protein to intestine and reduce methane production from ruminants. In addition, this technique provides an easy tool to study the effects of various plant active moieties or synthetic compounds for their adverse or beneficial effects on partitioning of nutrients to fermentative gases, short chain fatty acids, and microbial mass.
    BibTeX:
    @electronic{Makkar2003,
      author = {Makkar, Harinder P S},
      title = {Recent advances in in vitro gas method for evaluation of nutritional quality of feed resources},
      year = {2003},
      url = {http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/ARTICLE/AGRIPPA/570entoc.htm}
    }
    
    Malczewski, J. GIS-based land-use suitability analysis: a critical overview 2004 Progress in Planning
    Vol. 62(1), pp. 3-65 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: There are three main objectives of this monograph: (i) to provide an introduction to geographical information technology along with an historical perspective on the evolving role of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in planning, (ii) to overview relevant methods and techniques for GIS-based land-use suitability mapping and modeling, and (iii) to identify the trends, challenges and prospects of GIS-based land-use suitability analysis. The monograph focuses on two perspectives of GIS-based land-use suitability analysis: the techno-positivist perspective and the socio-political, public participation perspectives. It is organized into six chapters. After an introductory setting chapter, which defines the scope of land-use suitability analysis, an overview of relevant GIS technology is provided in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 offers an historical account of the development of GIS. It also discusses the development of GIS in the context of evolving perspectives of planning. Chapter 4 gives an overview of the methods for GIS-based land-use suitability modeling. The overview provides a background against which selected case studies are discussed in Chapter 5. The concluding chapter summarized the main points of the monographs and discusses problems and prospects for GIS-based land-use suitability analysis.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Malczewski2004,
      author = {Malczewski, J},
      title = {GIS-based land-use suitability analysis: a critical overview},
      journal = {Progress in Planning},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {62},
      number = {1},
      pages = {3--65},
      url = {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0305900603000801},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.progress.2003.09.002}
    }
    
    Maller, C., Townsend, M., Pryor, A., Brown, P. & St Leger, L. Healthy nature healthy people: 'contact with nature' as an upstream health promotion intervention for populations. 2006 Health promotion international
    Vol. 21(1), pp. 45-54 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Whilst urban-dwelling individuals who seek out parks and gardens appear to intuitively understand the personal health and well-being benefits arising from 'contact with nature', public health strategies are yet to maximize the untapped resource nature provides, including the benefits of nature contact as an upstream health promotion intervention for populations. This paper presents a summary of empirical, theoretical and anecdotal evidence drawn from a literature review of the human health benefits of contact with nature. Initial findings indicate that nature plays a vital role in human health and well-being, and that parks and nature reserves play a significant role by providing access to nature for individuals. Implications suggest contact with nature may provide an effective population-wide strategy in prevention of mental ill health, with potential application for sub-populations, communities and individuals at higher risk of ill health. Recommendations include further investigation of 'contact with nature' in population health, and examination of the benefits of nature-based interventions. To maximize use of 'contact with nature' in the health promotion of populations, collaborative strategies between researchers and primary health, social services, urban planning and environmental management sectors are required. This approach offers not only an augmentation of existing health promotion and prevention activities, but provides the basis for a socio-ecological approach to public health that incorporates environmental sustainability.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Maller2006,
      author = {Maller, Cecily and Townsend, Mardie and Pryor, Anita and Brown, Peter and St Leger, Lawrence},
      title = {Healthy nature healthy people: 'contact with nature' as an upstream health promotion intervention for populations.},
      journal = {Health promotion international},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {21},
      number = {1},
      pages = {45--54},
      url = {http://heapro.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/21/1/45}
    }
    
    Mander, Mikk, M. & Külvik, M. Ecological and low intensity agriculture as contributors to landscape and biological diversity 1999 Landscape and Urban Planning
    Vol. 46(1-3), pp. 169-177 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Possible impacts of ecological farming and low intensity conventional agriculture on landscape values such as biodiversity, landscape diversity and nutrient flows are analysed. Literature data and the results of several case studies are summarised. The results show that ecological farming significantly increases biological and landscape diversity and decreases the risk of nutrient leaching and soil erosion. Marginal areas, where low intensity agriculture creates less pollution load and supports biodiversity, have the most potential for conversion to ecological agriculture. However, owing to the greater impacts of ecological agriculture on biodiversity in intensively managed agricultural areas, ecological farming should be developed within the core areas of intensive agricultural production. Author Keywords: Ecological agriculture; Low intensity agriculture; Biodiversity; Landscape diversity; Marginalisation
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mander1999,
      author = {Mander, Ülo and Mikk, Merit and Külvik, Mart},
      title = {Ecological and low intensity agriculture as contributors to landscape and biological diversity},
      journal = {Landscape and Urban Planning},
      publisher = {Elsevier},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {46},
      number = {1-3},
      pages = {169--177},
      url = {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0169204699000420},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-2046(99)00042-0}
    }
    
    Manske, L.L., Kraus, A.M., Schneider, S.A. & Vance, L.J. Biologically effective management of grazinglands 2003 , pp. 268pp.  book URL 
    BibTeX:
    @book{Manske2003,
      author = {Manske, Llewellyn L. and Kraus, Amy M. and Schneider, Sheri A. and Vance, Lisa J.},
      title = {Biologically effective management of grazinglands},
      publisher = {North Dakota State University, Dickinson Research Extension Center},
      year = {2003},
      pages = {268pp.},
      url = {http://www.grazinghandbook.com/bin/Biologically Effective Mgt of Grazinglands.pdf}
    }
    
    Manz, E. Vegetation ehemals militärisch genutzter Übungsplätze und Flugülätze und deren Bedeutung für Naturschutz 1997 Tuexenia
    Vol. 17, pp. 173-192 
    article  
    Abstract: The plant communities of meadows, swards and poineer sites are described for different conversion projects. Grassland was characterised by its wide and open extension and its relatively poor variety of species. Endangered plants were found especially on dry, wet and poor soils. The former land management was identified as a strong negative impact. On the contrary communities of pioneer sites and heathlands could only develop under these specific conditions, for their preservation particular nature conservation measures are necessary. For using these areas in future, they must be differentiated in areas of main interest in view of nature conservation and disturbed areas for further urbanization.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Manz1997,
      author = {Manz, Erwin},
      title = {Vegetation ehemals militärisch genutzter Übungsplätze und Flugülätze und deren Bedeutung für Naturschutz},
      journal = {Tuexenia},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {17},
      pages = {173--192}
    }
    
    Marcon, E., Hérault, B., Baraloto, C. & Lang, G. The decomposition of Shannon's entropy and a confidence interval for beta diversity 2011 Oikos, pp. no-no  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Marcon2011,
      author = {Marcon, Eric and Hérault, Bruno and Baraloto, Christopher and Lang, Gabriel},
      title = {The decomposition of Shannon's entropy and a confidence interval for beta diversity},
      journal = {Oikos},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {no--no},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2011.19267.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2011.19267.x}
    }
    
    Marcus Rowcliffe, J., Carbone, C., Kays, R., Kranstauber, B. & Jansen, P.A. Bias in estimating animal travel distance: the effect of sampling frequency 2012 Methods in Ecology and Evolution, pp. 1-10  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{MarcusRowcliffe2012,
      author = {Marcus Rowcliffe, J. and Carbone, Chris and Kays, Roland and Kranstauber, Bart and Jansen, Patrick A.},
      title = {Bias in estimating animal travel distance: the effect of sampling frequency},
      journal = {Methods in Ecology and Evolution},
      year = {2012},
      pages = {1--10},
      url = {http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.2041-210X.2012.00197.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2041-210X.2012.00197.x}
    }
    
    Margles, S., Peterson, R., Ervin, J. & Kaplin, B. Conservation Without Borders: Building Communication and Action Across Disciplinary Boundaries for Effective Conservation 2010 Environmental Management
    Vol. 45(1), pp. 1-4 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Abstract Interdisciplinary approaches to conservation research and environmental management continue to garner interest among practitioners, academics, and students. Yet, cases of practitioners and researchers from different disciplines successfully working in concert towards an integrated conservation approach ar